likely to be forthcoining before long. | pot to a dark red heat. During this ope. The imitation of the natural gems by ration it is worked about with an iron rod, ineans of various silicates and oxides has in order to prevent its swelling up and already attained to a great degree of per- passing over the edge of the iron crucible. fection, and no doubt this ingenious The dark red heat is continued until the branch of industry must interfere consid- whole mass has become glassy and trans. erably with the trade of the dealer in real parent. At this moment it is run into precious stones. We can already purchase another crucible, in which it is heated to a capital “diamond” for about half a a white heat that is kept up for about two crown; and the imitation of the ruby and bours, being stirred rapidly with a rod the the emerald is far easier, and more suc. whole time. At the end of this period cessful, than that of the diamond.

the molten mass is allowed to remain perCareful choice in the substances to be fectly quiet for about an hour, and is then melted together, good and effective cut run out of the crucible, either on to a me. ting, and careful artistic setting, have gone tallic slab or into a metal mortar. It is a long way to reproduce, artificially, the necessary to avoid too rapid a cooling. brightness, brilliancy, and color of the The product may thus be run out into a real stone. Chemical analysis shows the sheet, like plate-glass. A small sheet of sapphire to be pure alumina, as it has such a nature was obtained by M. Sidot shown the diamond to be pure carbon; in one of his experiments: it measured but it does not account for its color, which about three inches across, by a quarter of is partly due to an optical effect, and de- an inch thick, and was large enough to be pends upon a peculiar molecular arrange. cut into a considerable number of beauti. ment. This stone possesses the singular ful artificial sapphires. property known as dichroism - that is, it The ruby and sapphire have also been shines with two colors, blue and red. In closely imitated in another way by Fremy a well-cut stone, a red cross often appears and Feil, two French chemisis; and the in the midst of the sapphire blue. The chief interest in this process is the fact that ruby is also pure alumina, and its vivid the artificial stones possess essentially the red color, like the blue of the sapphire, is chemical composition of the real ones. thought by some to be due to a peculiar To produce these, equal weights of aluoptical effect. In fact, no chemical analy. mina and red lead are heated to a red sis has been able to account quite satis. heat in an earthenware crucible. A vitfactorily for the red color of the ruby or reous substance is formed, which consists the blue color of the sapphire, for pure of silicate of lead, and crystals of white alumina is quite white, and the sapphire, corundum. To convert this corundum as we have seen, shows two colors. This into the artificial ruby, it is necessary to peculiar optical effect noticed in the ruby fuse it with about two per cent. of bichroand sapphire bas, strange to say, been mate of potassium; whilst to obtain the accidentally reproduced not long since by sapphire, a little oxide of cobalt, and a a French chemist, M. Sidot, who has been very small quantity of bichromate of po. making some experiments on artificial tassiun), must be employed. The stones stones. He has produced a kind of glass so produced possess at least very nearly by melting phosphate of lime at a great the hardness of the real stones, as they heat, and the product possesses the blue scratch both quartz and topaz. color of the sapphire with the remarka. The French paste which imitates the ble dichroisin before alluded to. The ex. diamond so closely is a peculiar kind periment is so curious, that a few lines of glass, the manufacture of which was may be devoted to it here.

brought to a great degree of perfection By the action of heat on what is termed some fifty years ago by Donault-Wieland "acid phosphate of lime,” it is transformed of Paris. The finest quality of paste de. into “crystallized pyrophosphate;” and mands extreme care in the choice of ma. when heated to a still higher temperature, terials and in melting, etc. The basis of it passes into the vitreous or glassy state. it, in the hands of the expert manufacIt is supposed that in this condition it turer just named, was powdered rockloses some of its phosphoric acid by vola. crystal or quartz. The proportions he tilization, and passes into the state of took were, six ounces of rock crystal; “tribasic phosphate.” Such is the tech- nine ounces two drams of red lead; three nical explanation of the changes which ounces three drams of pure carbonate of occur. The phosphate of lime glass is potash ; three drams of boracic acid; and produced by taking this substance in a six grains of white arsenic. The product moist, acid state, and heating it in an iron | thus manusactured was extremely beautiful, but rather expensive, compared with silent lite enough, where small things have the prices now charged for artificial jew to be made the most of if one would be els. It has never been surpassed in bril-content; and yet one gets to be very

fond liancy. But of late years the greater of its peace, which is hardly inonotony, of purity of the potash and lead oxide used, watching the foliage change from green to and the improvements in the furnaces gold, sadden to its winter gown of russet ; and methods of heating them, have all to note how, as the year declines, the sky tended to reduce the price of the “dia- covers up its bright summer days and monds" thus manufactured.

