abstraction; that we can define it only by | To say that nothing is, I call the insanity extension and resistance, and that these of metaphysics. Yet if there be nothing are due to the lowest form of energy - but phenomena, admitted to have no root, inertia. Matter and force are but two and to be changing every moment, where aspects of one reality, distinct in idea if is the difference? Therefore God is the you can make them so, but in themselves postulate of science, though not among identified. The energy that occupies its phenomena; or, in the excellent phrase space is matter; if the unseen created of Mr. Edward Caird, “The highest real. force, eo ipso it created matter, for he that ity is the ground of the possibility of all made the inside made the outside, and finite things.” Every step forward will matter and force are as the convex and make this clearer. concave of a single arc. The cosmic dust The development of the not-living, was created.

though a problem if so be of molecular Science, then, drives us upon believing mechanics, and plainer now through the that phenomena have arisen out of that correlation of forces and our glimpse into which lies beyond its experience, and that solar chemistries, has not yielded up all the first cause is either mind, or a reality its mystery. We do not know by what as far_above mind as mind is above mat. process the energy of motion, in a cannonter. But certainly it is no fiction. Al- ball striking on a steel plate, is changed though to describe it were possible only to a flash of blinding light. But the phys. per negationem — by refusing it phenome. ical problem may be viewed as an im. pal attributes we could as little disbe- mensely intricate re-arrangement of molieve that it exists as we could scrutinize tions. What of the flash ? That is not the mode of its action. When we speakpurely mechanical; it introduces probof it we fall into symbolism; our words i lems of an order transcending motion. are enigmatic because our conceptions When we have discovered evolution in are mysterious. Except in and through the infinitely great, it remains to take up his effects, the first cause to a mind de- the infinitesimally small, to search the pendent on the senses is strictly unknow. organic with scalpel and microscope, and able. But we know that He is, and that inquire whether evolution is the “ open in him is the ground, the ideal, and the sesame "to this fresh enigma. Moreover, originating unity of all experience. He is evolution to be construed with or witha exists, though“ beyond the reaches of the out “efficiency”? With efficiency it soul;” and either there is no answer to may explain the world; reduce it to a the riddles of matter and mind, or He is mechanical formula, and you take his that answer. We are compelled, Mr. lever from Archimedes. But“ efficiency' Spencer has lately said, to believe that is a most potent magic; let it be granted, things may be explained, though aware and there is no theology so mysterious, no that an explanation is impossible. Does scheme of revelation so daring, no rohe mean that with our present faculties we mance so inspiring or so strange as the caonot get beyond the dependence of vision of latent energies waking from mind and matter on eternal energy and their sleep and shaping the world to be an transcendental mind? That no formula instrument of spirit. will enable us to comprehend how there On the other hand, evolution in its can be eneryy not acting through space, most popular form, as Darwinism, acor mind not taking the matter of its counts for life by mechanical energies, thought from experience? I grant it; but without the admission of powers latent or I do not forgei that analogies of these active, except such as characterize dead mysterious truths exist within ourselves. matter. Thus it is said that the grey Let there be an inscrutable enigma of matter of the brain secretes thought; that. existence, provided that it veils a reality consciousness is a function of matter; and not a delusion. The danger attend that scientific problems (biology and psy. ing these large confessions of ignorance chology being sciences) are questions of is that they may lead to metaphysical molecular physics. Not only writings like Nihilism, to the monstrous fancy that the those of Häckel and Büchner, but such figures we see are painted on no canvas serious and valuable contributions to and need no background, or that they are knowledge as Mr. Spencer's “ First Prinnot the mere surface of an infinite depth ciples

