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inces, still more between different indi-| ligent constructor, cannot indeed yet rival viduals, are constantly becoming less an orator, an adventurer, or a tribune of marked. The fact is presaged by the the people ; but they begin to acquire the disappearance of all local costumes within influence which is due to them. They do the last few years, a fact scarcely observed not yet form classes : the chief men among except by artists, to whom it is an irrepa them remain isolated, but they are no rable evil, but not without significance. longer regarded with the ill-will, or at any Dialects as well as costumes are disap- rate with the indifference, which is the pearing. A certain number of words are portion of men of business as a whole; common to the speech of all the provinces, they rather begin to be the objects of and it is only a few members of ihe lowest national gratitude and respect. classes in country districts who cannot Under the influence of this growing use this common language. Brigandage sentiment various industrial and commermay be said to have become extinct, and cial enterprises have arisen in Italy, and throughout the peninsula mendicity is collective operations are to some extent gradually diminishing. The prejudices, substituted for private undertakings. The rivalries, and antagonism between one first field to which they have been applied territory and another and between differ- is agriculture, which is the chief founda. ent families have disappeared in many tion of the wealth of the country; the cul. cases, and in others are much less acrid, tivation of the vine, the making of wine, and at the same time differences of opinthe rearing of silkworms, and the manu; ion, dress, and custom tend to lose their facture of silk, have attracted special importance. This movement began from attention, and up to a certain point these the outside, and the fundamental charac. industries have been improved, although teristics are the last to submit to modifi- all the first experiments have not been cation, and will probably never become crowned with success. Next, attention completely uniform; thé Lombard will has been given to the improvement of always differ from the Calabrian, just as stock, to dairy produce, and the cultiva. the Norman differs from the Provençal, tion of the olive, although foreign compebut in a few years such difference will be tition, and the extraction of oil from other no more marked in Italy than in France substances, have hindered success in the and England. The tendency of our time two latter branches of industry. These is essentially levelling; there will always are the first fruits of associated work in a be good and bad, diligent and slothful country adapted to grow all the producmen, and from the peculiar conformation tions of the temperate zone; and although of the peninsula there must always be their extent is limited by circumstances northern and southern races, but Pied- of which we shall speak presently, it is mont, Lombardy, Venice, and Tuscany worth while to mention this exchange of are terms which must sooner or later have patriarchial agriculture for modern inonly an historical significance, without dustry. political or, in any appreciable degree, The same may be said of manufactures. ethnographical value.

Cloth and cotton goods have formed the In the levelling which takes place under principal objects of internal industry, and the influence of modern forms of civiliza- have found it hard to compete with foreign tion, many angles and salient points of and less costly merchandise. Immedithe national character must be effaced. ately after these come the artistic indus. We have already observed that the im- tries which flourish under favor of the pulse of sentiment and passion is neces- national tradition. It is singular that all sarily weakened by the daily growing these industries, works in bronze, glass, sense of its inability to contend, under carved wood, and artificial flowers, which the conditions of modern civilization, with may almost be included in the field of art, the deductions of reason and interest. begin to languish and die as soon as they Aud in fact a man who is devoted to the lose the vivifying touch of genius, and passion of love or revenge no longer in- leave the hand of man to become commerspires the same interest which he for- cial and mechanical. Italy sells her artis. merly aroused, nor is the fanatic or the tic Venetian crystals, and buys glass sectarian regarded with the same savor. tumblers for the table ; she exports her So again, the inan who einploys adequate Ginori's porcelain, and the artistic mameans to attain a great end, even if these jolica which may still be found in her do not speak to the imagination, begins principal cities, to buy dinner services to attract public attention. A great man made abroad; she sends away the inlaid ufacturer, a simple producer, and an intel. | furniture of Siena and Florence in order to bring back the upholstery of Paris and reconstituting the nation. The inade. Brussels,

quate means employed is also due to the The Italian artisan is easily disgusted old habit to which we have alluded, of with mechanical labor, and is less adapted setting out on a long journey lightly bur. to succeed in it, while he often displays dened, thus applying the usages of nomad real superiority in all works which require horsemen to business matters. Italy does invention, so that he can put into them not yet understand how to constitute great something of his own. This is, however, companies, since she has not acquired a minor difficulty, which education and the habits of confidence and promptitude custom would do much to overcome. The which are necessary in the conduct of imgreater obstacle to the development of portant affairs. Another defect which industrial manufactures consists in the seems at first sight slight and superficial scarcity of raw materials and in the want has its importance, the want of self-asserof fuel. It is true that there is a certain tion. This country, which has been cred. compensation for these defects in the posited with the capacity of profiting by the sibility of producing motive power without industry of others, has in reality in not a fuel, and in the still relatively low price of few cases allowed foreigners to reap the labor. Her abundant water power, aided benefits of many of her productions. by the recent discoveries of modern sci- In the second category of obstacles we ence, promises well for the future of Italy. must place the attitude of the State. AbOther motive powers have already been sorbed in an infinite number of general tried, but only in isolated cases, so that questions which concern the realization of they cannot yet be included among the its ideals, the government cares little for factors of our civilization.

