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ers of the past. We doubt even whether a farmyard, in full view of several men there are now many masters of fox-hounds who were at work close by. A laborer who would give two thousand guineas for who was on the top of a stack threw a a pack of hounds — the price which was fork at the daring intruder, but the fox paid for Mr. Warde's, who, by the way, went straight up to the fowl which he had was a master of hounds for over fifty-seven marked, and carried it off in triumpb. He years. There are great packs in exist. had depended for refuge upon the standence to-day, and numerous followers ing corn near the house, which covered the hounds, but too many of the latter his operations until he made the final have a closer resemblance to the types sortie. The quantity of feathers and bones which the late Mr. Surtees drew in “Mr. round a fox-hole where some young are Soapey Sponge ” and “Mr. Facy Rom- receiving their daily rations, would astonford," than to Warde, Osbaldestone, or ish any one who had not taken the meas. Assheton Smith. It may even be ques. ure of Reynard's inexhaustible stomach. tioned whether there are many huntsmen If be once works his way into a poultry left like the famous George Carter, who house, he will clear it out, first killing the had but one wish — that he might be laid occupants rapidly to stop their noise, and by his master, with two hunters, and “a then returning for them as fast as his legs fine couple of his honor's hounds, all can carry him; and thus, with a well-filled ready to start again together in the next larder, he and his family carouse in perfect world" - a sentiment for which the red safety, in some snug recess not far from man of the plains would have hailed him the principal entrance to the mansion. with delight as a friend and a brother. The fox, if he had a choice in the mat.
It will be understood, then, that we ter, would doubtless prefer to be set on have nothing to say against fox-huoting. foot in his native haunts, with a pack of Some writers have affirmed, we know not hounds behind him, and the whole counon what authority, that the eel likes to be try before him, rather than be taken in a skinned. “ None of us know for certain,” trap or slain by poison. The temptation as the old huntsmap remarked to his mis. of a supper of ducks' heads and other tress after his master's death, when the "fixings” overpowers the suspicion and pack was to be broken up," that the foxes caution of the wisest fox in existence, and don't like to be hunted ;” and this we will then to find that the duck was stuffed say, that the fox often, shows as much with arsenic or strychnine instead of with enjoyment in the sport as if he did. A sage and onions must be a sad surprise crafty veteran, the sire of a numerous to him. Death is welcome after this de. progeny, who thoroughly knows his way struction of all confidence in the treach. about the country, and has learned that erous human race. Poison would be the neither hounds nor men are infallible, will doom of the fox — for it is not easy to treat the hunt as a little relaxation from catch him in a trap - if the passion for the monotony of existence, and enter into hunting were to die out. Every good it with quite as much alacrity as could housewife and every careful farmer would reasonably be expected from him. Even rise up in arms against him; and even when all his earths are stopped, the now, in many districts where the foxes chances are that his native cunning will are too abundant, the inclination to invoke save him from the pursuers - as in the the aid of the chemist is very strong. case of the fox which tucked himself up We have no doubt that when the partridge comfortably in a drain-pipe lying in a farm. is almost in danger of extermination by yard shed, and calmly continued the slum. the fox, the fatal dish of têtes de canards ber which the hounds had interrupted. is spread for bim oftener than masters of Moreover, the fox must either be dis- hounds suppose, the ghastly proof of the posed of in some way or other, or all the crime being huddled under ground at the ducks and chickens within a dozen miles dead of night. One day last winter, howof his lair will disappear. We have known ever, we came upon two dead foxes which him to empty a poultry yard in a couple of had not been thus secreted, perhaps be. nights, and take a sitting duck off her cause they had
soine distance to nest, and then come back for the eggs, so die. Such a sight as this would have that he might not be accused of letting been alınost fatal to Assheton Smith, who anything be wasted. In hard weather, we greatly alarmed his family one morning have seen his tracks right up to the kitchen by turning very white, and dropping the door of a house; it was only a wonder that paper with an exclamation of horror. Af. he did not get in. One day last summer, ter recovering himself, he was just able in broad daylight, a fox made a raid upon to explain, in words broken by emotion,
that a dog fox had been burot to death in touched by it as by the genial influences a baro.