» .abound in reductions of our of being, but themselves the omnitudo mental and moral faculties to molecular realitatis. This is to be fooled to the top groupings. It is assumed that of our bent: it is to deny the substance Iorce ” arises out of non-vital energies as because we are moving in its shadow. I light may be derived from heat: and life


is then said to be nerve-force combined | this cell is not a crystal either in form or with motion. A like manipulation of the function. It can hardly be said to have a vital powers results in consciousness, and form; its function has no parallel in the thus we rise along the scale of existence, inorganic kingdom. In solving a problem though there be no energy to lift us off both sides of your equation should be the level. It was an axiom that "nothing equal. This cell has the extraordinary can come of nothing.” In the popular power of assimilating the unlike, of trans. conception of Darwinism everything forming dead to living matter, of growing, comes of nothing. This, to my purblind not as a uniform mass, but so as to de. view, is creation without a Creator; and I velop organs of which no rudiments exist can imagine a fine treatise on "The Mira in the cell, but which are necessary as cles of Atheism.” But we are coming to parts of a whole that stands in the relation perceive that Darwin's theory of selection to them of final cause or ideal justification. is not the whole of evolution, nor its prin. The cell grows and decays on a plan; the cipal part. When the “Origin of Species” particles that compose it are ever chang. appeared, many took it for granted that it ing, but the co-ordinating force remains. explained everything and assuined noth. And as the crown of miracles, when thus ing, and annihilated Theism. It does developed to a living individual, it will none of these things. It cannot help us reproduce itself in a germ which unfolds even to that necessary beginning of evo. into a like individual, and so on forever. lution, the origin of life.*

There is no limit to its fertility. Assimi. For countless ages after the division of lation, reproduction, the distinction of the the planets from the sun, lise was physi: sexes, the transmission of parental traits, cally impossible. Say that a hundred all the wonders of embryology, histology, million years ago it did not exist. And heredity, lie hid in this speck of matter. put aside, as an accidental, not a scientific, How did it arise ? account of it, the fancy that it was brought Well, read Mr. Coke's criticism of the hither from a distant part of the cosmos. cell theory as expounded by Darwin, All life arises by propagation; but this Spencer, and Häckel, if you desire to germ, embedded in the Laurentian rocks, learn quam parva sapientia mundus do. did not so arise, since it was the first. Is centur. Here is a specimen. Professor the cellular tissue a product of inorganic Häckel explains heredity by growth; Mr. chemistry? Its constituents are inor. Spencer by growth and repair. But what ganic; but their combination is far from are growth and repair? Mr. Spencer ansimple, and no chemistry of man, having swers, “Organic polarity,” which means decomposed it, can so reinstate them that (I pray you, mark), “the power that cer. the thing shall be alive again. But the tain units have of arranging themselves " chemistry of earth is indefinitely more into special structures, or the force by powerful than ours; and this shred of which a "pre-existing mass of special bioplasm, protein, protoplasm, or what. units constrains unlike atoms to take ever in our ignorance we call it, has no their own definite form.”* Difficile est elements but the four that we deal with in satiram non scribere. Compare the Egypour laboratories. A question of degree, tian darkness of this with Mr. Spencer's apparently! Be it so, on condition that in lucidity when he is really explaining, and the infinite laboratory you admit an infinite not putting us off with an Abracadabra. mind. It is the chemist that accounts for Call either of the powers denoted “orchemistry, not carbon, oxygen, and hydro. ganic polarity ;” but the thing we desire gen left to themselves. Without a mind to know — viz., what these powers are to impose a tendency on them, how should and whence they arise — will be told us the infinite clashings and reboundings of by no change of name, by no analogy that chemical molecules have resulted in this leaves out the essential. Words, words, triumph of ordered production - this pri- words,” said the Prince of Denmark. mal germ? “It is like crystallization in Heredity, so far as physical science can a liquid,” remarks Häckel. Yes; but tell, is, like the sensation of sight or hearmechanism, which has not explained elec- ing, an ultimate. But heredity is bound tricity, is even more at a loss to explain up with the organizing power of the cell the selective power of a crystal. And and goes back to it. When we say that

it is an attribute of life and never of what * I should be sorry to charge Mr. Darwin with the is not living, experience has reached the extravagance of some of his disciples : I know well that end of her line. But an equivalent of exas Wilkes was not a Wilkite, so, in the most important issues, Darwin did not own himself a Darwinian. the "popular conception” remains.