the practical demands of the economic Our commerce has led to the establish- prosperity of the people. It may be said ment of navigation companies, some of without fear of exaggeration that the fiscal which are sufficiently prosperous; and system of the kingdom of Italy, both in here also we find the same difficulties its essence and in its mode of application, which arise in agriculture, namely, how to makes it impossible for any great indus. exchange old vessels and the Italian sail. trial undertaking to succeed. ors and their sailing craft for the ships The wisdom gained by experience is and seamen required in all the great en- not as yet very apparent in the country. terprises of modern navigation.

The abolition of the grist tax might be The sense of the insufficiency of divided cited as a proof of wisdom, if the circumstrength, of the new requirements of mod. stance under which the measure was carern life, and of the necessity of co-opera- ried did not point to its having been done tive labor in order to carry on the struggle for the sake of popularity rather than as for existence, continues to make its way an act of mature consideration. And in in Italy, as we see in many instances. We fact the burden removed from this branch need only cite the exhibitions at Milan of industry has been laid upon others, and Turin as a proof of industrial activity. which have suffered severely in conseA few years ago it would have been im- quence. It was, however, a step forwards possible to hold such exhibitions, and and a tribute to public opinion, which beibeir success indicates real progress. gins to awake and direct its attention to

All these branches of industrial and com- this important subject. mercial activity have to contend against All the official inquiries into the vari. the same obstacles, most of which have ous branches of public wealth, although their origio in the general conditions we generally conducted by members of the have described. These may be placed in government, agree that the taxation is two categories : the first relating to the excessive. These words are naturally insufficiency of means to insure success, echoed by the multitude, and we may supthe second to obstacles connected with pose that their united voices will soon the State.

reach the ears of Parliament. It is diffi. Undertakings of whatever kind are rare. cult to solve the problem presented to us. ly begun with capital enough to permit We have to pay for a revolution, a paythem to pass through the first stormy ment repudiated by some other nations, period of a rising industry without ship- but we shall discharge the debt at whatwreck. The want of capital in Italy is ever cost. The crisis draws to an end, partly owing to the backward condition of however, and, aided by a more modest her commerce, relatively to other nations, estimate of the functions of the State partly to the expenditure of money and which must necessarily gain ground, the energy demanded by the great work of acute period of taxation will pass away,

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and the return to a more normal state of |ian policy was distinguished in its begin. things is at hand.

nings, and which is now exchanged for a We must now glance at the moral and system which at any rate declares a truce, intellectual evolution through which Italy and seeks to establish a modus vivendi. is passing. In what concerns the difficult In philosophy the same thing has also question of religion, which has concen- occurred to some extent. As in matters trated the heat of controversy among Latin of religion, Italy, without becoming Protraces, it is worth while to note a fact estant, has sought to solve the questions which has escaped superficial observers. which arise in accordance with her own With a large number of citizens of all traditions, so also in philosophy she has classes the practice of religion has been not been able to break away from them. insensibly gaining ground, a practice Another cause has conduced to this pracwhich is averse to controversy, and seeks tical effect. Italy, more than any other to hold a middle way between scepticism nation, was formerly prevented by powerand asceticism. A certain Catholic and ful political combinations from associating Christian standard has silently arisen herself with the philosophical movement which regulates the lives of numerous which, when it first began, was full of classes without disposing them to stand hope and promise; she has become free aloof from the political and intellectual at a time when that movement, as far as movements of the day. They are, more the moral sciences are concerned, is much or less consciously, the disciples of Balbo, slackened, if not altogether exhausted. and to a certain extent of Gioberti and Italy takes her place in the scene when Rosmini, and of all that Pleiad of men the intellectual world, wearied and diswho inaugurated the revival of Italy be. | heartened by metaphysical speculations, fore political differences had become em. has turned its attention to the exact and bittered, and when the hope of uniting natural sciences, and she is more occutheir religion and their country in a close pied about practical work than about embrace was not abandoned. Those men speculative and abstract thought. Italy were patriotic without being irreligious. has placed herself on a level with other But the difference between them and their nations by overleaping that period tlırough more recent followers consists, as I have which they passed during her political said, in the fact that discussion is now servitude ; she also has marked its phases avoided. For some years there has been in her intellectual history by producing a remarkable abstinence from polernics, some able philosophers, but they stood at all events on the part of the laity. apart from the general thought of the When any word has been spoken, it has nation. been by some ecclesiastic, and it has been In adapting herself to the modern dereceived in silence by the laity, who ab- velopment of thought Italy bas changed stain from applause for fear of embittering the character of her education, wbich is a controversy which is theoretically ex- now chiefly devoted to natural science, hausted, and practically not yet mature. applied and practical, whereas it was forHence the sensible and open strife is merly given to the study of the classics only kept alive between the two irreconcil- and of speculative philosophy. This new able combatants, the guardians of the direction tends to discipline the facility sanctuary and its despisers. This com. and versatility of mind of which we have plicates the position of those who stand spoken as characterizing the Italian. But between the two, and still more it makes the direction is not enough, and in the the work difficult which they carry on in contact with former customs a state of silence. The world which ignores their transition has ensued in which education position really owes much to them; it is has become diffuse rather than thorough. possibly through them that the horrors of It is less within the reach of all, and a violent revolution have been averted. always more theoretical than practical. And although their action was ignored, it Instead of combining these two systems, has finally made itself felt in the develop the second usually begins where the first ment of public life. It has modified the ends, and consequently there is more sphere of politics, it has created a morc general culture than professional knowlmoderate and tolerant public opinion, edge, both in science and art. Dilettaneven in its most liberal and advanced teism, which should be discouraged by manifestations. It has finally influenced the scientific movement, is flattered in its the government, which has become more turn by the new habits of political life; temperate in its hostile action in eccle. the periodical press and the platforms of siastical matters, an action by which Italo | public meetings afford great facility for

