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and those which he has saved have prob- ried back in thought to the springtimes ably not done remarkably well. Then he of the past, and to many a ramble along discovers that it does not answer to take the deep country lanes. There is no the forist's catalogue, and send for the flower so inextricably bound up with all plants which have the prettiest descrip- the most touching and cherished associations attached to them. He must find out tions of early life. But when all is said the particular kinds which will suit his that can be said for other flowers, the soil and climate, and rest satisfied, per- rose remains queen; and therefore the haps, with a few of the hardiest varieties, gardener should persevere till he finds for even if he makes up his mind to im- that he can grow it. By the “gardener port new soil into his garden, he cannot as we mean the owner, not the person who readily change the climate. The frost is employed to look after the place, for, in will kill some of his family, too much rain too many instances, little help or comfort or too little will vanquish others, but must be looked for from him. throughout the struggle hope and expec. One of the greatest drawbacks, in fact, tation are continually alive, and sometimes of country life under the circumstances when he goes out in the morning a glad which we are imagining - that is, in conwelcome awaits bim, in the shape of an nection with moderate means – is the dif“ Alfred K. Williams” or a “Comtesse de ficulty of getting a thoroughly competent Serenye,” a “ Dupuy Jamain "oran Ege- and trustworthy gardener — the sort of ria,” a “Sénateur Vaisse " “ Mlle. man who is described in William Lawson's Bonnaire"

the last too lovely and fragile forgotten little book, just quoted. • Hon. for this rough world. One of the most estie in a gardner,” says he, “will grace extensive rose-growers in England has your garden and all your house, and helpe ceased to cultivate it, so lengthy was his to staye unbrideled Servingmen, giving return of “casualties” every season. The offence to none, not calling your name best advice that can be given to any one into question by dishonest acts, nor inwho is about to try his fortune with roses, fecting your family by evill counsell or is to choose as many varieties as he has example. For there is no plague so inroom for of the hybrid perpetuals, and fectious as Popery and Knavery; bee will fiod out gradually which take the most not purloine jour profit, nor hinder your kindly to his garden. He must not be pleasures.” And again he says, above tending the flowers with his own gardiner hath not need be an idle or lazie hand; no one can grow roses, or any lubber,” for “there will ever bee some other noble flower, who is not at all times thing to doe. Weedes are alwayes grow. willing to watch over their welfare, and to ing. The great mother of all living creaminister to them gently whenever they tures, the earth, is full of seed in her are in trouble. He will be ready in times bowels.” In these old days there must of emergency, when other help is not at have been no dearth of accomplished band, to convey the liquid manure from gardeners. Evelyn, in speaking of the the tank which he has prudently built to grounds at Cassiobury, says that they the plants which are perishing for lack of “are very rare, and cannot be otherwise, it, to hunt for the rose.grub, and to pre having so skilsul an artist to govern them pare his decoction of quassia and soft as Mr. Cooke, who is, as to the mechanic soap for the green fils Everything you part, not ignorant in mathematics, and see,” said Archbishop Sancroft to a friend pretends to astrology.” We are well sat. who visited him in his garden, “is the isfied nowadays when our gardeners can work of my own hands, though I am bor- till the soil properly, without requiring dering on eighty years of age.” He had them to cast nativities. The inconvenan old woman to weed, and a man to dig, ience of having to deal with thoroughly but for the “nicer work,” said he, “I incompetent persons will not, it is need. trust to no other hand but my own, so less to say, be felt by those who keep five long at least as my health will allow me or six or more gardeners, with a gentle. to enjoy so pleasing an occupation.” man in a black coat to walk round once There is no other road to success but or twice a day tapping a flower-pot, to asthis. And it is worth putting forth every certain whether the watering has been effort to cultivate roses, for when they attended to. come to their perfection, what is there to Gardening on a small scale has to be equal them? Form, color, perfume – all carried on under different conditions. are there. The violet is sweet, and so is Anybody thinks he is fit to manage a garthe faint fragrance of the primrose - no den, and that the only qualifications necone ever inhaled that without being car-essary are the ability to handle a spade,