* Coke, vol. ii., p. 11.




pended energy the vital principle is not, | myriads of species whereof remembrance nor could be consistently with the law of holds not in that mutilated record of geolconservation, as Mr. Herbert has shown ogy; the groupings so intricate and sugin his masterly examination of realism.* gestive round many a central kind which

Now, since the organic power appears seem like prophetic hints of an ideal but only in its effects, and these — e.g., the partially manifested ; the connecting lines infinite fertility of the species — can in in all directions, controlled by tendencies no sense be measured by quantity, we they do not, for all their multiplicity, abolmust pronounce it a thing transcendental. ishthe gleams of order in this otherwise It is not a phenomenon; it is a postulate so much admired disorder, where an idea of fact and reason, failing which there can is everywhere felt, yet always eludes obbe no phenomena of life. Does science servation; the kinship of species now deal with it? Yes; biology does when inhabiting the world with species divided it becomes metaphysics. Here, for the from them by glacial epochs; the undenisecond time, we stand on the edge of able stability combined with the inferred experience and gaze into Mr. Spencer's and plausible changes, — what are these unknowable. We affirm with him, as aspects of evolution but tokens and proofs with Kant, that there is a thing in itself of a wisdom whose riches are infinite as whose effects are likewise its demonstra- its ways are past finding out? tion. But, saying this, are we not be. But natural selection? It has been ginning to discern the unknowable? to well said that “production and reproducshadow forth what it is, by comprehending tion, mobility and sensibility are in full more clearly what it is not; for example, force ere that takes up the game.” Mr. that it is not Häckel's "sum of the molec- Darwin, with his fine candor, admits that ular phenomena of motion”? The power heredity is an inherent power of the cell, that created the stars in their courses not due to foreign agencies; that selecelicited afterwards from the elements a tion waits for variety; and that of the fresh energy, we know not how, and the origin of variations we know nothing. So result was a countless multitude of the Mr. Huxley: “Varieties arise we know simplest organic germs. We can, or can not why,” « most varieties come about in not picture ihe event; but to refer the life a spontaneous manner." Mr. Mivart urg. thus manifested to an eternal life on which ing that indefinite variation will never it depends is to give it the only intelligi- issue in an ordered universe, he is anble position it can take in the cosmos. swered that “variations are limited by the Here are three attributes of the unknow- general character of the type," and that able - energy, life, and mind. And here Darwinism does not exclude a higher teleis a mode essential to them all, to be un- ology. The teleologist, says Mr. Huxley conditioned, or to act out of time and in a remarkable passage, may defy the space. The new theology is not so unlike machinist to disprove that the primordial the old.

arrangement was not intended to evolve When once it is realized that evolution present phenomena. I cannot forbear takes us to the verge of the transcenden- adding, at this stage, that the teleologist tal, and there surrenders to metaphysics, need not confine himself to a defiance; he we shall have Mr. Spencer crying to the can show, as Mr. Mivart does, that the president of the Royal Society, “ Doctor, guiding principle away, we shall have a the thanes fly from me." There will come fortuitous concurrence of atoms from a great revolt of the materialists from which it is in the highest degree unreason. natural selection and the survival of the able to look for cosmic barmonies. fittest, when these are seen to be minor Again, Natura non facit saltum is the elements in a theory, which, instead of device of Darwinism; and Häckel, of turning all things to stone like another course, out-Darwins Darwin. The modiMedusa's bead, does but postulate a fication of species under external agengrander life in the universe. From that cies, changed environment, and the laws battle theism is emerging, not victorious of heredity, is slow and imperceptible, only, but purified. The majestic reason. corresponding to the slow processes of ableness of evolution, encompassing such geology. But if this be the origin of spe. orbits of space and time, may well lift our cies, there is no time for it according to science till it becomes adoring wonder. | astronomers. In a hundred million years The vanished worlds; the myriads on Darwinism will not have accomplished a

tithe of its task. And Mr. Huxley, recog. • Modern Realism Examined, passim, a striking nizing a difficulty here, allows that “ Na. essay to which Mr. Coke is much indebted.

ture does make bounds now and then."


