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From All The Year Round. them from doing something to provide

pensions for all these idle mouths. The The victories of the republic,” we ironworks at La Gandumas, their other are sometimes told, “ were won by the old château, were still working; and the mar soldiers of the royal armies." It may be shal, a thorough aristocrat, as proud of so. Certainly at the beginning the repub- bis descent as a Spanish grandee, used to licans made a poor hand of it. But joke about his grandfather having been a France undoubtedly us soldiers smit who earned a lot of money for his by casting out her noblesse. They were idle son to make ducks and drakes of. hereditary fighters; and, grand though it There was always a good deal of Italian is for the career to be so freely open to common sense in regard to trade among talent that stable-boys, small tapsters, and the French Doblesse of the south. From gardeners' sons may win the marshal's the first introduction of glass-blowing they bâton, still hereditary aptitude counts for bad seized on that as a noble craft, the a good deal; and Bugeaud, who was of idea being that it was work with the that small pobility which always (as our mouth, not with the bands. How the own civil war shows) stands up most Marquises of La Piconnerie reconciled stiffly for its privileges, became as able a ironfounding with the pride of Perigord marshal as a very son of the people like nobility, I do not know; but they did Soult. He was Thomas Robert Bugeaud somehow, and thus in spite of inconvende la Piconnerie, youngest child of the iently large families managed to rub on. marquis of that ilk, by Françoise, daugh. The marshal's father did what he could to ter of Count Sutton de Clonard, who ruin them. He did not, indeed, go to came also of a fighting stock; for the court, and waste his money at Versailles ; Suttons belonged to that Irish brigade, he had not money enough to think of that. which we lost and France gained after the But instead of dividing his time between capitulation of Limerick. Both families his two châteaux, like an exemplary countook their share of war by sea as well as try squire, he lived in the family mansion land. A Sutton de Clonard was second in Golden Jug Street, Limoges; and there in command in La Peyrouse's ill-fated our marshal was born in 1784, and was at expedition, and Ambroise, an elder broth. once destined for the Church (being third er of our marshal, was serving under him; son), his title from his cradle being M. the former perished, the latter came bome. l'Abbé. Certainly the châteaux were not Bugeaud was one of a family of seven; inviting. The word is deceptive; one his father- - a man of a terrible temper, thinks of a castle, when one ought to be who has got mixed up in the legend of the thinking of something very much less Grand Veneur, and is still thought by the dignified than those manor-houses turned peasantry to haunt the woods of La Du- into farmhouses of which modern improve. rantie at night, on a great white horse, ments (?) have still left us a good many in with eyes of fire, following a pack of fierce some counties. dogs, and attended by a troop of squires In Ireland, where the landlords and the as wild as himself - was one of twenty- farmers look on one another pretty much three.

as noblesse and peasants did in France In those days the Church was the re. before the Revolution, one might find a source of younger sons and of unmar- good many " castles

as poverty.stricken riageable daughters. The eldest son got as La Durantie; but they would not have the property; the second, the chevalier, the attempts at ornament - in summer payait de sa personne for the family's priv- bunches of flowers in the very old earthenilege of nobility by serving his Majesty. ware vases; in winter trophies” of beetHe was bound to go into the army, unless roots and apples, and miniature sheaves bodily disqualification prevented him. 01 – which lighted up the low, dark living

Of – . the rest, those who had no stomach for room. fighting might become abbés if they were This room had a rough, unplaned floor worldly-minded, monks if they were really laid on the bare earth; but then there was religious. The La Piconneries were like a fine walnut sideboard across the whole the rest, and, when the first breath of the of one end, and a massive table to match. Revolution blew down the religious In one bedroom was a looking-glass, and houses of Perigord and Limousin, the two grand old bedsteads with splendid marquis gave up La Durantie to a whole silk curtains. The hall and kitchen were colony of uncles, cousins, and aunts who pitched with cobbles; and round the other had got turned out of their convents. sides of the quadrangle were cellar, barn, Their nobility, however, had not hindered workshops, storerooms. The courtyard

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had a big manure-heap in the middle. In and, finding sabots soon wore out in cross a field in the middle of the farm was a country rambles, he made himself sandals tower, sole remnant of the feudal hold of with cherry-bark and string.