of summer. To the attentive eye, each Some people object to fox-hunting on moment of the year has its own beauty." the score of cruelly, while they can see Some of the pleasantest days we can recall nothing cruel in salinon-fishing, although in the country have been those in winter. a salmon with a hook in his gills can if the weather is rough and fierce, so scarcely be said to have a fair "run" for much the better chance is there of meetbis lise. Others object to partridge and ing a rare bird far off on the hills, or pheasant shooting, but we never knew among the secluded hollows, where perthem object to eating a partridge or a haps there is an old battered tree, or long pheasant when shot. We cannot sympa. couch grass, to afford a little shelter. On thize with either class, but it is easy to a stormy day, indeed, there is a wild sense understand the outcry which is repewed of exultation in going on in the teeth of louder and louder every year against hare. half a gale of wind, with black clouds hunting. It is curious that so much ex. driving swiftly overhead, and the sea roarcitement should be found in tearing madly ing in the distance - for if one lives in a after a timid little creature which has country where the sea can be made out scarcely any chance of escape -its eyes from the tops of the hills, it is a great protruding in an agony of terror, gasping advantage, since on no two days do bills for breath, outoumbered and outmatched, and sea ever wear the same aspect. Some half paralyzed by fatigue and dread, until new effect of cloud or sunshine always at last a pack of thirty or forty hounds strikes the eye. All this can only be apovertake and despatch it, the poor animal preciated in the country, for what can we screaming like a child in some awful ex: do in bad weather in the city — against tremity of pain. It might be supposed London rain, for instance, which returns that a woman who had once heard that spitefully from the pavement mixed with scream would be particularly careful not mud? No place is so wretched or so filthy to place herself in a position where she as a great town on a wet day; whereas in would be likely to hear it again; and yet the country there are the trees and the a good field will probably have half a score green grass, all sweet and pure, with the of horsewomen in it, and twice as many song of a bird or two to enliven the spirits men, all thirsting for the blood of a hare. if they are disposed to flag. And if no “She run for nearly two hours,” said a other attraction can be found outside, man to us once on the spot where a hare there is always the garden, that great and had just succumbed to her implacable unfailing source of interest and pleasure foes, "and at last she was so worn out to every man or woman whom the world that she actually could not move a step has not quite demoralized. A man who further. She dropped right down. What lives in the country is sure to be warned a splendid run!” It was not precisely by his friends that he will grow rusty, and the criticism which we should have been he may sometimes fear that it is even so; disposed to make on such a piece of work. but let him take good heart. There is
À moderate taste for sport will do anothiog dropped which cannot very soon man no harm when he is living in the be picked up. When he leaves his snug country, although, as we have intimated harborage, and goes out into the great already, and hope to prove, he ought to world again, does he find that people are be able to get on perfectly well without it. so much more contented than he is No doubt it may often be an advantage to are they happier amid their gay surroundhave a strong motive for going out for a ings, or fresher in mind or body? What long walk, such as is supplied by the does it all come to, this wonderful London prospect of picking up a couple of brace talk, when it is sifted out and weighed in or so of birds in the course of the after the balance ? Ideas that are worth hav.