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This, observes Mr. Coke with great com. are portions of matter and need verifying posure, is disposing of objections by near- in their turn. But, at all events, weight ly disposing of the doctrine itself. Pro is due to gravitation, and gravitation is a fessor Tait adds that the sudden emer. form of energy. Again, space or extengence of a new species from an old would sion is ascertained by muscular pressure; not differ much from that “special crea- and motion by comparison of positions in tion” which Darwinism was invented to space. Therefore, our last appeal is to supersede. Certainly it brings it into energy. But how do we perceive energy? close neighborhood with its rival.

By feeling. Thus matter and motion in. Thus far, evolution appears to be a fruit- stead of explaining the world, cannot be ful but mysterious idea, falling in with the themselves explained, or known even to scientific bias rather than demonstrated exist, save by the higher faculties. Feel. by an array of facts and figures. We can- ing is the whole and sole guarantee for not but hope that it corresponds with the them. If objects are material, by feeling facts; but, except in a phenomenal sense, alone do we know that there are objects. we are destitute of a clear notion as to But are there objects? Are space and its meaning. Phenominally, it means that time anything except modes of feeling? existing species are derived through inter. Do not some senses perceive that which mediate species from others unlike them. to other senses is not? How distinguish It maintains the real physiological kinship between waking dreams and sleeping of organisms denied by “special crea- dreams, with eyes open and with them tion ;” it raises natural history to the rank shut? Excite the nerve and a vision enof a science; and in attributing to the sues, though there be no object to justify same organism a power not only of propa- it. The senses are constantly deluded; gating like from like, but of varying in perhaps no two persons ever see the same definite directions and developing into thing. There may be hallucination once; higher species, it gives us an insight into why not always ? How does the material. the deeps of being, and proclaims an or- ist say that, in spite of these things, thiere dering intelligence more loudly than the must be an objective world ? Where does vague belief that “species were created the must come from? It is no phenome. we know not how"could ever have done. non; and if a necessity of thought, mateBut this is not making an end of theism. rialism was devised to get quit of neces.

Matter is all surface; break and break sities of thought. Yet it cannot be saved it forever, you will only cleave it into now without them. The instant we persurfaces; it seems to have no inside. ceive that materialism is a theory of meta. But we can pass inside the universe physics, we perceive, too, that it is false. through doors that unlock of themselves, Nor can it rescue time and space from and lo! the object over which science the dissolving spell of idealism. We have tyrannizes, has become the subject of which the power of perceiving that which outscience does not even know the existence. side the brain is nothing; the world may Consciousness alone makes the world be a dream by day since dreams make our real; apart from it things are dark and world at night. Molecular phenomena blind. • Light,” said Schelling, “is the may be rolled up like a scrollor dismissed thought of nature.” Yes, and thought is as an insubstantial pageant, for all that the light of nature. Here, materialism materialism can say. And the physical with its maze of "forthrights and mean- basis” of consciousness takes the soil of ders” is utterly at fault. I understand things for their root. always by matter energies acting in and A striking transformation, when matter through space, and measurable or quanti- is perceived to rest on consciousness! tative : I do not understand a something But the scene-shifters are physiologists endowed with physical qualities plus other no less than metaphysicians. Among unknown qualities coming in as they are them Helmholtz is as conspicuous as called. Paganini is not his violin, nor his Berkeley, Bain and Müller as emphatic as violin Paganini. Will then time, space, Kant and Hume. The physiology that and motion, however combined, account aims at " elaborating consciousness” out for feeling?

of matter, tells us with incredible nuiveté Why, it is precisely feeling that ac- that consciousness knows nothing but its counts for them ! Maiter, define it as we own impressions. “ The central connec. may, is known to us in terms of energy, tions of the nerves," not the nature of the and in no other terms whatever. The object, determine, according to Helmholtz, persistence of matter is taught by the bal the difference in our sensations. Mr. ance, which appeals to weights that again Spencer lays down that most of the ele.

