and bad of all sorts," said Kirsty.
had got sick o' domestic service.
I'd looked at it from the wrong end, but
so it was.'

"And I | I'm quite sorry for some of the poor Maybe young fellows, for I do believe they take a glass just for the sake of having a little friendly chat with somebody!"

"What put it into your head to take up this employment?" asked Tom.

"When my cousin Hannah came from Edinburgh to London, she got a place at the bar of the Royal Stag,' ," narrated Kirsty, "and I used to go to see her there, and they used to let me be with her in the bar; and then the manager gave me an introduction to our firm here. I'm not defending all Hannah's ways," said the girl, evidently with some repressed recollection in her own mind. "But some has faults of one sort and some of another. One must take folks as one finds 'em; and Hannah's always been kind to me. Somebody must do this sort of thing, and I don't see why they're to be despised. Mrs. Brander was very angry about my going to see Hannah at the Royal Stag. It wasn't respectable and she couldn't allow it, she said; and it was that we split over. I don't see the mighty differ between the likes of me going to visit Hannah, serving out the drams and gills over the counter of the Royal Stag, and the mistress and Miss Etta going to visit the family of the great distiller who supplied the gin and brandy to the cellars of the Royal Stag. And that was what they were always very glad to do! I ain't saying a word against the gentleman," added unthinking Kirsty, "for I know he gives a deal of charity, and has rebuilt the parish church. You won't deny that people must have food and drink, Mr. Tom; and so somebody's got to give it 'em."

"But it is not that you may prevent drunkards from drinking, or youths from forming drinking habits, that you are hired here," said Tom. Nor, I think, was it quite for that reason that you took this post."

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Kirsty's eyes fell lower - then she raised them in defiance. "No, it wasn't," she answered. “I'd made up my mind to have a bit of fun, and no hard work, and some nice clothes - and so I will what may!"


"Has Mrs. Brander learned where you are? Has she ever inquired after you since you left her house?" asked Tom.

Kirsty laughed again, that hard, bitter laugh which he had noticed at the very first. "Not she!" she replied. "She never asked where I was going when she saw my boxes being put on the cab. But what do I care? I hear about her though. I can hear as much as I like about their house. Wouldn't they be mad if they only knew!"

"How is that?" Tom inquired. But Kirsty only tossed her head significantly, and was at that moment called aside to attend on a customer, whose complimentary badinage seemed to Tom so tangibly insulting that he could hardly realize that Kirsty, by choosing to stand where she did, had deprived him of all right to knock down the fellow who dared so to address his old neighbor. "Miss Chrissie," however, was only smiles and graciousness. And Tom waited no longer than to give her the last Shetland news the tidings "Providing for honest human wants is of Mr. Sinclair's death, and to hastily exabout the most honorable of human ser-hort her "if ever he could be of service to vice," said Tom. "But what wants do her," to remember that his address was in you provide for?" He gave a significant Penman Row. glance over the few plates of untempting pastry, and then over the goodly array of bottles and casks in the background. "Is the underground railway so very unhealthy," he asked with a sad humor, "that the travellers on it must be so care. HAS THE NEWEST WORLD THE OLDEST fully supplied with medicine'?"

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Kirsty's blue eyes fell - they were still pretty blue eyes, though they were fast becoming bold and vacant.

From The London Quarterly Review.


IT is difficult for us now to imagine the feelings of wonder and surprise with which the Spanish explorers of the fifteenth "You are rather hard on us, Mr. Tom," century first witnessed the marvels of that she pouted. "I'm sure I do my best. American continent which acquired the There's many a man whom I tell that he appellation of "the New World." Most ought to be ashamed of himself for com- interesting of all were the human inhabiting to me as often as he does men that ants of those western regions; and espeI've seen on the platform, at other times, cially interesting to the European invadwith poor drudges of wives with 'em. Anders, who were fully alive to diversities as

to, are the sloths, ant-eaters, and armadillos, found nowhere but in South America, where they once existed with, or were preceded by, allied forms of gigantic size (the Megatherium, Mylodon, Glyptodon, etc.), now passed away forever. Lastly, we may note the opossums, of which there are many species, creatures so interesting from several anatomical charac ters by which they differ from all other beasts, whether of the New World, or of Europe, Africa, and Asia; although allied forms once existed in Europe, but have

