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or only one who fancies himself such, to said, to whom, indeed, one ought to have devote himself exclusively to his art, and taken off one's hat. to allow no servile occupation to come Unhappily, Carlyle elected to be poor, between himself and it. Whether the and then bemoaned himself aloud that he highest art has ever been attained under was so. I see no aristocratic quality in such conditions, whether it is good for a this; I see no self-respect; I see nothing man to have no other interests than those to admire. On the contrary, I see everyof his art, and whether the greatest poets thing to deplore and to reprehend. If a and greatest men of letters have lived man makes his owo bed he must lie on it, without doing a certain portion of the and lie on it without tossing about and world's drudgery, is another question, and calling all the world to witness what an one which, reasoning inductively and insufferable couch it is. To follow the from many great examples, I should be bent of your own genius may be a very disposed to answer in the negative. fine thing. But if it is, then let a man
Men by the side of whom, in respect of who does so take the consequences, and genius, Carlyle is a pigmy, men like Dante, remain rigidiy silent concerning any hardSpenser, Shakespeare, Milton, Goethe, ships the divine choice entails. did work that was rather distasteful to The second complaint I have to make of them, and took payment for doing it. Carlyle as a practical moralist, as a man None the less, however, must we honor who has emptied all his drawers, published the man who will not do the world's work all his correspondence, and laid his inmost for it, because he thinks, rightly or thoughts, feelings, and actions before us, wrongly, that doing the world's work will and so become for us either an exemplar injuriously affect his capacity for doing or a warning, is that he speaks of the his own special work.
work he himself elected to do as a burden But this honor, which is honor extended to him, and for the doing of which he not to genius but to character, can be lent was entitled to compassion. It is unnec. only on condition that the person soessary to cite the language, iterated and acting is neglecting no duty to others, and reiterated by him, concerning his torbears uncomplainingly the lot he has him- ments in writing the “ Life of Frederick self chosen.
the Great. They are familiar to all who I will speak of the first of these condi. are familiar with the life of Carlyle. tions when I come to treat of Carlyle's Now, sight should not, of course, be relations with his wife. It is painfully lost of temperament. Some souls are joy. clear that with the second of these condi- ous, some are depressed, some are morose. tions he did not comply. He deliberately If I am answered that Carlyle could not refused to do work that would have been help being what he was, we must bid promptly and amply paid for, and then adieu to all estimates of good and bad, vented himself in perpetual lamentations right and wrong, in daily conduct. I do because people would not pay promptly not profess to solve the riddle of free will or, as yet, at all, for the only work he and predestination. But, for practical would consent to do. Is this admirable ? purposes, we must needs go on saying, To me it seems pitiful and unmanly be. This was praise worthy,"
6. This was yond words. I confess that, in this blameworthy,” and if praise and blame are Golden Age, I find ever more and more words of any value, great blame, it seems difficulty in dissociating the idea of aris- to me, attaches to Carlyle for the attitude tocracy, if not from poverty, at least from he maintained towards his own labors. simplicity and material moderation of So strange to me seems his lack of enjoy. living; and it has seemed to me that an ment in bis work, that I have sometimes aristocracy of letters is all the more feasi- been almost tempted to attribute it to a ble because men of letters are nearly al-foible than which, in a man of letters, ways, by the very conditions of the case, there can be none more unfortunate, viz., men of moderate means. “High thinking delight in the result of his labors, if the and plain living," therefore, if practised result happens to be eulogy and profit, from choice and with assent, appears to instead of delight in the labors themme to be about as satisfactory a definition selves. If a man has got that disease, of aristocracy as one could well wish for. there is no help for him, either within or If, therefore, Carlyle, while responsible without. I am loth, however, to think only for himself, had elected to be im. this of Carlyle, for, if it were so, it would mersed in great literary enterprises and almost annul his claims to be regarded as to remain poor, very poor, in consequence, a man of genius. I will never believe that that is the man, as Thackeray would have genius does not take delight, and find pay, ment of instant pleasure, in the exercise | kind? There are not two dispensations, of its energy. Indeed, I suspect there is one for men of genius, and one for comno such delight as that a man feels when mon folk. The same dispensation governs he revels in the energy of imaginative both; and rebellion in either case, is composition, and, as Shelley expressed it, attended by sharp penalties. When NaWalks with inward glory crowned.
