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which he can take interest. The cape-| take up the business with insufficient or fields often come right up to the house; borrowed capital, and become heavily in. the yard is filled with stacks of megass, or volved. Once in the power of the great dried canes from which the juice has been West Indian firms, which are to the planter expressed, and the estate machinery is what the children of Israel are to the within a stone's throw. Next to the canes Englishman, he will hardly shake himself the barometer and rain-gauge receive the free. A life of burden and retrogression greatest attention. The dread of a hurri- is sure to follow, ending sooner or later in cape, though none has occurred since the complete ruin. Half the property in the disastrous year 1831, is uppermost in the island is said to belong to these firms Barbadian mind, and this cannot be won. really if not ostensibly, and it being to dered at. The barometer as a rule stands their interest that estates should not be very high, and if it fall to 29°, a hurricane broken up into small holdings, and that is certain. I remember one day, when the things should remain as they have done barometer fell just below 291°, that an old for the last two centuries, the island sufgentleman came anxiously up to see if his fers greatly from such an incubus. Hap. barometer tallied with others, and per- pily one great blow has been struck at ceiving that it did, hastened home and them by the abolition of the law giving looked to the fittings of bis “hurricane priority to the consignee's lien, which enbars" lest his windows should be blown sured to them the power of keeping es. in and his house demolished.
tates, to the owners of which they had For amusement the planter has not a made advances, in their own hands. The very wide field to select from. There is upset price of good sugar land in Barba. no sport worthy of the name, so he gener dos is iool. an acre, and the size of estates ally sits down to a comfortable rubber ranges from about eighty to three hundred about five o'clock, after his day's work. acres, one hundred and fifty acres being, Whist is a favorite game in Barbados, and so far as I can recollect, about the averloo is also popular; so much so that, as age. If smaller portions could be bought, has been already said, it lays the planters many could be worked without borrowed open to the charge of being inveterate capital; but the Shylocks will not permit gamblers. But though this may once this. If a planter fails, and an estate is have been so, I do not think it can be truly sold, they will take it all over to prevent said of them now.
its being broken up. Thus the existence of the gentlemen is, When the planter fails he turps almost as may be imagined, not a very lively one, invariably to the public service as a means but that of the ladies must, I conceive, be of getting his bread. Throughout the more than monotonous. There is little Windward Islands at least, and I suspect for them to do, and beyond sugar, little to throughout the West Indies generally, an talk about. Dancing is their favorite oc- impression prevails that the public service cupation, and without disrespect to them, is intended to be a refuge to broken down I doubt if, as a rule, they, that is the planters; and this impression it is exyounger ones among them, care for much tremely difficult to remove. A place never else. The climate and the meagre re. falls vacant, from the highest to the lowsources of the island are mostly to blame est, without applications from many who for this. English women have no busi- rest their claims solely on the fact that ness in the tropics even if English men they have failed in everything else; nay, have.
even men who are doing well in other The life of the planter is not an easy posts will apply, on the supposition that
He has to be abroad early to go the public will be sufficiently well served round his estate, and keep a very sharp if they give up to it, not their whole time, eye both on
canes and negroes. Over but so much of it as they can spare from and above the ordinary anxieties incident their other business; in a word, if they to sugar-planting, and all other cultivation, put themselves first and the public second. there are the depredations of the negroes A great trouble with the Barbadians is to guard against before the crop is reaped. the difficulty of persuading them to accept During crop time he must be in the fields, a post in any but their own island. They or in the works, morning, noon, and night. will not see that in such a small place Every Barbadian who does well is sure where nearly every one is more or less either to begin or end as a planter. Su- nearly related, local associations cannot gar is the only thing for which they really but prevent a public officer from executhave a liking; planting is their sole ambi. ing his duty disinterestedly and impartion, and the only result is that too many tially. It is the more astonishing, for
when -Barbadians can be prevailed upon The House of Assembly of Barbados to leave their own public service for that is not the most hard-worked assembly in of another colony, they as a rule do ex- the world. It meets once a week, genertremely well, and bring credit on their ally on Tuesdays at twelve noon, and sits native place. It must be said to the great for three or four hours. It is the fuoco honor of the Barbadian public service, tion of the Assembly to examine, with exthat it is free from the scandals which are treme suspicion, and in most cases to so frequent in those of neighboring isl. oppose, any proposal that emanates from ands. Embezzlement is far too common the governor or the Colonial Office. It is in many of them, more especially in those equally one of its functions to ask queswhere the inhabitants are of mixed French tions about everything that is done and a and English origin; but I do not think good many things that are not done by such a thing would be possible in Barba- any Englishman holding an appointment dos, and if Nelson by warding off a French in the public service, or any Barbadian occupation saved the island from this also, official who is inclined to go strongly his statue should be covered with gold with the government; such persons being rather than green paint.