With a dog and a gun, one may ing are not more numerous in the world wander on for hours without a thought of than they were, and there is no magic in feeling tired. But if love of the country the city which causes them to spring up is in a man, he has only to put on his hat in the mind unsought for. If the dweller and walk out of doors, and an ample fund in the country has used his time well, he of amusement is always spread before will find that his faculties have been him. There is always something new of. sharpened by seclusion and reflection, fering itself for notice, even in winter. rather than blunted; he has read a good “I please myself,” says Emerson, “ with deal, perhaps, and at any rate he has observing the graces of the winter scen- thought. He is entirely independent of ery, and believe that we are as much I the resources which make up nearly all
the pleasures of life in the eyes of the so supremely insignificant a character, devotee of the town. He can live for a that a stranger cannot at first help fearing few weeks, if necessary, without once that there is something in the air of the entering a club or going to a dinner party. provinces which stifles the sense of huHe knows the sort of gossip that is always mor. Even village life is not always free running on in slightly different channels, from strife. There is frequently a local and the desire to hear more of it is not at tyrant, probably of the female sex, who all keen within him. As for the men in rules over the rest, either by virtue of great positions - as for the ruling intel. owning a few acres of land, or by sheer lects, the profound minds, the gifted force of self-assertion. She may always statesmen – who that has closely studied be depended upon to find out something their lives and acts, and keeps their past wrong in most of the people within a few careers well in view, has not often re miles of her. Perhaps they drink; perpeated to himself that saying of the great haps they are in debt; or they do not keep chancellor Oxenstierna, who, after having up a proper establishment; or the wife is been behind the scenes for fifty years, and suspiciously good-looking. There is nothmade himself familiar with all the springs ing to be talked about but such scandal as which control the actions of men, summed can be raked together, by hook or by up his experience in one pregnant sen. crook, and an active-minded social leader tence : “ Nescis, mi fili, quantula sapien- will never permit herself to be found at a tia regatur inundus.” If we are to worship loss for the ingredients of a highly spiced the modern statesman, it is absolutely dish. Sometimes it is the landlord who necessary that we should forget many is singled out as the victim a grasping, things that he has said, and most things extortionate, avaricious landlord, as we that he has done ; for when we look back are taught to believe the whole class is over bis whole life, and judge of him by now; or, perchance, a new.comer; or betthe foresight and general wisdom he has ter than all, the clergyman. It is hard to shown, he will shrink into an amazingly say what quarrelsome people in the counsmall compass. We are then driven to try would do without the parson. If he Carlyle's conclusion, that the great En- not the same way inclined himself - as glish nation is “all going off into wind he occasionally is, human nature being
nd tongue," and that “ future generations but weak - it always possible to find will look back on us with pity and in cause of offence in him. Some people credulous astonishment.” The babble. do not like long sermons, some people do ment of this or that metropolis is not not like them short, a great many do not likely to be of much service in any emer- like them at all - especially the ordinary gency. It is far away from its din that village sermon, which eludes comprehenmost of the truly great discoveries have sion and defies analysis. But the sermon been made or the vast designs pondered; is not the clergyman's only vulnerable we need only remember Newton in his point — the cut and shape of his garments garden, or Napoleon in Corsica, a humble have to be narrowly scanned, for bis sub-lieutenant, meditating amid the chaos High Church tendencies may be shown as of the Revolution the conquest of a world. unmistakably by what an old lady called The mighty problems of the heavens have the curate's "petticoats ” as by any num. been worked out under the silent skies, ber of candles or genuflexions. Where not amid the turmoil and distractions of the clergyman is not unwilling to go halfa great city.
way to meet the impending quarrel, the It is absolutely necessary that the lover town or village is sure of matter for conof the country should have some resources versation all the year round. He is perof his own to fall back upon, for he will haps new to the place, and his first and find few or none in the people around him, chief desire is to change everything. The unless he is peculiarly favorably situated. choir must be put into surplices - espe, In this respect, the advocates of the town cially if it consists merely of a handful have the best of the argument. When we of untrained children, in some village want society, London bears off the palm ; remote from everywhere. The times of there is no place in the wide world equal the services must be altered, the old to it. Be entirely in the country, or in hymn-books discarded, the harmonium the heart of the metropolis at once, for all player got rid of, the schoolmistress disthe land of villadom is barren, and an or- missed, and the people generally shaken dinary country town is divided up into out of their accustomed ruts. Between a foolish little cliques, devoured with small vicar of this kind, and the local termagant, jealousies, and agitated over questions of wars and rumors of wars never cease.