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speaking and writing, and the necessity | react on her institutions and customs. In which exists under a representative gov. issuing from the revolutionary phase, ernment of expressing an opinion on which was a rude shock to education and every subject and every measure tends to to the sense of national and individual remaintain the habit of taking a general sponsibility, men will return to a normal view of things which is opposed to pro state of things, and forget a phase which found and accurate knowledge, an indis. was in some respects as disastrous as the pensable condition of progress in scientific absolutism which preceded it. It is diffiand economic science in our time.

cult to say what will be the fixed and norAnd yet it is certain that intellectual mal point of this evolution, but it will life in Italy does not stand still. Of this, certainly conform to the traditions of the the diffusion of elementary instruction is past. There is a line of demarcation an external sign. Even in her most bar- between the Græco-Latin and Teutonic ren age Italy bas produced eminent men, peoples which will probably never wholly but the class was limited, and so was their disappear. The first set before them art field of action; now they are more numer- and the ideal, the second nature and realous, and their disciples have also largely ity. The Germans have indeed also their increased. In scientific knowledge and ideals, and they have assimilated the arts instruction Italy may consider herself to with the same diligence and with greater be about to attain to the standard of other success than the Italians now apply them.. civilized nations. But this evolution is selves to the study of nature and reality: accomplished in accordance with the And just as the Italians have sometimes genius of the people, and certain subjects nearly ceased to seek art and the ideal,

more favored than others. For in- so the Germans have at other times cared stance, the language, which long oscil. less for nature and reality. But sooner or lated between La Crusca and the dialects, later a preponderating force leads both wanting flexibility in the former case and men and peoples back into their own nobility in the latter, has of late taken a orbit and proper sphere of action. middle course between these two This power of education and assimila. tremes, which makes our language more tion exerts a great influence on their easy to handle and more adapted to our future, and corrects defects and excesses. needs. Style has also been consolidated, As the influence and example of the Lat. and is equally removed from academic ins has civilized the Teutonic nations, so niceties and from vulgarity.

has the German influence been of use to The same thing may be said of all other the Latins. And in the struggle for, ex. branches of culture, which, both in sub. istence, which no longer takes the form stance and form, become more perfect in of slaughter and ferocity, that nation or proportion to their assimilation to the na individual will be most successful which iional genius. The evolution is slower can assimilate the qualities of others while and more difficult in those practical de retaining his own. partments which bave to do with the

F. NOBILI-VITELLESCHI. problems of public and private life. The most difficult step in this direction is that last and decisive one which indissolubly binds action to thought and speech in all those cases in which the one is perfected

From Temple Bar. and becomes efficacious by means of the

OR, A

SUMMER ON THE BALTIC. others, and thus determines the complete development of social and economic life in every nation.