VOL. XLVIII. 2480

The

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and the possession of a combination of everybody else for miles around, and ignorance and obstinacy in equal parts. whose seeds are invariably eaten up by No preliminary training, no adaptability, the mice. Every one who has a garden no peculiar intelligence, no special taste could write a long and doleful history of even for the occupation, seems to be his losses, brought about chiefly by the thought necessary. And yet all these thoughtlessness or ignorance of his garqualifications are indispensable, for gar- dener. We would not, of course, be under. dening is an art, and it cannot be ap- stood to condemn the whole class far proached in too humble a spirit. But the from it. Many excellent men, in every average gardener thinks that he knows all way to be trusted, follow the vocation, and about it when he begins; he is not willing sometimes may be had at very moderate to learn; any suggestion from one better wages. But we doubt very much whether informed than himself he resents as a well ordered garden is ever seen, which personal injury. When he is not a "lazie does not owe most of its good points to lubber," he very likely “purloines your the watchful eye of the master or mistress. profit,” or considerably * binders

your We leave any one to judge for himself pleasures.” The “rubbish" "

that is, what must be the pleasure of a garden, the old-fashioned plants must be pulled when we say that they compensate a hun. up, or surreptitiously killed by neglect dred times over for all the trials at which and ill-treatment. By some hitherto un. we have glanced. When Warren Hast. discovered law, it seems to be fated that ings, after being stretched on the rack of the man who is going into a garden of his long trial, "looked round for some his own for the first time should run the source of consolation, he did not go to gauntlet of all the worthless members of London, but to his garden, and the medthe guild. He will begin by falling into icine succeeded so well that it kept him the merciless clutch of the gardener who alive till he was eighty-four. It was much is of opinion that the local greengrocer the same with Bolingbroke, who wrote to has a better right than his employer to Swift, " I have caught hold of the earth, the early vegetables and the choice fruit. to use a gardener's phrase, and neither This man has probably had experience," my friends nor my enemies will find it an and he detects at a glance that his em- easy matter to transplant me again." But ployer has had none. For a year or two if we attempted to enumerate the famous the property will practically be his own, men who have found encouragement unwithout the usual disadvantage of owner- der adversity or in retirement in gardenship attached — that of being called upon ing, or to record all they have said and to pay the rent and expenses. His man written upon the subject, no number of ner is insidious; he seems to have a quick the Quarterly Review would be large eye for the capabilities of the place, and enough for our purpose. his operations of conveying the produce Those who crave for a new interest in from the garden to the local dealer are life may satisfy themselves abundantly skilfully concealed. This is a difficult by imitating these great examples. No man to deal with, for unless he is in great man's time need ever hang heavily on his haste to set up a greengrocery of his own, hands after he has once thoroughly unhis depredations can rarely be tracked. derstood what it is to have and to enjoy a At length, however, he is sure to over- garden. It is the other danger that he reach himself, and then he is succeeded has to guard against, for there is so much by an excellent gardener, with a sound to attend to, and so many things to be knowledge of his business - a man who seen, that the half-hour's walk round the can at once take all anxiety from his em- garden is very likely to expand into an ployer's mind. He has but one defect. bour, and the hour into two, especially if Just as the time comes when his services the claims of work elsewhere are not very are most necessary, in the planting season, urgent. The garden is always tugging at or when the bedding-out is to be done, he him to go out. It is a new world, and all is found rolled up under a bench in the the books that were ever written can teach tool-shed, steeped in drink, or is seen very little about it. Experience has to be staggering about the garden with a fork learnt or bought. The best record of a in his hand, furious at some imaginary garden that we know of is that by the late wrong. Then follows the dirty and mud. Mr. Alfred Smee, who seems to have dled man, whose walks and flower-beds grown most things that are beautiful or are always full of weeds and litter, and worth having.* Every plant, flower, or who neither sows nor gathers in at the proper time; the man who is behind * Mr. Robinson's work, “The English Flower Gar