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ments in an observed object are known we know of ourselves, and by this ne. by“ unconscious ratiocination." The re. science measure that. Yet I know that I ceived view in psychology agrees with am not a dream; my thought is its own this; and in Mr. Coke's phrase, “the evidence in the twofold order of knowl. entire process of perception is inferen- edge and being. lf, because it is my tial.” And thus, the indestructibility of thought, it cannot be true; if the subject matter, conservation of energy, and all simply because it is a subject, and so the other summings up of experience, depend only thing that can know, is, on that very for their validity on the laws of thought. account, incapable of knowing; then, per

But of mind, say Mr. Coke and his haps, since I am a delusion to myself, God authorities, “ Science" can make nothing. may be a delusion to me. When thought If it were a product of molecular phenom- grows illusory, being is made bankrupt; it ena, energy would be expended in produc- is a dream with no one to dream it; and ing it, and by it energy might be elicited. the insane conclusion of all our science Materialism can accept neither of these is, “ There is nothing: there can be nothiinferences. The conservation of energy ing." moves in a phenomenal circle ; to admit But if the necessities of thought are that a given quantity of electricity had the laws of things; if reason distinguishes disappeared as thought and was not recov. between sense and madness, and corrects erable, would break the circle and stultify the illusions of phenomena; if states of physics. It would be taking from the consciousness imply a persistent Ego; if weight in a scale, not by lessening the the will acts upon matier, though inscrumatter, but by thinking about it. Science tably, and may be free because not in dare not play fast and loose with weight. time and space; if we know each other, Nor can thought or volition produce yet know not how we know, and exert our energy, for this would be to enlarge a faculties though we cannot analyze them, closed circuit. Where could the energy – surely the mysterious may be real and come from? On the other hand, if mind enter into communion with us, and be is a product of matter, why does not this something more than the unknowable. appear in the equation of forces ? Why What wonder should the highest reality, do the physical antecedents and conse. which is the heart of things and their quents of thought make an equation into abiding cause, be in his nature an unfath. which thought never enters ? Says Mr.omed mystery, yet known to us in his Huxley: “It is a collateral product of effects ? He dwells in eternity; what them.” But where energy is concerned, wonder that whilst we affirm of him the a product even if collateral implies ex. best we know our speech betrays its im. pended energy. How, therefore, is it not perfection, and our thought grows dark expended? Evidently, the relations of with excess of bright? Such darkness is mind and matter cannot be expressed by not ignorance; it is enlarged knowledge. mechanics; they belong to a region where To know that we cannot comprehend him; its laws are transcended. Volition may that he extends everywhere and is com. direct and redistribute the forces of the prehended nowhere ; that he stands be. organism, but not as a power equivalent hind all mysteries, and is the key to all to so inany foot-pounds. The process is enigmas; that man may be like God, and inscrutable; the fact, which overthrows yet God not like man ; to catch a glimpse materialism, should be the cornerstone of of his perfection and lose it:: any treatise on miracles. The supreme force is volition : whatever it is that thinks Brief as the lightning in the collied night, and wills is the thing in itself. It exists That in a spleen unfolds both heaven and

earth, neither in time nor space; its effects are

And ere a man hath power to say,

“ Behold!” phenomenal; its act is nöumenal. Thus, The jaws of darkness do devour it up: in spite of ourselves, are we brought back to mystery and metaphysics.

these are things that have long been familo Thought is boundless in all directions; iar to religious men; and why, in descend. and there must exist an eternal conscious ing to the heart of science, should they ness within and around the universe of appear as a "twilight of the gods,” and spirit. That consciousness is the imma: beginning of Atheism ? Let us break the nent and transcendent God, whose perfec. idols that men worship, even the fetishes tion comprehends our infinities and eter of our own thoughts ; let the world be a nities, but cannot lapse into them. He is sanctuary, and common things be lifted in this sense omnitudo realitatis. What till they iouch the spheres; let our speech do we know of him ? Consider how little take a more solemn tone, like music, from

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