wraps itself in masses of fleecing cloud; how the emerald of the sea grows like beaten steel; and where a band of purple once sank into a rosy mist, there is now

only a thin grey line against a pallid sky: From The Spectator.

The whole population are fishermen and QUIET WEATHER.

their allies; and all day the able-bodied I WANT to describe the aspect of life in sit upon a great bank of timber, by the the calm, grey weather we have been ex. side of the lifeboat.shed, and smoke, rubperiencing lately, as it appeared to me in bing shoulders together in an uncouth an out-of-the-way part of England, twenty fashion, much as one has seen birds upon miles from a railway station on the Atlan a perch. They all know each other, and tic shore.

are good friends after a silent, unexpanThe slates of the cottages here have sive fashion. The property in the fishing. little of the cold purple tint, but are va- boats is to a certain extent common, and ried in faint green and bluish silver; and brings them closer together, and, like where the gables slope against the grey most Cornishmen, the habit of their lives sea, the sunshine laughs and dances upon is serious and a little sad. And they are them almost as it does on the waves them instinct, too, with a profound natural selves. In front of the jagged rocks courtesy towards the stranger, very differwhich border our little cove, the great ent from the general distrust and suspi. seine-boats lie, massive and dark, dwarfing cion which we find in the midland and all the smaller fishing-craft into insignifi. northern counties. Rough they are, cercance, waiting for the pilchards, who seem tainly — stupid, perhaps, according to our loth to appear. In front of the coast Cockney standard of intelligence - but it guard's cottaye, cutting sea and sky and was such men as these that Kingsley, who rock, and dividing the little landscape into had passed his life amongst them, de. all kinds of irregular triangles, rises the scribed as “finer men, body and soul, than inevitable white inast and yard of the re. the laodsmen;" and of all our seamen and tired sailor, carrying, in this instance, a fishers there are no more stalwart, simple weathercock of native design, represent. souls to be found in England than those ing a pilchard whose tail points obsti. who border the “ land of strangers." nately seaward, irrespective of any change The influence of the place is mesmeric; in the weather.

and as day after day passes, and autumn To the right of the inn window rise paces slowly by its road of golden leaves whitewashed stone cottages, and to the and withered bracken into winter, it grows left sink the same; beneath, the road dips hourly more difficult to believe in the ex. by a red geranium and a water-butt to the istence of other life than this. The sea, hidden beach. On the low wall in front of the sky, the fishermen lounging, the pilthe window, rooted securely in some crack chards that never come, the picture upon of its coping.stones, flowers a brilliant one's easel, the walk after the day's work marigold -- the one bright spot in the pic. over moor and downland, the homecomture. Suci a queer, quaint little grey ing to the best of inns, with its bright fire hamlet, where year passes after year, and brighter faces of welcome, the dinner bringing no alterations save a few more with a friend, the smoke and toddy in the wrinkles to the aged, and a little less evening, and then the night with the wind laughter to the young, the blust ng sighing down the valley, — these repeat weather of winter and spring, the coming themselves day by day. Gradually one of the pilchards, the flash of the world comes to know something about the peoseen every now and then in the eyes of a ple – how poor Sullivan's wife is dying of wandering artist, the sermons on alternate consumption, and Stewart's boy must be Sundays at two “neighbor villages,” such taken to Falmouth to be confirmed, and are the matters which form the talk and other matters less serious. And occa. interest of these folks' lives. A still, sionally the men come and talk as