looked upon always as doubtful characThe great glory of the Barbadians is ters. their constitution, which, as they never It is much to be deplored that the lead. weary of relating, they have possessed ing gentlemen of the island decline to for more than two hundred years. The come forward as candidates for seats in said constitution is of course formed on the House, and thus permit them to be the model of our own. There is the gov- filled by men with no stake in the country ernor in place of the sovereign, the Legis. and utterly unfit for the post. The usual lative Council to represent the House of excuse is want of time, and so long as the Lords, and the House of Assembly for hours of sitting are from noon onwards the House of Cominons.
there can be no doubt that it is not alto. The House of Assembly is, of course, gether invalid; for the leading merchants the most important and most self-impor- could not, without some inconvenience, tant of the three. It consists of twenty- leave their offices at the busiest time of six members, two for each of the twelve the day. Yet taking into account the parishes into which the island is divided, value they set on their so-called constituand two for the city of Bridgetown. It tion and the endless praises that they is elected annually, but the elections have shower on it, it is not, I think, altogether long been a complete farce. The number creditable that they should make no effort of registered electors in 1882 was about to uphold the respectability of its reprefourteen hundred (out of one hundred and sentative Assembly; more especially when seventy-five thousand people). A few it is remembered that the elections are more perhaps had the requisite qualifica little trouble and less expense, while the tions but did not care to exercise the priv. whole time for wbich the House sits dur. ilege, and so this admirably conceived ing the year does not exceed two hundred representative assembly has degenerated hours. into an assembly of the planters' nomi. The Legislative Council is composed of
There is no excitement, no trouble retired members of the lower house and taken about it, and a contested election is other leading gentlemen in the island
I remember one when a young man nominated by the crown. They have, of of the old ultra-Conservative Barbadian course, the distinctive title of “Honortype opposed a so called government can. able,” but even this often fails to induce didate, and was duly elected by, I think, the local magnates to accept a seat in the twenty-nine votes to twenty-five; a trium. Council; such is their apathy as to the phant majority, which was duly extolled conduct of public business. As is usually in the pages of the organ of that sec. the case with upper chambers the Legis. tion.
lative Council has little influence in the The House sits in a handsome room in management of affairs, so there is no need the public buildings. There is no gov. to dwell on it at any greater length. ernment side and opposition side, but all The constitution of Barbados was once sit in deep armchairs round a horseshoe in imminent peril. This was in the year table, with the speaker, gowned but not 1876. The Barbadians are extremely wigged, perched up on a dais at one end, proud of their attitude and general be. so that the effect is rather that of a lot havior on that occasion, and never lose of grown-up schoolboys in a luxurious an opportunity of exalting themselves and schoolroom.