to customs social and religious, but were ill qualified to appreciate the zoological and botanical novelties of the countries they explored. Their cupidity was aroused by the gold of Mexico and Peru; and the human sacrifices of the first-named empire, and the sun-worship of the latter, naturally attracted their notice, and stimulated their curiosity; but although they remarked the strange animals which they for the first time saw, they were quite unable to estimate justly their novelty, and the relations they bore to the animal inhabitants of the world which the follow-long become extinct there. ers of Columbus had left behind them. Buffon was one of the first to point out Yet the animal population, or fauna, of many general considerations of interest the New World was a strangely different with respect to the diversity existing beone from that of Europe, Africa, and Asia. tween the fauna of the Old World and This is especially the case if we consider that of America,* but the flora of America the animals which inhabit South America. is also interesting and peculiar in many There, in the first place, we find a great respects. In the north we find no less number of monkeys, but not one which than one hundred and fifty-five kinds of has also a home on the other side of the trees, amongst which are magnolias, tulip Atlantic. They are different in the as- trees, liquid amba, sassafras, the catalpa, pect of their faces; different in the num- butternut, black walnut, the deciduous ber of their teeth; and different in that cypress, the Virginia creeper, the red mamany of them have the power of firmly ple and the sumach, the gigantic Wellinggrasping with the end of the tail t ―atonia, the Douglas fir, Pinus insignis, P. power which no Old World ape possesses. macrocarpa, Thuya gigantea, T. Lobbii, A whole family of bats is found in Amer- Picea Nobilis and P. lasiocarpa, as well ica which has no representation in other as the cypresses Lawsoniana and Lamregions; and there alone is the true vam bertiana. Further south the flora bepyre bat found - a creature formed to comes one of the richest in the world. live exclusively by blood-sucking, and of Amongst the peculiar forms there found an almost incredible voracity. In Amer- are the giant water lily (Victoria regia), ica alone do we find such creatures as the the whole of the Bromeliacea, all the raccoon and costi, the fur-bearing chin- Cacti but two,f all the agaves and yucchilla, the agouti, and guinea pig, with cas, the araucaria, the buddlea, and the their gigantic cousin the capybara; also superb Lapageria rosea, while in the adtree porcupines and pouched rats. When jacent Southern Ocean is found that most the Spaniards landed in the New World, wonderful seaweed (Macrocystis), which not a single horse existed within it, though may attain the enormous length of seven ancient kinds of horses had lived there, hundred feet. and become extinct long before their advent. Neither did they find oxen, or sheep, or camels; there was but the llama the natives' only beast of burden while instead of hogs there were pecca. ries. Two or three kinds of tapir range the Andes, creatures no species of which is elsewhere found, save a different one in the Malay Archipelago.

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Far more curious and exceptional, how ever, than any of the creatures yet referred

• In one or two of the West Indian islands some African monkeys have been introduced by some one, and now run wild.

This evidently adapts them, even better than the apes of the Old World are adapted, for living in trees. Brazil contains the largest forest area in the world, and various kinds of animals which live there have special adaptations of structure for forest life which their cousins of other regions are not provided with. Of the genus Desmodus.

It might well seem that with the discovery of America the greatest novelties of the natural world in this planet were finally disclosed, and that no such surprise could be reserved for the adventurous Spaniards' successors in other ages. Such, however, was not to be the case. It was reserved for that great empire which extends more widely than did that of the emperor Charles V. our own empire — to become the exclusive possessors of a

See his "Histoire Naturelle," vol. ix., wherein is a chapter on the animals of the Old and New Worlds. He speculates on the puma, jaguar, ocelot, and peccary, being degradations of Old World forms. He thought that the American apes, agoutis, and ant-eaters might also be changed and degraded kinds, but he took the opossum, sloths, and tapirs to be original species.

† Namely, one cactus found in Ceylon and one in western Africa.