we a

paint, and resting their broad backs employer of the fishermen. He is some. against the wall, point out to each other thing like Carlyle in appearance, owing the various objects of the picture, rubbing the likeness, perhaps, chiefly to his long slow hands over their bristly chins mean- greatcoat and broad-brimmed hat, and he while. There is a sort of tacit agreement walks stiffly and slowly beneath his weight that they are not to establish themselves of seventy-six years. Thirty-five of them behind us while we are at work; but some. he has spent here on that little shell of times the temptation is too strong to be rock (it is literally a shelf, for it ends resisted, and one becomes aware of a abruptly in a perpendicular fall of cliff into shadow on the canvas, and a gruff voice deep water), doing practically nothing but saying, “Not that I want to interrupt you, live. Despite his life, with only ihese sir." One old fellow of the patriarchal fishermen for companions, traces of a very village, past doing anything but hobble different society are still clearly visible, about the beach very slowly, with the help touches of geniality and social grace peep of a couple of sticks, has been exempted out in his dry old manner; and one is not from the above restriction, and spends a surprised to find in the little cottage on good portion of his morning breathing the rocky ledge, a portfolio of drawings, heavily into my ear, and giving me details and etchings and good pictures upon the of his career, which presents fewer salient walls. All of these, however, and all the points during its duration of eighty-four furniture of his intellectual and social life, years than could be well believed. date nearly half a century back; there the

Yes, he has always lived here, and he man ceased, and what has lived since is minds the building of this very place [a merely his outside. Still a pale phantasm fish-cellar, full of miscellaneous sea-luin- of a gentleman and a scholar, he walks in ber, nets, and crab.pots, "anchors of rusty and out the rough folks here, amongst fluke, and boats up-drawn ”]ah, more than them, but not of them; and comes and fifty years ago.” So, with a final wheeze, hovers round the easel of a wanderer like he departs, to return the next day with myself, wanting, not so much to look at the same story; and in the room overhead the work, as to hear the old language of the one virago of the place recommences books and pictures which he used to speak scolding and beating her children. “Find long ago. After much pressing, he caine it pretty noisy down here, sir ? ” said a in one night to chat with us, but was pitiacouple of the fish wives, whom I found bly ill at ease.

It seemed to force upon standing before my easel yesterday, bim too keenly the contrast of his present “ Her’ve a long tongue, and a longer arm life with that which he had previously her have.” Its the old story of two fami. known. What it was that scored his face lies, a dead wife leaving young children, and broke his spirit, and sent him down and then a new mistress for the house, to live in this unknown fishing hamlet far and the new family, and temper and from the ways of men, who shall say ? health alike giving way under the double But he intensifies the stillness of the strain, and the result - that terrible chaos place; and as his tall figure is seen comof blows, reproaches, and tears which ing down the path of a morning, even the makes a hell of so many poor men's homes. sunlight seems to fall more quietly upon The boards that roof the cellar are thin, his rusty coat, and the noise of the water and the voices loud; and having sat under to be alinost hushed. them for three weeks one is tempted to And so the days go on, with life lying moralize.

behind and before, and twenty miles off But this is the only seamy side to the the train waiting to carry all who will back village life. Even poor Sullivan's wife, to the great city. Morning after morning for whom we sent for the priest a few out of the same silvery sky shines the days ago, is dying peacefully; and her wistful sun, and the great grey plain of litile girl stands, with an anxious wistful the sea stretches softly away to the horiface, at the open door of the cottage, zon. Still the pilchard weathercock points whilst her big father passes in and out, to the long-expected shoal: still the fishtender as a woman in his care. “She's ermen lounge, and growl, and smoke; still alive, sir, and that's all."

our pictures grow slowly day by day, amid Down in the steep little path which the comments, flattering and otherwise, of winds at the back of the village up to a the villagers; still we take long walks ledge of rock, against which the great over the moorland, or to where the Lizard waves hurl themselves forever vainly, lights can be seen streaming out into the comes the one personage of the place, waning sunset. After all, one cannot Mr. -, proprietor of the seine-boats and photograph an atmosphere, and it is a

From All The Year Round.