Want of La Piconnerie, said to have been destroyed shoes often kept his sisters within doors by the English.

for months. Well, the Revolution came, and the no- Once an invitation came to a grand bles had a bad time of it. Patrick, the wedding in the neighborhood. The girls. eldest of the La Piconnerie family, a spoilt could not go — that was settled at once – child whom his father had always kept and his patched grey frieze would not do with him at Limoges, emigrated, so did for the brother to go in. Just as he had the sailor, Ambroise. The father and decided to refuse, one of them remem. mother and youngest daughter were put bered to have seen in a closet in the loft in prison. The eldest daughter was mar- a suit that some marquis had worn at ried ; the second, Phillis, the marshal's Louis the Fifteenth's court. Brushed, good genius through life, was then sixteeu and altered a little by the sisters this anyears old, and at once began, along with swered very well, and the delighted boy the third daughter, to make shirts, stitch- got three days' dancing at his first party. ing away from morning to night to main. So things went on till Thomas was in his tain those in prison. The future marshal, eighteenth year.

He was passionately seven years old, cooked, ran errands, and fond of field sports - used to try to make took home the work when it was done. his sisters care for them; woke them up Phillis was very beautiful; and her niece one hard winter night to look at a flight hints that on this account she was often of woodcocks waddling in the moonlight summoned before the Revolutionary tribu. over the hard snow. But there was “no nal. Thomas went with her; and either future” in field sports, so he tried

get her beauty or the quiet courage of the a clerkship in some large ironworks.

“I children so impressed the judges, that don't want a gentleman for clerk,” replied sentence on their parents was delayed and the ironmaster. “ The army is the place delayed, till, just after their condemnation, for you: you will do well there." Robespierre died, and all prisoners were So he went, by no means enthusiastic, set free. The mother soon died not assuring Sister Phillis that after three or till she had seen little Thomas get his first four years he should take his discharge. school prize; and the father, giving him. Napoleon had a weakness for the old self up to Limoges life, sent his daughters noblesse; and so Thomas was able, in and his youngest boy to live in the old 1804, to get into the Vélites (Light Divichâteau. One wonders why he did not sion) of the Grenadiers of the Guard, emigrate like his elder sons, for his com- quartered at Fontainebleau

a corps ing to the château was always a terror to which the first consul meant to be a the children, none of whom were allowed nursery for officers. He found it a hard to speak to him unless they were spoken life scanty food (“How I longed,” he

“Never once," said the marshal, says, " for the chestnuts and potatoes that “ did he give me a single caress. I do I used to roast while out shooting !"), and not remember his ever kissing me once." even his rations he made scantier by sell.

At La Durantie the children were not ing bread to buy books. Candles were alone. There were two old aunts, with too expensive, so he used to wait till the nothing but their spinning-wheels, and rest were asleep, and then study by the some clerical uncles, driven out of their smoky barrack lamp. The old soldiers monasteries. But the young people were could not bear his white hands, beardless left to themselves, and young Thomas chin, red hair, and love of books. Mess used to get up at daybreak and go out in those days was a primitive affair. A with his gun, and generally managed by ring of men stood round the soup-bowl, dinner-time to have got something to help and each, by turn, dipped in bis spoon. out the chestnuts and potatoes which One day, Thomas was so hungry that he were their staple sare. In the afternoons forgot and took two spoonfuls. The old his sisters taught him what little they had soldiers rushed at him, and one of them learnt in the convent school, and they all shouted, as he came on, “ With all your got up scenes of Molière and Racine by geography and your mathematics, you are heart, and acted them. In the evening he only a confounded greenhorn!” wherewent off to fish with the country lads of upon the lad, losing his temper tos Alvaro his own age, most of whom grew up as the contents of the bowl in his ace. A farmers on the estate. He had no shoes, I duel followed, and Thomas illed his