Then there are the dinner parties, fussy | counties, when all vegetation is burnt up. and mournful, and the dreadful concerts In most country places there is no water where the militia captain sings sentito spare, and, at ihe best, artificial watermental songs, and the occasional pano. ing cannot compensate for the absence of rama which ought to have been exported the gentle and refreshing irrigation of the to the Sandwich Islands twenty years rain. This last summer, five weeks passed ago. The only safety for the man who at a stretch without a single good shower would pass his life in peace, and who has -a scorching sun all day, and scarcely not the advantage of living among really any dew at night. The morning tour congenial neighbors, consists in causing round the garden, instead of tranquillizing it to be understood that he never goes the spirit, and giving one a new zest for anywhere, as Steele long ago pointed out the labors of the day, produced a vague in “ The Spectator." My uneasiness in sense of despondency, and set all the the country,” he remarked, “ arises rather nerves ajar. For no man who is worthy from the society than the solitude of it. to have a garden can see his favorite To be obliged to receive and return visits flowers and plants drooping and languish. from and to a circle of neighbors who, ing for lack of nourishment, and pass on through diversity of age or inclinations without sympathy or concern. The roses can neither be entertaining nor serviceable were eaten up with mildew and rust, the to us, is a vile loss of time, and a slavery Aowers dropped before they had half from which a man should deliver himself, bloomed, the foliage was blackened and if possible.” He can so deliver himself stained as if some corrosive acid had been by finding his society chiefly in his family thrown over it. The trees had the sere circle, and his home amusements in his look of autumn in the early part of Au. garden and his books.
gust; young fruit-trees died; the herba. The garden ranks first, for it will natu- ceous border was a graveyard. People rally occupy the greater part of his spare with abundance of water at their command time. Gardening is the most fascinating may have fared better, but everybody pursuit in the world, when once a man has suffered more or less, and gardeners gengiven his heart to it; if it were not so, we erally will mark 1884 with a black stone. never should be able to fight against the Equally hard to bear are the years when disappointments which too often attend it. everything goes on marvellously well till We hope for good fortune this year and the end of April or the beginning of May, next, and then we go on hoping for it when a violent storın arises, and sweeps again, putting in our seeds and plants, everything before it - as on the 29th of and looking forward with undiminished April, 1882. In less than a couple of confidence to the perfect season that hours every tree looked as if a fire had never comes. In that respect, as in many been lit beneath it, and the fruit was gone others, the garden presents a true emblem for that year, and most of it for the next of life. Horace Walpole appears to have year also, for it took two seasons for the had an idea that the only way to keep a irees to recover from that pitiless blast, garden in proper order was to put it all destructive as the sirocco. There is al. under glass, and shut the owner in with ways the poet's month of May to dread, it. “ The way to ensure summer in En- with its inevitable east winds, and very gland,” he wrote, in 1774, "is to have it likely more than one heavy frost at night. framed and glazed.” We have no right, We say nothing of the innumerable ene. he contended, to set up a claim to any mies which beset the garden; the mice, such season as summer, the conception of the birds, the insects, the foes above and it in the English mind resting on nothing below ground, which fight bard for the more solid than a few conceits of the best of everything, and spoil even more poets. But Horace Walpole was troubled than they consume. It is a cruel sight to with the rheumatism and gout — two com: see a bed of roses devoured by the green plaints which disturb accuracy of judg. fly - and during a long prevalence of east ment. In ordinary years, we have a very winds or drought it is impossible to extir. fair share of good weather, although it is pate this pest, for it comes up in dark not to be denied that the patience of the clouds in the air, like the locust in the lover of gardens is often put to severe east. When the fruit season arrives, the tests. There is the year - as in 1879 - blackbird goes round driving the “cold when everything is ruined by the rain, and dagger" of his bill into every peach or when doibing comes out of the earth but plum, in defiance of nets; and the ant, the weeds; or there is a long drought, as in earwig, or the wood-louse, soon finishes the past summer of 1884 in our home what he has been pleased to leave. Yet