photograph only which I am trying to give the east.” Fifteen years went by; the you. A crude, literal picture of an envi- hill was pretty well covered. "Now," ronment of humble life of toils and duties said the good 'man, “I am growing old, which there are

and after me you will perhaps not be able none to praise, to get your doctoring gratis. Let the vil. And very few to love,

lage undertake to keep up this apricot

orchard that has cost you nothing; The but which is, after the rivalries and jeal- oil will not only pay a doctor and buy as ousies of London, almost like “the peace much medicine as you can want, but it of God, which passeth all understanding." will also do a good deal towards support:

ing your old men and your orphans." Wax-trees and tallow-trees are invaluable to the Buddhists, who, of course, must burn no animal fat on their altars. There

are half-a-dozen trees and plants which CHINESE HORTICULTURE.

make better paper than the bamboo A CHINESE kitchen garden contains what we call rice-paper, for instance, almost all our vegetables, and many more comes from the paper-mulberry. A Chibesides. If they do not care to grow pota. nese nettle and a giant hibiscus make toes, except where there are Europeans to excellent rope; and the ramia has its eat them, they grow the batata, which is leaves covered with threads just in the sold boiled at every street corner. Of the right state for spinning. When Virgil water-lily, sacred to Buddha, they eat the said, “ The Seres comb from leaves a sugary seeds; and also a sort of sago slender fleece,” one used to fancy he was made from its root. “Water-chestnuts,” speaking of silk, confounding in fact the too (eaten by the old lake-dwellers in worm with the food it eats; but the latest Switzerland), are largely grown. Every idea is that some notion of the ramia and canal is full of floating islands of thein; its produce had travelled as far as the and the gathering must look like that Greek naturalists on whom Virgil relied. picture in this year's Grosvenor of Athel. If any of your friends are homeopaths ney in Flood, where young and old are you will have heard plenty about rhus; going about after the apples in boats. One of the many kinds, the Rhus vernix, Instead of boats put tubs, each pushed makes, along with the elaeo-cocoa (added with a bamboo pole by a yellow man or because its juice is fatal to insects), the woman, and paint two or three upsets, for famous lacquer. Great at dyeing, the Jolin Chinaman is full of fun, and those Chinese have managed to find out vegetawho have seen a water-chestnut barvest- ble mordants. Hair-dyeing they manage ing say that everybody is on the broad in a peculiar way; they drink their dye. grin, and accepts a ducking with the same A six months' course of some vegetable good humor with which he gives one. decoction is said to be infallible; and was They cultivate fungi, too, burying the regularly used, we are told, by the Chris. rotten stump of a tree which bears harm. tians to darken the hair of their European less ones, and so ensuring a crop. One priests, that so they might escape detec. kind, the lin-chi, is one of the emblems ion. Nearly all their dyes are vegetable, of immortality. It gets as dry as those the imperial yellow being got from the honey.combed fungi which they eat in root of the curcuma; saffron and gardenia mid-France, and keeps good ” for years. flowers, and mignonette, and all the other The bonzes use it as the foundation of yellow dyes being held unworthy of this their ambrosia, and picture their gods great object. with lin-chi in their hands. The “ five And now, to prove what has been said fruits ” are peach (sign of love, because about their great skill in landscape garit blossoms in winter), apricot, plum, dening, let us say a word about the Pekin chestnut, and jujube. The wild apricot is Summer Palace Park. Mr. Swinnoe and valuable for the oil extracted from its Sir Hope Grant both paint it in glowing kernels. This first came into use, say the colors - such a pleasure garden as Kublai Chinese botany books, in our fourteenth Khan planned round his “ wondrous dome, century. A good and wise physician by Alp, the sacred river." "Twelve miles lived in a district so poor that he scarcely of pebbled paths leading through groves ever got a fee; so, having found out the of magnificent round lakes into pictur, use of apricot oil, he said, “If you can't esque summer-houses; as you wandered pay you must do this: Let every patient along herds of deer would amble away plant a wild apricot on that bare bill to from before you, tossing their antlered