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man; * but though this saved him from | kerseymere breeches and silk stockings further annoyance, it did not make him as soon as one is off duty." Before long happy. He was constantly bemoaning he tells Phillis he is hoping to get into his hard fate, and the poverty which had society through the lady in reduced cirforced him to enlist, in letters to Sister cumstances of whom he rents a room for Phillis,t and when off duty he would wan. his private lessons; and he begs for a der into Fontainebleau Forest, and pour recommendation from some Perigord reforth his woes at the foot of a tree. One lation to help him to get into the theoretiday, when life seemed more unbearable cal class. “ No one gets into it without even than usual, a comrade happened to interest; talents count for nothing, and meet him, and calling out, " What are you no one is made a sub-officer who does not about, you fool ? Don't cry like a calf. get into it." The regimental school he Come to the laundresses' ball!” took him found a perfect farce. 6. There are three by the arm, and, before long, had him hundred in the drawing.class!” But dancing with one of the prettiest girls in worse than this was the order against hirthe rooin. “ I was mad for dancing,” he ing rooms in the town. This cut him off wrote to Phillis – he told her everything from his private lessons; he groans to “ The ball did me a deal of good, and I Phillis about the difficulty of even writing did not go nearly so often to weep among a letter, ten in a room, with one small the big trees.”

table, and very few caring for anything Before long he had got ambitious. He but making a noise. Hswever, he had found that the only way to advancement got popular with his chiefs. A friend was

“ to attract the notice of the chiefs ; " arrested on his way to fight a duel, and and so, though he was annoyed that most was ordered to state his case on paper. of the officers were men of low birth and 1 His wrist was sprained, and Bugeaud, small means, he tells Phillis how he who had been his second, had to write for bragged of himself as a thorough Nimrod, him. in order to get friends with a captaio who The commandant, Chéry, was very was said to have sporting tastes.

pleased with his production, and often It is curious, to find that, in Fontaine employed him as bis secretary; "and so bleu, "the soldier” was exceedingly un. I have had the pleasure of seeing his popular. Although the Vélites were a daughters, who are very ladylike.” It special corps, they were looked on with shows how things had changed since the contempt, and, strange to say, the officers republic had abolished all titles, to find shared the same fate. Thomas tells Phil. the chiefs addressing him as M. de la lis there is only one Vélite who mixes in Piconnerie. In his letters he good society, and that because he has strange mixture — the date anno Domini, relations in it. So Thomas devotes his the month frimaire, or nivôse, as the case leisure to working at English and geogra. may be. Still, favor does not make him phy, goes to mass on Sunday, and hears a contented. He has got off guard-mountsermon, and says his prayers, and is never ing and patrol duty, and has been aplaughed at for so doing - “several more pointed instructor, has to superintend a do the saine." Of course he is hard up, two hours' lesson. “I am as happy as and gruinbles that his trustee - his father possible – for a soldier; but my love of was dead - is very backward in paying his soldiering diminishes every day. He is allowance. Nevertheless, he acts on Po. afraid of being a private all his days, and lonius's advice, “Costly thy habit as thy longs to get into the Military School, bepurse can buy,” and says, “ It is only the cause “one can really learn ihere, and is louts who go about all day in uniform. sure to come out sub-lieutenant." HowIf one does not want to be thought a ever, the pope arrives at Fontainebleau, nobody, one has to put on pankeen or and the emperor, driving in to receive his

Holiness, actually says a few words to the • He had the same luck in his two other duels. In smart young Vélite, who had begged to go Austria, a sergeant began to insult the daughters of a house where they were quartered. Bugeaud expostu- on guard during the imperial visit, and lated, and they fought. The sergeant was killed on the had the good luck to be stood sentry at spot.'. So was Deputy Dulong, who, in 1834, insulted Madame Bonaparte's rooms. “I saw her him about his having been "gaoler" of the Duchess of

several times, and had a quarter of an + His love for sister Phillis lasted all his life. At a hour's talk with a very pretty and amiable family dinner, a little before he died, he said something that vexed her, and thought he saw a tear. Jumping lady of her suite.” 'The corps goes to up, and throwing himself on her neck, the old marshal Paris for the coronation, and Bugeaud burst into tears, crying: “Oh, my darling sister, have does not know whether most to admire I really, made you weep? Why, 1 shall never forgive the splendor of gilded coaches with eight myself I"