debasing those who were their opponents
in that memorable year. The story is a | enjoy it under the old system is in proglong one, and to any one who knows any- ress, even if it be not already passed. thing of the island, comical in the ex. Another very desirable change is the abotreme, but it is not possible here to give lition or at least reform- of the various more than the barest outline of that petty parochial boards and vestries, to momentous crisis in Barbadian history. which are intrusted, after the model of the Suffice it to say that a governor came out old country, the relief of the poor, the with orders to endeavor to confederate maintenance of the roads, etc. ΤΙ the Windward Islands as had recently istence of such little imperia in imperio been done in the case of the Leewards. within an island of the small size of Bar. The four other islands of the group agreed bados is ridiculous, and the work done to part with their constitutions and are under their direction is, as a rule, unsatiscrown colonies at this day, but Barbados factory and expensive. stood out and refused. It was not unnat. The present governor has accomplished ural that the Barbadians, with greater more during the four years that he has wealth than the other four put together, held that office than could have been exshould be disinclined to devote their re-pected from most men in twenty, but the sources to the benefit of any but them. Barbadians can hardly hope to keep him selves, and so a contest arose between the much longer, and it will depend in great whites, i.e., the dominant body, and the measure on his successor whether the governor. The negroes rose against the work which he may leave to be done will whites, why it is not for me to determine, be satisfactorily completed. For though and began to use violence. A few were Barbados enjoys representative institushot down and order was restored. The tions, yet a good and energetic governor planters lost their heads utterly, became is essential to its prosperity. Whether it frantic with rage and fear, and acted ac be due to dread of opposition, or, as is cording to their dictates. The governor more likely, to unwillingness to disturb kept his head and cared for none of these the old, old order of things, natives of the things, till at last he was recalled amid island are averse to taking any initiative the exultation of the whites and the sor. in the matter of alterations, however cryrow of the blacks. The Barbadians were ing the need for them; but with a tactful and still are jubilant over their victory, governor to show them the way, those but I do not think that either side had that will admit that there are perhaps a much to boast of; and certainly neither few things in the island which are suscan say with truth that it employed none ceptible of improvement, are ready to but fair and honorable means to carry on follow, cautiously enough at first, but the contest. Such is in two words the gradually with more and more confidence. story of the great Barbadian Revolution, The position of the governor is, of and to those who care to know more about course, a thankless one, for no matter how it I would recommend the blue-book treat. genuine and obvious his wish to labor im. ing of the riots in Barbados in 1876 as partially and disinterestedly for the public most amusing reading. My sympathies good, measures proposed by him are sure in the struggle are, I confess, with the to be received with suspicion by almost victorious party, but at the same time I all, and obstructive opposition by a great do not think it altogether necessary that many; to say nothing of the uniform they should extend against every governor scurrility of the press. This last, however, the antipathy which they entertained is of no very great importance, and untowards the gentleman who held that worthy of notice. office in 1876. Nor, again, is it altogether From such a press, as may be imagined, seemly for a community which is more a governor has little to fear and much than ordinarily loyal, and plumes itself that may amuse; but the present gov. openly upon its loyalty, to treasure the ernor, I suspect, by his last crowning remembrance of a not altogether credit work for the island, bas earned the laudaable victory over the queen's representations even of his editorial enemies. For tive.