poleon saw Goethe, he exclaimed, “Voilà
un hoinme !” He did not say, “Voilà un I do not believe, therefore, that Carlyle poète !” Napoleon knew that Goethe was did not experience much pleasure, and a great writer, and Napoleon was quite even exultation, in the work of composi. capable of appreciating, great writing. tion. But for every pleasure a price must But what he admired, and justly admired, be paid, and feelings of exultation will in Goethe was his manliness. Goethe obey what Mr. Herbert Spencer calls the was not too proud, or should I not rather law of unstable equilibrium, by making say too impracticable, to take pay from way occasionally for feelings of depres- the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, in order that sion. But why should not a man, and a he and his might live in decent comfort, man of genius of all men, pay the price, and he might secure to himself leisure to and pay it silently?. It is, I conceive, one write “Faust," Wilhelın Meister," his of the sharpest pains and sorest trials a Autobiography,” and the rest. But he man can experience, to feel that the spirit did not spare himself, or bemoan himself, which he knows is within him will not when, because he had accepted this pay speak, and has gone dumb. To be de- and secured this liberty, he had to make serted, if only for a time, by the thing he long journeys to look after the duke's loves and prizes most in the world, is to unprofitable mines, or had to reconcile the take the sunshine out of the sky, the scent conflicting claims of rival prime donne at out of the flowers. Only people who are the duke's theatre. He wrote an immorwhat is called "in love,” and are sepa. tal poem, and at the same time did the rated from the being they wish to be office drudgery of a German privy counalways with, can, imagine, have a due cillor. Voilà un homme ! conception of the sense of loss produced Therefore I can discover no excuse for by the churlish infidelity of the Muse, be Carlyle, happy as I should be to discover it'the historic Muse or any other, on the it, when he expected his genius to find mood of a man who is accustomed to her him in bread and butter, when he refused presence. But lovers are separated; so to replenish the cupboard by the ordinary why not authors and their inspiration ? I means open to ordinary men, or when he Carlyle had only to open his “ Horace," bellows over the pains of the work he had and to read :
himself chosen, as though he were EnceNeque semper arcum
ladus in Etna. Hedging and ditching is Tendit Apollo.
bard work sometimes, as any one who has
watched it may have observed. Driving He had only to turn to Goethe, whom he
a locomotive for fourteen hours on end told other people to read
cannot be very light work. Byron, open your Goethe " - but whom
should we think of the rustic who stopped he himself seems to have read in vain, to
between each shovelsul of dirt to tell us learn that there must be gaps and intervals what a hardship it is to prune and delve? in the productive energy of a man even the most energetic and the most fertile. who got down at each station to inform
or what should we say to the mechanic Nay, he had only to turn to Longfellow; the passengers that the heat, the dust, the whom I suppose he would have despised as a mere jingler, to learn some valuable he could bear? One might almost forgive
rain, and the cold, were alınost more than wisdom on this point, though not put in them if they did so, though they never do, any sensational manner :
for their load is real, and their compensaBe still, sad heart, and cease repining, tions are few. But for a man of genius Behind the clouds is the sun still shining; to complain of his burden of genius, Thy lot is the common lot of all,
that does indeed seem the limit of human Into each cup some drops must fall,
ingratitude. Of all helpful and consoling Some days be dark and dreary.