Who ever heard of the island of Rü. This also takes place in a characteristic gen? I am tempted to say: Certainly no mode and measure. As Italy, when she rumor of it has as yet reached the tourist obtained liberty of conscience, still main. world, for when I applied for a ticket tained the traditions and tenets of the thither at the famous office in Ludgate Catholic religion; as, even while relín. Hill, no one had so much as heard of the quishing most of the modes of applying name! Through tickets and every infor. ideal philosophy, she has still preserved mation necessary to the traveller could be intact its essential thought, so the acqui. had for any one bound to Fiji, Timbuctoo, sitions which modern science has made Japan, but this delicious island on the of late she will gradually assimilate ac. Baltic, this fairy spot a little to the north cording to her own way of thinking. of cold, practical, ugly Berlin, this gem of This characteristic developinent will gems, bas been up to the present time as

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PICTURES

FROM AN

ISLAND;

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LIVING AGE.

VOL. XLVIII

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completely ignored by the English travel. | tourist element, no foreign admixture. ling world as if it did not exist.

Stralsund is a town with a history, and What is to be seen at Rügen, some will the sturdy character of the Stralsunders ask; what are the sights to repay us at may be gathered from this story. In the the end of our journey? Mountains, wa. olden time the streets were not lighted, terfalls, hot springs, avalanches? Or if and a certain governor of the city made not these, what then? Well, to tell plain himself obnoxious to the burghers by ortruth, the lover of sights had better stay dering them on his own account to carry, at home. Rügen may be said to boast of each pedestrian, a lantern when out at

If places can be compared with night. The order should have been transbooks, I would describe my island by say- mitted through their own Rath instead; ing that it is like nothing so much as one so to spite the governor, on the first night of Hawthorne's delicious romances, pure after the issue of the mandate, the citi. poetry from beginning to end, with a zens, as bidden, provided themselves with subtle, supernatural charm impossible to lanterns but put no light in them. There. describe." But then for the lover of Haw. upon the governor waxed wroth, and is. thorne's stories, there are five thousand sued another command, namely, that each of an ordinary sensational novel. Long lantern should be furnished with a candle. will Rügen remain caviare to the general Accordingly, next night the citizens did world in spite of its quiet loveliness and as they were told. The candles were poetic charm.

there but the streets were as dark as ever, There are many ways of reaching this for not one was lighted. sweet place, but English travellers will The governor's rage rose, and he forth. most naturally prefer the route from Ber- with issued stringent orders that the can. lin via Stralsund, in order to see this dles should be lighted; nothing daunted, latter, one of the most picturesque old the townsfolk did indeed do as they were cities of north Germany. Its crowning bidden, but hid their lanterns under their ornament, the fine old Rathhaus, has, cloaks. Then the governor, under threats alas! literally crumbled to pieces, and is of his severe displeasure, ordered the canbeing restored, or rather rebuilt, on the dles not only to be lighted but to be exancient model. Much beautiful and impos- posed to view. Again the burghers did ing mediæval architecture still remains, as they were bidden, but provided wicks not only civil and ecclesiastical, but do. so tiny that the light thereby produced mestic. Nuremberg itself cannot show was no bigger than that of a glowworm. finer specimens of German dwellings of The governor, seeing in what humor the the olden time, and greatly to the credit people were, at last yielded to it, and the of the Stralsunders they have kept up the order was communicated to them in due tradition. Here are to be seen no glaring form through their own Rath. After that and painful contrasts, mediæval art and time, the streets were properly lighted. modern trumpery, side by side ; but the From the beautiful harbor of Stralsund, houses these worthy townspeople have the little steamer“ Hertha" starts for Rübuilt for their own use and pleasure are in gen every afternoon (Sundays excepted) every respect worthy of the ancient mod for my island. Pleasant enough in fine els. You see here a façade so old that weather is this cruise in the smooth, clear it has had to be saved from ruin by a new waters of the Baltic, every part of the superstructure, there a brand-new house boat packed as close as close can be, but planned after the same fashion, and con-good-humor and an accommodating spirit structed almost as solidly. The modern prevailing among all present. As I glance dwelling-house of the Stralsund burgher is round at our fellow-travellers I fail to disindeed, at least outwardly, an admonition cern an English or even an American to builders and architects. From the win-physiognomy — every one pure German, dows of Hôtel Brandenburg we see a vista and for the most part German of Berlin. of this kind façade after façade, of lofty Delightful it was to see the enjoyment of proportions and imposing design, most of these town bred folks, young and old, as ihem belonging to the present day. A they sniffed the breeze and caught sight artist would find many a choice bit in his of passing sail or shadowy islet. Our wanderings through these streets, and the course leads us by a succession of bends churches of red brick are superb, veri. and deviations within sight of the bare table cathedrals without, although some rocky island of Hiddensoë and through what bare within.

narrow creeks and forths into one smajl And one attraction of Stralsund is that inland sea after another, Bodden as they it is as German as German can be. No | are called; we are ever close to the land,

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