iu spite of these and a thousand other de. being, no doubt, the true gilly-flower, the feats and mischances, who that once has clou-de-giroflée, Dianthus caryophyllus. had a garden would willingly give it up But though the stock is called a gillyforever, or who does not find bis interest flower in this very essay of Bacon's, and in his flowers and trees increase year after many other plants have been so named, * year, no matter how many failures bestrew the clove-carnation has the best right to his path? Nothing, indeed, keeps the be thus distinguished. An old gardener, heart so young as a garden, for there na William Lawson, in the work which we ture is perpetually at work, biding the have cited at the head of this article, past, closing up old scars, renewing itself speaks of “July-flowres, commonly called in its serene and noiseless way, holding Gilly-flowres, or Clove-july-flowres (I call out fresh promise for the future, and lead them so because they flowre in July). ing us on to begin again with unfagging They have the names of Cloves of their hope. If there is not always a new flower scent. 1
may well call them the king of or plant to be seen, there is always some flowres (except the rose), and the best sort thing to be done; in the midst of winter of them are called Queene-July-flowres. I we are making ready for the spring, and have of them nine or ten several colors, on the hardest day of the year an observ. divers of them as bigge as roses. Of all ant man will find something in his garden flowres (save the damask rose) they are to divert his thoughts from the more aox- the most pleasant to sight and smell: they ious cares and duties of life.
last not past three or four years unre" It is the greatest refreshment to the moved. . : . Their use is much in ornaspirits of man,” wrote Francis Bacon, and ment, and comforting the spirits by the he probably gave this testimony to the sense of smelling.” We have many more consoling influences of a garden after his varieties in color in the present day than grievous fall, for the paper in which it Lawson could boast of, but they lack the occurs appears only in the later editions peculiar glory of the old-fashioned clove, of his Essays.” There are alteratioos its incomparable perfume, which alone in it which were certainly not made till would entitle it to an honored place in the the year before his death.* The length garden. of this “ Essay” – it is one of the longest Lawson, it will be observed, will not of them all — the careful list which is allow the rose to be put second to any given of the special products of each flower; and he was right. There are month in the year, the minute attention many flowers, and many tastes, but the which is directed to the colors and per. rose remains queen over all, or if its prefumes of plants — all this serves to show eminence is ever disputed, it has only to that Bacon was a practical gardener, after show itself in its full beauty to compel the the stiff and formal manner of his time. homage which rightfully belongs to it. It His directions for laying out a garden are is, however, a wayward and fickle mis. devised with the extravagance which was tress, and the amateur who has seen some characteristic of the man - thirty acres fine roses at a flower show, and is thereby was the least that could content him, and moved to become a rose.grower, is launchthere were to be fountains, and “orna. ing out on a long journey, in the course of ments of images gilt or of marble," and which he will meet with many rebuffs, and turrets for birds - but he admits that his have to put up with sore disappointments. plan is for a “princely garden," and that His ambition, if his purse and ground are he “spared for no cost.” Some of his both limited, will soon be brought down recommendations were in advance of his from its first lofty flights. The first step age to dispense with “koots and fig. - the selection of choice specimens from ures,” for instances, which reminded him the florists' lists — presents no difficulty, of the cook's ornamental work on tarts; for these lists are delightful to read, and to avoid cutting juniper-trees into shapes, when the order is made out and sent off, which “be for children,” and to have a and the plants arrive, great is the amawild garden or heath, "set with violets, teur's delight, and very confident does he strawberries, and prime - roses.' His feel that now for the first time good roses sweet-scented flowers still adorn every will be seen in his part of the country. garden — roses, wall-flowers, “ Pincks and Before another year has gone, bis thoughts Gilly. Flowers,” specially the “Matted on the subject will have undergone great Piack and Clove Gilly flower - the last modification ; many of his roses are dead,
• See Dr. Prior's “Popular Names of British Plants," * See Mr. Aldis Wright's notes to the “Essays,” pp. an interesting little work, and Canon Ellacombe's 395-6 (1862).
“ Plant-lore and Garden Craft of Shakespeare.”