gifts, surely be possesses the most consol“ The common lot of all.” There it is. ing and the most helpful. Life is full of What right has an author, or an artist, or significance for him, full of interest, full a musician, or any one, whether he have of tragedy, comedy, and endless pathos. genius or have it not, to expect to be ex. The present is his, and the past, and he onerated from the general doom of man. I already participates in the future. He
ou Close your
has only to be ordinarily kindly, and all shrinking, but with some slight conscious. good men will revere, all true women will dess of the dignity of the burden ? love him. He is a privileged being, in. The relations of husband and wife deed. Everywhere he is a welcome guest, ought never to come under the notice of though he brings with him only the halo the world. They are too delicate to be of bis renown; surely a small and sorry laid before so coarse a tribunal, which has return for all that is lavished on him. more curiosity than sympathy or sense of Any rightly constituted being must at justice; and even did it desire to adjudi. times be oppressed with the sense of the cate equitably between them, it is impostremendous contrast between all he has sible to produce the finer but important received, and all he can possibly give. evidence without which no decision apHomer has lived for bim, and Saul, and proximating even to justice is attainable. all the prophets. Pericles has labored, But the relations of Carlyle and his wife Phidias carved and designed, Pindar have, unhappily, been made public; and sung, the Parthenon been built, Athens the blame for the disclosure must be di. opened like a flower, and Rome fallen like vided between Carlyle himself and Mr. a fruit, all for him. He has come into the Froude. Speaking of Mrs. Carlyle's let. world, and he finds there the majestic ters, Mr. Froude says: thoughts of Dante, the Belfry of Giotto, the beauty of Florence, nay, the whole these Letters, though he anxiously desired it.
Mr. Carlyle did not order the publication of of beautiful, bountiful Italy before him. He left the decision to Mr. Forster, Mr. John Galileo, and Kepler, and Copernicus, and Carlyle, and myself. Mr. Forster and Mr. Newton, have discovered for him the John Carlyle having both died in Mr. Carmarch of the stars, and interpreted for lyle's lifetime, the responsibility fell entirely him the procession of the heavens. For upon me. Mr. Carlyle asked me a few months him Harvey surmised and proved the before his end what I meant to do. I told him physical secret of his being; and a band that when the Reminiscences had been pubof laborious therapeuts have bequeathed lished, I had decided that the Letters might him charms and spells with which to ward
and should be published also. Mr. Carlyle off disease, to coax sleep, to baffle pain. requested in his will that my judgment in the
matter should be accepted as his own. To him Shakespeare has left as a legacy all bis wisdom, all his wit, all his imag- It is impossible, therefore, if my idea of ination.
what is right in such a matter be correct,
to exoneraie either Carlyle or Mr. Froude. For me your tributary stores combine,
Why should the world have been admitted Creation's heir, the world, the world is mine. to the sanctuary of the hearts of Carlyle
and his wife? Is it because Carlyle was And what has he given in return? In a distinguished man of letters ? I protest most cases, nothing; in all cases, very that this is no reason for violating a rule little. Even the man of genius makes but which is applicable to the whole of man. a poor bequest to posterity, in comparison kind, to the high as to the lowly, no less with what he inherited from his ancestors; to the eminent than to the obscure. Is it while he has inherited far more than ordi. because it was necessary to a due comnary men, for he has received the gift, a prehension of Carlyle's character? I progratuitous and unearned boon, of a special test again that no stranger was entitled to power of appreciating what he has inher: a comprehension of Carlyle's character. ited, together with ihe opportunity and All that he is entitled to is a comprehenthe capacity to add a little something, at sion of Carlyle's published works. Is it least, to the accumulated treasures of because it was necessary to do justice to mankind. How such a one can complain, Mrs. Carlyle? The answer to that too and can feel anything but continual and obviously is, that she has, by the publicaunutterable thankfulness, passes my com- tion of her letters, been dethroned from a prehension.