Barbados is now at last to be severed Much remains to be done. The exist from the rest of the Windward Islands, ing poor law is hopelessly inadequate and and erected into a separate government, inefficient, and a stringent bastardy law retaining all its old privileges, and gaining is much needed. Together with these, a in addition the advantage of enjoying the scheme of emigration will be advisable, if exclusive attention of the gentleman apnot absolutely necessary. A bill extend pointed to represent the sovereign therein. ing the franchise to many who did not | The other Windward Islands will also be
constituted into a separate government, | attack of pleurisy, with inflammation of and, it is to be hoped, confederated - an the right lung. During the last twelve arrangement which will be for the profit bours he has been free from pain, and his of all concerned. Thus the Barbadians strength is maintained.” Thursday morn. are at last freed from the hated phantom ing a bulletin was issued saying: of confederation which for so long has Fawcett has had a restless night. In adhaunted them, and placed itself between dition to the pleuro-pneumonia there is the people and the governor. What a increased bronchial irritation. The gencontrast in the last ten years! When the eral condition gives ground for anxiety.” island was hopelessly behind the age, and in the afternoon Sir Andrew Clark was likely to go from bad to worse, the only summoned to Cambridge to see Mr. Faw. remedy which the Colonial Office could cett in consultation with Drs. Paget and suggest was confederation. This was Latham. When Sir. A. Clark arrived he fiercely combated and successfully re. found that Mr. Fawcett was dying, and jected, and now comes the irony of the very soon afterwards the end came. Mrs. result. The old colony has since advanced Garrett-Anderson, Mr. Fawcett's sister-insteadily in the right direction, and con-law, had been in attendance since Wednes. tinues to advance; and this by leaving it day: Mr. Shaw-Lefevre is temporarily to enjoy its unique position, and substitut- acting as postmaster.general. ing absolute isolation for compulsory con- The premature and lamented death of junction with other colonies.
the Right Hon. Henry Fawcett, M.P., has Even Barbados, though, as has been removed from the sphere of Parliamentary already said, spared the curse of invasion, life a notable figure. The deceased, who can show only too many memorials of the was the son of Mr. W. Fawcett, J.P., of Salvictims of hurricanes and the dreaded isbury, was born on August 26, 1833, so yellow fever. So recently as 1881 the that at the time of his death he was in his latter appeared and the garrison suffered fifty.second year. The elder Fawcett was heavily, as did also the civilians. The one of the earliest members of the AntiBarbadians, however, faced the enemy Corn Law League, and he was well known like men, and never for a moment gave to and esteemed by Mr. Cobden and Mr. way to panic, though such visitations are Bright. When he had attained his now very rare. With full confidence in eightieth year he was still an excellent and their island, which is, as they know, the effective speaker. He appears to have healthiest of those around, they “came transmitted something of his own fine, up smiling," and did not allow themselves, robust constitution to his son, who – un. if spared by the epidemic, to die of fear. til suddenly struck down by illness a short Thus happy then in the enjoyment of a time ago, and now again by the attack good climate, able leaders, and an over. which has had a melancholy and fatal Howing treasury, they need but two things result - enjoyed the most perfect physi. to ensure their future prosperity, good cal health and spirits. Educated first at governors and good fortune, both of which a local school near Salisbury, Henry FawI most beartily wish them.
cett was sent, at the age of fourteen, to Queenwood College, Hampshire, where Professor Tyndall chanced to be a teacher at the time. In his seventeenth year the young student entered at King's College,
London, and it was during his residence THE DEATH OF MR. FAWCETT.
here that his imagination was first fired It is with deep regret that we announce by the desire to embark upon a Parlia. the death of the Right Hon. Henry Faw. mentary life. In 1852 he proceeded to cett, M.P., the postmaster-general, which Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and here the occurred at half past five o'clock, Novem- ability and enthusiasm he displayed were ber 13, at his residence, 18 Brookside, such that the most sanguine hopes were Cambridge, from pleuro-pneumonia. Mr. indulged in for his future. Alike at CamFawcett, who rode fourteen miles last Sat. bridge as elsewhere, Mr. Fawcett's motto urday, was seized on the following day seems to have been mens sana in corwith an attack of pleurisy, accompanied pore sano, and he was passionately fond by inflammation of the lungs. On Wednes. of all healthy athletic exercises. For day morning Dr. Paget and Dr. Latham, nearly four years he remained at the uniwho were attending him, issued the fol- versity, graduating in 1856 with high lowing bulletin: “Mr. Fawcett has been mathematical bonors, being seventh wran. suffering since Sunday last from a sharp | gler, and in the same year he was elected
From The Times,
a fellow of his hall. On leaving Cam- example, a prominent part in the proceed. bridge, Mr. Fawcett went to London, ings of the British Association and the where he began studying for the bar. He Social Science Association. He was enmade no secret, however, of his distaste couraged to persevere in his economic for the professioa, which he would not studies by Mr. Mill and Mr. Cobden, and have adopted save as a stepping-stone to a speech which be delivered on Co-opera career in Parliament. He was already ation” at the meeting of the Social Scimuch more enamored of que ons affect. ence Congress at sgow, drew high ing philosophy and political economy, and praise from Lord Brougham and other was an ardent admirer and student of the critics. He also delivered at Exeter Hall writings of John Stuart Mill.