[ocr errors]

heads. Here a solitary building would gardens which, in the absence of many of rise fairy-like from a lake, reflected in the our modes of sanitation, keep the dense blue water on which it seemed to float populations of Chinese cities tolerably There a sloping path would carry you into healthy, for trees are great absorbers of the heart of a mysterious cavern leading bad and diffusers of good gases. We out on to a grotto in the bosom of another have a great deal still to learn from them lake. The variety of the picturesque was in the way of gardening, and it is no use endless, and charming in the extreme. crying down our climate the climate of The resources of the designer appear to north China is a very harsh, ungenial have been unending." And what the one, far worse for both men and plants enperor had in its full glory round his than ours. It is not the climate that is in summer palace every Chinaman who has fault

, but the gardeners; ours do not put made a little money tries to have on a the heart and patience into their work small scale round his house. It is the that Joho Chinaman does into his.

[ocr errors]



How THE COLDSTREAMS GOT THEIR Mot- the motto of the regiment has been Nulli Se.

· The Coldstreams were raised in the cundus, which is borne in gold letters upon its year 1650, in the little town near Berwick-on- colors beneath the star and garter of the Royal Tweed from whence the regiment takes its House. There also appear upon its colors the

Their first colonel was the renowned names of “ Lincelles, · Egypt (with the George Monk (afterwards Duke of Albemarle), Sphinx), “ Talavera," “ Barrosa,” “ Penina general in the Parliamentary army and an sula,” « Waterloo,” “ Alma,” “ Inkerman,” and admiral of the fleet. It is owing to this latter "Sevastopol.” In the year 1850 this regi. fact that a small Union Jack is permitted to ment held its jubilee banquet to commemorate be borne on the queen's color of the regiment, the two hundredth anniversary of its birth. a proud distinction enjoyed by no other corps

London Society. in the service. In the year 1660 brave Monk and his gallant Coldstreamers materially as. sisted in the happy restoration of the English monarchy, and to perform this patriotic and FUEL ON RUSSIAN RAILWAYS. — An official eminently loyal act they marched from Ber- report upon the fuel used on Russian railways wick-on-Tweed to London, meeting with a has been prepared by General Possiet, the warm and enthusiastic greeting from the in- minister of ways and communications. It ap. habitants of the towns and villages through pears from this report, which is concerned which they passed. After the Restoration was with the year 1881, that of the forty-nine rail. accomplished the troops were paraded on way companies existing in the empire only four Tower Hill for the purpose of taking the oath were using wood exclusively for their locomoof allegiance to the king, and among those tives. The lines were all short ones, running present were the three noble regiments that through forest tracts abundantly supplied with form the subject of this brief history. Having wood and far away from coal supplies. The grounded their arms in token of submission to bulk of the lines used coal, and during the year the new régime, they were at once commanded the aggregate consumption of all the railways to take them up again as the First, Second, was 563,029 cubic Russian fathoms of wood and Third Regiments of Foot Guards. The and upwards of 1,230,000 tons of coal. The First and Third Regiments obeyed, but the quantity of English coal used was only 150,450 Coldstreamers stood firm, and their muskets tons, most of which was burnt on the Baltic remained upon the ground. Why does your and the south-western lines.

The report regiment hesitate ? ” inquired the king of Gen- notices a general tendency towards a larger eral Monk. “May it please your Majesty,” | consumption of Russian and a dimninished one said the stern old soldier, “my Coldstreamers of foreign coal. The increase in the use of are your Majesty's devoted soldiers, but after Russian coal is given at seventy thousand tons, the important service they have rendered your or eight per cent. within the year. Only thirty Highness they decline to take up arms as sec- thousand tons of German coal were burnt, and ond to any other regiment in your Majesty's these were used on lines near the German service!” “ They are right,” said the king, border. Since the report was drawn up there "and they shall be 'second to none.' Let has been a considerable enlargement in the them take up their arms as my Coldstream supply to the railways of the Donetz and Mos. regiment of Foot Guards.” Monk rode back cow coal, and the use of petroleum as an ento his regiment and communicated to it the gine fuel has become almost general on the king's decision. It had a magical effect. The lines near the Caucasus. The Russian import arms were instantly raised amid frantic cries duties on foreign coal were increased not long of “Long live the king!” Since this event | ago.

[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]
« VorigeDoorgaan »