pedestal she might otherwise have occuUnfortunately, Carlyle had neither the pied without any damage to her husband; stoicism of the pagan, nor the humility of and though the letters prove her to have the Christian; and without one or the been a martyr, she was a martyr who other — better for him if he have both - called the attention of her friends to the a man is badly equipped for the sweetness fact that she was a martyr whose torand the severity of life. Each of us is a mentor was her own husband. The reve. litile Atlas in his way, with a portion of lation is deplorable, and was gratuitous. the world upon his shouiders. Ought we Mr. Froude tells us, in effect, he was not to accept the load, not only without authorized by Carlyle to suppress the
letters, if he thought proper. I will go bound to do this, even if the result had so far as to say that, even without that been that no siogle line of what be him. authorization, he ought to have suppressed self wished to write could, in consequence, them.
ever see the light. I have said that the The whole world, however, has read two things could have been done, and them; and the verdict of a considerable done easily, and have been done, over and portion of the world is, and will remain, over again, by men of genius who were to quote
Mrs. Carlyle's own words, men before they were anything else – in " When you marry a man of geoius, you other words, by men brave and gentle. must take the consequences.”
Carlyle did not do this. It is said that I believe the assumption that underlies Bernard de Palissy burned his wife's bed, that inference to be utterly unjust. When when other fuel failed him, in bis reyou have married any man you must take searches after a particular enamel. If he the consequences. But I suppose it is did, he was an enthusiast, if you like, but equally true that when you have married a selfish and unmanly enthusiast. Your any woman you must take the conse. own bed, yes, and yourself into the bar. quences. Fortunately, there are not many gain, if you like. But your wife's bed, men who are like Carlyle, and there are never! What is any man and his trumonly a limited number of women who are pery enamels, or, for that matter, his as unwise as Mrs. Carlyle was in one par. truinpery essays, histories, or poems, ticular point. His general treatment of compared with his duty to shelter from her, arising out of the defects of his na. the rain and the wind the delicate creature ture, was intolerable; her resentment with that has given herself to him? him on account of his intellectual intimacy I am not insensible to the fact that the with another woman, was ridiculous. But wives of men of genius have sometimes there is many a man, not a man of genius treated their husbands as though they had nor a man of letters, who has treated his no genius, or as though their genius was wife just as insufferably as Carlyle; and of no account, and as though their chief many a woman, not the wife of a man of mission in life was to make money and genius or man of letters, who has been as provide their wives with the same luxu. jealous as Mrs. Carlyle, with just as little ries as are provided for women whose
husbands are on the Stock Exchange. If That is the point I am anxious to urge; any man of genius have a wife of this sort, and it will be seen, I trust, that the whole he should be adamant against her efforts purport of my remarks is to establish that to degrade him. He should take care she men of genius are entitled to no privilege, has everything that is necessary, and he in respect of conduct, which does not will even strain the point and give her belong to men who have no genius, and more than is necessary, and, in so doing, that the wives of men of genius have, as a he will take care to reconcile his duty to rule, no more to put up with from their her with his duty to his genius. If this husbands than, as a rule, befalls women does not satisfy her, then, with regret, but who marry ordinary men.
without hesitation, he will allow her to I have said that Carlyle had a right, if remain dissatisfied. he chose, to refuse to write for the Times Mrs. Carlyle was no such woman. On newspaper, or for any newspaper, or to do the material side, she was an angel of any work other than that which it pleased light, and any man worth his salt would him to do, provided he was prepared to have kissed' the hands that scrubbed accept the material conseqences of his those floors, painted those wardrobes, and refusal with silence and resignation, and mended those garınents. provided others were not dependent on I wish she had been as robust on the him for reasonable material comfort. moral side, and then she would have been But it so happens that there was some a heroine and a saint indeed.