an admirable address on trade unionism, On September 17, 1858, it was the terri. during the period of the great builders' ble misfortune of Mr. Fawcett, sep., uno strike in London, and this at once constiwittingly to deprive his son of the greatest tuted him one of the ablest and most physical blessing which man enjoys — the trusted friends and advocates of the workprivilege of sight. They were out par- ing classes. In 1861, on the death of Sir tridge-shooting together, when two stray Charles Napier, member for Southwark, shots from the father's gun struck the Mr. Fawcett made his first effort to get face of his son,
the sad and singular result into Parliament for that borough. He being that the centre of each eye was per- resolved not to contest the seat on the fectly pierced by the shot. In a moment paid agency principle, and this and other Mr. Fawcett was rendered quite blind, the things weighed against him, especially eyes being completely destroyed. Most the circumstance that he did not specifi. men, in the face of such a calamity, would cally pledge himself to go to the poll. In have been overwhelmed by their feelings the end he retired from the contest, and and plunged into irremediable despair. Mr. Layard was returned. In 1863 Mr. With Mr. Fawcett it was quite different. Fawcett contested the borough of CamWhile feeling the deprivation keeply, in a bridge, but lost by eighty votes. The short time he recovered his usual elastic- same year appeared his " Manual of Po. ity of spirits, and was far less afflicted by litical Economy," and he was also at this the melancholy event than bis sorrowing time a voluminous contributor of articles father. The accident occurred on a spot on economic and political science to the overlooking Salisbury Cathedral, and the leading reviews and magazines. He was last gleam of nature Mr. Fawcett was able elected in 1863 professor of political to perceive was thus associated with his econoniy in Cainbridge University, and native place. Facing the future with a about the same period made a third unbrave heart, in the course of a few weeks successful attempt to get into the House he had resolved upon his course of action. of Commons, contesting the representa: His general health was not at all injured tion of Brighton. During the American by bis accident, and he returned to Cam. Civil War he was a warm supporter of the bridge University, where he devoted him- cause of the North, speaking forcibly on self to the systematic study of political | her behalf on several occasions. At the economy. With the aid of a reader, who general election of 1865 Mr. Fawcett's now became bis constant companion, and wish was gratified, as he was subsequently by the aid also of his de. turned to Parliament for Brighton by a voted wife, he was able to minimize the majority of five hundred over his Conevil effects of the accident. In just a servative opponent. Re-elected in 1868, twelve month after the occurrence he at. at the general election of 1874 he was retended the meetings of the British Assojected, Brighton being one of those conciation at Aberdeen, Here he read, or stituencies which felt the wave of the rather spoke, a paper upon “The Eco-Conservative reaction in that year. He nomic Effects of the recent Gold Discov. obtained a seat for Hackney, however, in eries.” As this paper was full of elabo. April, 1874, and this borough he continrate statistics, the extraordinary strength ued to represent until his death. and retentiveness of the speaker's memory Mr. Fawcett was an effective speaker, were tested in a very remarkable degree; though he somewhat lacked fervor. His but he mastered all his difficulties, and maiden speech in the House of Commons surprised his hearers by the readiness was delivered in connection with the Whig with which he also answered the objec. Reform Bill of 1866. This bill he warmly tious advanced against his theories. approved of as a wise and just concession
Having thus broken the ice, he now to the claims of the working classes. He appeared frequently in public, taking, for made a smart and effective attack upon