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horses, illuminations, fireworks, and foun. emperor promised to keep bis distance so tains running with wine, “everything look- long as they were victorious ;“ but, if you ing heavenly,” or to moan over the dis- hesitate an instant, you will see me fly comfort of marching four miles from bar- into your ranks to restore order." After racks, and then standing every day in the the victory they had another speech, be. freezing wind as stiff as a post, and al. ginning with, “Soldiers, I am pleased ways presenting arms.

with you," and ending, after a promise of He caught cold; and when it was all speedy peace, with something like Henry over, broke down, and had to hire a car. the Fifth's harangue before Agincourt: riage back to Fontainebleau, where he “If any one can say, 'I was at Austerwent into hospital, and fell to thinking of litz, men will cry out, .He's a brave his dog and gun at La Durantie so man.'

The young corporal — for Ausmuch better than this silly ambition. ... terlitz gained him his stripes was sent Perhaps my pathetic tone makes you back to depôt in France, and soon after think I'm weak; but if you knew how was gazetted as sub-lieutenant. He still hard it is for a man of any spirit to be thought of throwing up the army, gives a soldier, you would think otherwise." this as his reason for not caring to win Meanwhile, his consolation for not being over an ill-tempered colonel, and hungered among the two hundred sent to Italy, and to come back home and take to farming ; being just too late to volunteer, is that though at La Durantie things were not some of the corps must soon be made very flourishing. When he visited them corporals, and that corporal in the guard in July, 1806, they could only give him ranks with sergeant-major in the line. ten louis and a horse — particularly un. His regiment is sent, at twenty-four hours' pleasant, because he found the life expennotice, to the camp at Boulogne, and with sive; his theory being that “the way to active service the grumbling at once attract notice is to make a display.” Yet ceases, and the letters are full of spirited he had a good time of it on his way back accounts of sea-drills, in which the young from France to the Grand Army - a carlandsmen of the guard throw things into riage and four, without spending a penny; confusion by pulling the wrong ropes. and by-and-by, five villages, occupied by The English at Wimereux take advantage bis detachment, as much in his power as of the confusion, and the Vélite sees some if he had been a feudal baron. He is sharp fighting. But Admiral la Touche greatly disgusted at the way the Germans Tréville died, and Villeneuve (whom Na. are treated: “Everybody eats them up, poleon called "a wretch who deserves to from the general to the ranker. Some of be hooted out of the service. He would the generals give banquets that cost six do anything to save his skin") had not hundred forins, and all at the cost of the dash enough. At least, that was the ex. people. Keep this to yourself. You need cuse for breaking up the camp and hurry. not think that I spend anything but what ing the troops off across Europe, “at the I am obliged to; and I pay my innrate of eighty leagues a week, with all our keeper.” kettles, spades, etc., on our backs," moans Before long he got his first wound, and Bugeaud, who also was disgusted at the with it his lieutenancy, at Pultusk. Gofowl and bacon and firewood stealing; ing to be nursed at Warsaw, " that Capua though he adds: “When I am hungry, I of the north," he cannot resist a masked secretly tolerate such conduct.” He was ball, in the midst of which bis wound be. in at the capitulation of Ulin, but had no gins to bleed, and is next day as bad as fighting at all till Austerlitz, though once So he is sent to depôt at Besançon, (after having been five days without bread) missing Eylau and Friedland, which Na. his corps had to stand before the enemy a poleon called “the daughter of Marengo." whole day and night, while it was raining, At Berlin he found the French most popsnowing, and hailing by turns. Of course ular, " because we are so free from pride he longed for a charge; nay, by-and-by he - such a contrast to their own insolent began to hope that one of the shots that officers." were mowing down the French files He was very ill, and a Berlin doctor atwould cut bin off. The looting of vil. tended him for nothing, assuring him he lages pleased bim as little as standing was only too glad to be of service to a under fire and weather for twenty hours : French officer. When his wound was “ The profession of a hero is so much like well, he got six months' leave, and found that of a brigand that I hate it with my the charms of home life so strong that he whole soul."