For a one dependent on him, and that was his woman to have a monopoly of a man, in wife. Even if she had not been bound. any department of him, is, if one judges lessly good to him, even if she had not inductively, rather against the law of naadmired and believed in his genius, and ture than in conformity with it, and hapmade sacrifice of material comfort and pens only, as I hope it happens often, position in order to marry him and be his ihanks to the law of love or the law of helpmate, he would still have been bound grace. But to suppose that a woman, any to see that she was protected from penury, woman, is to have the monopoly of a financial worries, and drudgery injurious man's intellect and genius, and that no to her health; and he would have been other woman is to offer him sympathy,
admiration, and encouragement, is a pre. But enough. In conduct, as in style, tension that needs only to be stated to be all violence is weakness, and most weakdismissed. Mrs. Carlyle advanced this ness ends in violence. Carlyle was vio. pretension, and bitterly she had to pay lent, therefore he was weak. He was for it.
weak, and therefore he was violent. He But that we should have learned all lacked this, and with the consent of Carlyle him
serenity of soul, self, is deplorable. If he wanted to do Which, of itself, shows immortality.* penance for his behavior to his wise, I
ALFRED AUSTIN. should have thought that, in his case, silence would have been penance enough.
* Mapfred, Act ii., Scene 1. As it is, he only attributes to himself unconscious blindness, which is not to accuse oneself of a fault at all. If I am to speak my whole mind upon the subject, it seeins to me that he was such a stupen
From Chambers' Journal.
ARTIFICIAL JEWELS. dous egotist that he would not admit him. self to have been in the wrong, nor admit The trade in artificial jewels has bethat his wife was in the wrong, but that come very extensive during the last halfhe wished everybody to believe, what he century, and the chemical experiments in believed himself, that his father, his wife, which various qualities of imitation diaand himself, were the three most remark. monds, rubies, sapphires, and emeralds able people that ever lived.
are produced have been recently carried It is neither necessary nor becoming on with an astonishing amount of success. for men of letters or men of genius to It is becoming more and more difficult, bring their personal trials and sufferings even to the eye of the expert, to distin. before the world. Ordinary men have to guish readily between the real and the bear these things as best they can, and false gem, when they do not shine in too without profit of any kind. Men of gen. close proximity. ius can learn wisdom from them, and use The most distinctive feature of the real them in time as materials for their art. stone is its hardness, though even this Then their trials become transfigured and quality has been imitated with considera. glorified; and nobody is any the worse, ble success. The term "hardness" is and mankind is so much the richer. The used by the lapidary and mineralogist to vulgar world has always craved to know denote the power of one stone to scratch if there was not some conjugal difference another; it must not be considered as the underlying that“ second-best bed” Shake power of resisting a blow, for many crysspeare bequeathed to his wife. Happily talline stones which are very hard are also the vulgar world remaios in ignorance easily fractured. The diamond, which upon that subject. If Shakespeare's wife will stratch any other stone, can be more was a termagant, perhaps she helped her easily broken than many stones which husband, unintentionally, to write “ The are less hard. After the diamond come Taming of the Shrew.”
the ruby and sapphire, which are the next But do men of letters and men of genius hardest stones; then emeralds, topazes, usually comport themselves like Carlyle ? and quartz or rock-crystal; and finally, a I protest they do not. I could adduce number of other stones, and glass or artimen of letters in crowds to discredit the icial stones. assumption. But let any one look at the The beautiful “ French paste” which living. Why should I hesitate to name imitates the diamond so well, is a kind of them? The poet laureate is one of the glass into which a certain quantity of glories of our time; and it is notorious oxide of lead is introduced. The more that his domestic life is as beautiful, as lead it contains the more brilliant is the peaceful, and as full of charm, as one of artificial stone; but the lead gives softhis own poems. Was there ever a better ness — so much so, that we have known
wife and mother than that stupendous such artificial gems to become, by friction genius, Elizabeth Barrett Browning; and with other harder substances, quite dull was any woman more touchingly on the surface after being worn for some commemorated than she by her distin- time. guished and blameless husband ? Is But the latest chemical experiments on there any citizen alive more honored, more the production of artifical stones for use respected, and more deserving of honor in jewellery point very clearly to the fact and respect, than Mr. Matthew Arnold? that further success in this direction is