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fruit, is carefully figured in his book. It growth of trees even in the early stage; a is not often that the amateur gardener tree need not be sixty feet high to be a will refer to it for a hint without finding source of gentle satisfaction to its planter. what he seeks. Happy must have been some of our English varieties push them. the man who had such a garden, and could selves very slowly upwards, and hence it indulge his favorite tastes by producing is that they are not now so generally so luxurious a book about it. Both must planted as quickly growing trees of for. have cost no small sum of money. We eign origin, such as the Wellingtonia do not attempt to establish for gardening giganteu and the Cupressus Lawsoniana, a claim to any virtue which it has not, which soon' make a goodly show. A man and therefore we have not represented it may fairly anticipate their becoming as a cheap amusement. Experiments in stately trees before he is called from the new plants, the desire to get something scene. If he plants the yew or the oak, which we have seen elsewhere, or to reno. he can scarcely expect that its branches vate the borders and the rose-beds, all will shield him from the suinmer's sun. entail a certain outlay; but even a small Still

, our old forest trees should be garden can be made to supply a family planted somewhere or other in the with all the vegetables, fruit, and flowers grounds, even if there is room for but they need, an these things represent a few; and a holly hedge ought to be in considerable outlay in the course of the every garden where there is space for one, year when they have to be bought. It for nothing makes so attractive a show in must further be stated that no one knows the dark months of winter. Holly hedges what a good vegetable is unless he has were planted in the gardens of Berkeley eaten it freshly picked out of a garden – House (afterwards burnt down) by Eveespecially his own garden. We therefore lyn's advice, but he lived to see them dug consider that money thus expended, mod. up and destroyed, in consequence of the erately and judiciously, is put to good "mad interference” of the age for “ build.

Whatever may be the amount a ing about a city by far too disproportion. man is disposed to spend in his garden, ate already to the nation."* What he there is nothing else in which the same would think of the disproportion, now that amount could be laid out to yield an equal considerably more than a tenth of the degree of satisfaction. The only feeling whole population of Great Britain is wbich he has on the subject at the end of crowded together in one city, we can easily the year is regret that his means, or the conjecture. Whether to have so many extent of his ground, have not enabled millions of persons concentrated on one him to do more.

spot is beneficial to themselves or conduSome people delight in planting flow. cive to the permanent welfare of the naers, and others trees. The tree-planter tion, it is perhaps too soon to decide; but has the nobler results before bim, but certain it is that the experiment, like that he must be endowed with great hopeful- of feeding thirty-five millions of people ness, and his expectations of life should chiefly on foreign bread, has never been. be a little beyond those of the actuaries' attempted in the world before. tables. La Fontaine, in his adinirable People ought not to be altogether de. fable of " Le Vieillard et les trois jeunes terred from planting a fine forest tree by Hommes," combatted with his usual force the thought that it is slow in growth. and wisdom the idea that the old have no When Byron planted his oak at Newstead right to plant. The reply of the vieillard Abbey in 1798, he consoled himself with when the young men remonstrate with the reflection that, though he could not him on his folly is too fine to be forgotten. see it come to maturity, it would last for Every man who plants a tree may say with ages: him that he is preparing a pleasure for others:

Oh! yet, if maturity's years may be thine,

Though I shall lie low in the cavern of Cela même est un fruit que je goûte aujourd'. death,

On thy leaves yet the day-beam of ages may J'en puis jouir demain, et quelques jours en• shine,

Uninjured by time, or the rude winter's

hui;

breath. But there is an interest in watching the

This oak is now a fine, handsome tree, den,” cannot but prove most useful to the amateur. It though it is placed in a very undesirable seems to include information on every subject connected with the garden, and as it is arranged in dictionary form, it is at all times easy of reference.