actually sent in his resignation. His At last they got to Austerlitz, where the youngest sister, who had the posting of


the letter, locked it up in a drawer; and of France, and when he came to the front, while he was deep in the study of farm- there could be for them no other sovering, came an order to join at once. He eign. was sent to Spain, and was at Saragossa, The Fourteenth was not at Waterloo. where he took part in the desperate house It had to make head against the Austroto house fighting. The casualties to offi- Sardinians on the side of Savoy, and here, cers were excessive; the Spaniards always while the empire was being killed out in aimed at them. He got his company; but Belgium, Bugeaud captured two Piedhe hated the war, for he could not help montese brigades, and with one thousand admiring the gallant stand made by the seven hundred men gave a desperate beatSpaniards. He was under Suchet, who ing to General Trenck at the head of ten took a liking to him, as did General Abbé, thousand Austrians, killing two thousand who, after Tivisa, told him :“Young man, and taking nine hundred prisoners. Had I think I may promise you you will be telegraphs or even railways existed in chef de bataillon before the year's end.” those days, all these Austrians, and the At Lerida he was made captain of the first French wbo were killed in killing them, company of grenadiers, which, he tells would have been spared, for the battle Phillis, adds six hundred francs to his was not fought till June 28th. Bugeaud, yearly pay. At Ordal he had his only like Soult on the side towards the Pyrebrush with our troops, and next day he nees, was fighting long after the armistice captured an English officer and thirty-five had been signed. But news travelled horsemen. “ They might say God' dam slowly, and when it came could scarcely as much as they liked, they had to surren- get credited. der.” Had he been on that side of Spain Among the prisoners was a Frenchman, where we were in force, very probably one of the Macarthys of Toulouse, who Algeria would never have been con- had two fine carriage-horses which he quered; as it was, he got praise from wished to ransom. Bugeaud spoke like Suchet, and a letter from General Ha- balf-a-dozen marquises rolled into one. rispe, which he sent to his sisters; but “The Macarthy's of Toulouse are surely Suchet was out of favor at the War Office, related to those of Bordeaux, who are my and so instead of getting a regiment, as a cousins. Pray accept the horses, sir; and man who took thirty-six English ought, for the sake of your noble name, command Bugeaud was only made major; at any me in anything else I can do for you." rate, he ought to have got his pay, which In May, 1815, Napoleon had raised was always in arrear. Very soon it was Bugeaud to be a commander of the Legion all hurry-skurry back into France; the of Honor, just two months after he had Allies were pouring in on all sides, and made him an officer of the Legion; and from the north of Spain the French were this told so heavily against the colonel, driven out. “My heart bleeds to hear that the Bourbons at once put him on about it all," writes Bugeaud to Phillis. half pay, Indeed, for some time, his life I

say no more. I am too much pained.” was in danger from that White Terror, In the east, Suchet, of whom Napoleon which, on a small scale, was just as horrisaid, “What a pity sovereigns can't create ble as the Red Terror of Robespierre and men like that,” marched out unopposed. company. However, he got safe to La Bugeaud was quartered at Orleans, and Durantie, and for the next fifteen years the king - the emperor having disap- gave himself up to farming, learning to peared – made him colonel over the heads mow and plough, and founding the first of several old officers; a marquis's son agricultural society that was started in was sure to be a pet under the Restora. France. After 1815, many a brave officer tion. Orleans was en fête, and a Royalist sank into utter idleness, and became a song, signed Bugeaud, Colonel, was print- haunter of cafés - a chevalier d'indus. ed and sung when the Duchess of Angou. trie, living on what he won at cards or lême came there. Nevertheless, he went billiards. But Bugeaud was lifted out of with the rest when the Hundred Days be this slough of despond by his country gan. His enemies said he was so eager tastes, and by that sense of noblesse oblige à Bonapartist that he made his soldiers which is the only thing that makes old mount the tricolor before marching them descent worth anything. The farming out of Orleans; but this is stoutly denied, in his country was as wretched as when and the Count of Chambord's high opin- Arthur Young was in France just be. jon of him seems to disprove it. The fore the Revolution. Changes of many fact is, the officers of the Grand Army kinds there had been, but still there were looked on Napoleon as the impersonation the meagre, half-starved vine-stocks, the

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