* Diary, entry of June 12th, 1684.

core.

position as regards the lawn and the view chargeable. Anybody who has passed from the house. Colonel Wildman re. through Berkeley Square must have ad. solved at first sight to cut it down, until mired the beauty and magnificence of the he heard that Byron had planted it, and plane-trees there, and so far as we are nothing but respect for the poet's memory aware, the finest specimens are still to be has since saved it from the axe. An oak found in London. In Selby's " Forest planted by Gilbert White in 1730 had Trees ” we are reminded that the Platareached a height of fifty-four feet in 1876, nus orientalis was introduced into Enand its girth at three feet from the ground gland three hundred years ago, but the was upwards of eight feet. An ash author adds, “It never seems to have planted at the same time has grown to been encouraged to the extent it deserves, eighty-five feet; a spruce fir, planted in even as an ornamental appendage to the 1751, was eight feet iwo inches in girth, residences of our gentry.” This is the and ninety-two feet in height.* In Arun. species to which the trees in Berkeley del Park we lately saw the two oaks Square, and the tree at the corner of planted by the queen and the prince con. Wood Street, Cheapside, belong. The sort in December, 1846. They were put Platanus occidentalis, distinguished by too close together originally, but both its deeply indented leaves, was at one time have done well; the prince's oak is a par- largely planted, and there were fine speciticularly fine tree, with broad-spreading mens of the tree at the beginning of this branches; its height, we should judge, century in Richmond Park, at Kew, at over forty feet. There is a Wellingtonia Stowe, at Mill Hill School (the grounds in the saine park, planted by the present planted by Mr. Collinson, the friend of Duke of Norfolk in 1858. It is now of Sir Joseph Banks), and elsewhere. But the circumference of an old yew, and its the great frost of June, 1809, brought most height is over fifty feet.

of them to an untiinely end. The Oriental The beech will grow to its full size in planes survived this frost, and on many the compass of a lifetime. The fine other occasions they have proved hardier clump known as the Chanctonbury Ring, than the Western variety. Cobbett made a landmark for thirty miles or more, was great efforts to induce land owners to set out by Mr. Charles Goring, of Wiston, plant the occidental plane and the locust. in 1762, and he lived to record in verse tree, especially the latter. He sold the the success of bis plantation in 1828. seeds at his shop, with others, “a comSailors as well as landsmen have often plete assortment for five pounds.” The been indebted to Chanctonbury Ring for price appears to have been quite high their true bearings. We knew a garden enough, but if every seed produced a tree, near London where Wellingtonia and as Cobbett promised that it should, the Abies nobilis have grown fifty feet, Deo purchasers had no right to complain. For dara forty feet, oaks thirty-five feet, and a time, there was a complete rage for the Araucaria imbricata thirty-five feet, in the locust, or “false acacia,” the art of adverspace of thirty-two years. The common rising being, apparently, better understood or grey poplar is a native tree, and grows by Cobbett than by any man of his day. rapidly, as does the ash; but both put Loudon states that although quantities forth tbeir leaves very late in the season of plants of the Robinia pseud-acacia stood and lose them early; the latter fault, too, unasked for in the nurseries round London may be ascribed to the lime, which is and other places, the locusi, which every otherwise so desirable a tree to have in one imagined could only be had genuine the pleasure.grounds. In the spring, from Mr. Cobbett, was in such demand, there is no green so beautiful as that of that he could not grow plants in sufficient the young lime, except, perhaps, that of quantity or fast enough to supply it, and the beech. A gentleman who is the be then had recourse to those very nursowner of a beautiful garden in Kent, eries, and purchased their plants to a which he created out of a cow-pasture, great extent in order to supply his cus. recently dwelt with regret on the neglect tomers until more could be raised from the of the plane tree, with which he, in com- tons of seed he imported from America." mon with most other people, felt himself in the United States, the tree is the refuge

of a peculiarly disagreeable worm, which : We find these figures in the late Professor Bell's has an unfortunate babit of dropping upon edition of White's "Selborne" (1877), by far the best the heads of the passers-by, and is other. edition in existence, although the Chiswick Press edi- wise so offensive, that a few years ago the tion of 1836, edited by Mr. E. T. Bennett, with notes þy Yarrell, Owen, Bell, and others, ought always to be Americans rashly invoked the aid of the kept for reference.

sparrow to relieve them of this nuisance.

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The worm was exterminated, but the spar- country far better than anything which row remained, and soon became a far the city had to offer. “The formalities greater burden upon the people than the of London life," we are told by his biog. original pest. It drove out the native birds, rapher, “ were irksome to him, and when and consumed all the young shoots and after he had left London some time I buds of tender foliage, precisely as it does visited him in his Ross-shire bome, be here. There used to be little boxes in all seemed a far happier man than while the public parks of New York for the re-writhing under the restraint of London ception of crumbs, and a placard over them conventionalities." The distractions of a inscribed, “ Please feed the sparrows; large town, the necessity of taking part in but the boxes have been taken away, and some of the " amusements os festivi. now the Americans wish that the sparrow ties” which are constantly going on was not quite so well able to take care of these break in upon the time which ought itself.*

to be sacred to the pleasures of reading. We have scarcely touched the outskirts In the country on a winter's evening, with of the great and seductive themes of gar- a well-shaded lamp, a good fire, and favor. dening and tree.planting, but it is now ite books all round the room, there is necessary to pass to the consideration of really nothing left to desire - in the abthe next greatest pleasure of life in the sence, of course, of any special occasion country — the enjoyinent of the library. for disquietude. The iwo or three hours It may be said that this can be just as which intervene between dinner and bed. fully appreciated in the town, but we time pass only too quickly away, and one greatly doubt it. Far be it from us to bids good-night to the books with a relucquestion the power of books to throw a tance which would pass into a much deepcharm over any and every place, whether er feeling if we did not hope to see them it be a hut on a mountain-top, or a tent in again the next morning. the midst of the desert; but the full solace Taste in books differs as widely as in which they are capable of affording can all other things, and therefore the owner only be received in the country. There of a country house, large or small, will do must be a certain degree of security from well to have one room devoted to a mis. interruption, a sense of repose, not to be cellaneous collection, not bought at ran. broken by the arrival of importunate tele- dom, but chosen with knowledge and grams or letters, or by the feeling that one discernment, and including something ought to be somewhere else, in order that which will hit almost every fancy. Works the magic of books may exercise all its of reserence of all kinds, the admirable power. In one of the charming letters of " dictionaries" now so generally accessiBishop Thirlwall “to a friend," he re-ble, and at least one good encyclopædia, marks that "the want of time for reading there should be in abundance, for by their is the great misery of London lise, greater aid alone can many a doubt be promptly on the whole than the banishment from set at rest. Outside the line of special the country.” And yet the inere banish- studies or hobbies, or of particular lines ment was a severe penalty; he is continu- of research, the field is immense, and a ally regretting in London that he will not man who has seen something of the world, be able to see his trees come into leaf, or as well as lived much among books, will the thorns into bloom; that “the glory of easily be able to store his shelves with the spring has passed away, and even all volumes wbich will afford a permanent my hayfields have been cleared.” In the land unfailing source of entertainment. same way that excellent naturalist, Charles Perhaps it will be found that new books St. John, loved the wild scenes of the do not form the most attractive or valua

ble part of such a collection, although the The sparrow is the most aggressive, pertinacious, pleasure to be derived from the arrival of and destructive of all birds in the garden, for in spring a parcel of new books in the country is it attacks every green thing that appears above ground by no means to be underrated. The little

the first tulips, the first peas, anything within reach ; and it seldom or never feeds upon worms, grubs, or library for guests will consist of works insects, unless there is no other food to be had.

No which the owner has himself put to the device that can be adopted will scare it a way; nothing frightens it. The recent compiaints of the farmers proof, and found applicable to all moods about the sparrow are perfectly intelligible, for it has and seasons books to be dipped into, been proved that one thousand sparrows will consume five quarters of wheat in six weeks. In the county of as well as those which are to be read Norfolk alone, it is estimated that there are upwards of through. Of such books, “Spence's Anthree hundred thousand sparrows, and the number in- ecdotes,” " Northcote's Conversations,” creases everywhere with astonishing rapidity. See an article in the Times on “Sparrows and Corn," Sept. Coleridge's and Rogers's “ Table Talk," 13, 1884.

are fair examples. Country books — that

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