No mon

tralia. Amongst the more conspicuous of its animals was the kangaroo. It is now a little more than a hundred and sixteen years since that animal was first distinctly seen by English observers.*

third and newest world, the peculiarity of | iar forms would be no less surprising to the natural productions of which far ex- the new comer than the strangeness of the ceeds the peculiarity of the vast region unfamiliar forms he met with. which stretches from the Arctic Circle to keys bounded through its forest glades, no Cape Horn. catlike forms, no bears, wolves, civets, or This third and newest world is the foxes were to be found amidst its beasts world of Australia-or, as it was earlier of prey. No squirrels clambered and called, "Austral-Asia." The races of sported in its trees, or hares or rabbits men who inhabited it were, at first sight, on its plains, from which all cattle, deer, singularly uninteresting when compared antelopes, or goats were still more conwith the Mexicans and Peruvians as they spicuously absent. Instead of these, a were when originally discovered. But vast variety of opossum-like creatures of the non-human animal population and the all sizes and organized for the most plants, the fauna and the flora, of Aus- different modes of life, alone existed. tralia presented the most wonderful sur- The world, which (zoologically considered) prise and anomalous forms, the true na- continually grows more prosaic, has no ture of some of which is yet an unsolved such treat left in store for any explorer as problem for the biologist. Moreover, it offered to those who first explored Auswhen discoveries began to be made there, scientific knowledge being much further advanced than it was in the days of the discovery of America, the natural peculiarities of the new land were able to be far more readily appreciated. What must not have been the delight, the enchant ment of a naturalist like Sir Joseph Banks, on first landing and walking in such a very fairyland of scientific novelty as he found in Australia! To have found one's self for the first time amongst the plants and animals of that continent must have been like finding one's self for the first time on the surface of a new planet. The botanist must have been at once astonished and delighted with the different kinds of gum-trees (Eucalyptus), some of gigantic size, the grass gum-trees (Xanthorrhea), the various acacias with their vertical leaf-stalks (phyllodes) simulating leaves; the casurina, and so many other vegetable novelties. The ornithologist would be struck with so many cockatoos, brush-tongued lories, and many new parrots; with the brush turkey (the mound-making birds, which alone of the feathered tribes hatch their eggs, not by the heat of the body, but by artificial heat), the lyre birds, the honeysuckers, the emeu, and a multitude of other altogether new species, found in no other part of the world's surface, while the absence throughout the entire continent of woodpeckers, pheasants, and other familiar forms, might also have surprised him greatly. But it would be by no means the birds alone which would astonish the zoologist. The bizarre frilled lizard might have crossed his path, and that other lizard, the repulsive aspect of whose back and yellow body, beset with many spines, has gained the appellation of Moloch hor ridus. As to beasts, the absence of famil

At the recommendation and request of the Royal Society, Captain (then Lieutenant) Cook set sail in May, 1768, in the ship "Endeavor," on a voyage of exploration, and for the observation of the transit of Venus of the year 1769, which transit the travellers observed, from the Society Islands, on June 3rd in that year. In the spring of the following year the ship started from New Zealand to the eastern coast of New Holland, visiting, amongst other places, a spot which, on account of the number of plants found there by Mr. (afterwards Sir Joseph) Banks, received the name of Botany Bay. Afterwards, when detained in Endeavor River (about 15° S. lat.) by the need of repairing a hole made in the vessel by a rock (part of which, fortunately, itself stuck in the hole it made), Captain Cook tells us that on Friday, June 22, 1770, "some of the people were sent on the other side of the water to shoot pigeons for the sick, who at their return reported that they had seen an animal as large as a greyhound, of a slender make, a mouse color, and extremely soft." On the next day he tells us:

This day almost everybody had seen the animal which the pigeon-shooters had brought an

account of the day before; and one of the seatold us on his return that he verily believed he men, who had been rambling in the woods,

Cornelius de Bruins, a Dutch traveller, saw it so early as 1711, in captivity in a garden in Batavia, and figured it (Reizen over Moskovie, door Persie en Indie, scribed by Pallas, Act. Acad. Sc. Petrop., 1777, pt. 2, Amsterdam, 1714, p. 374, fig 213). It was also dep. 299, tab. 4, figs. 4 and 5.


had seen the devil. We naturally inquired in what form he had appeared, and his answer was, as large as a one-gallon keg, and very like it; he had horns and wings, yet he crept so slowly through the grass that, if I had not been afeared, I might have touched him." This formidable apparition was afterwards, however, discovered to have been a bat (a fly. ing fox).

Early the next day [Captain Cook continues] as I was walking in the morning, at a little distance from the ship, I saw myself one of the animals which had been described; it was of a light mouse color, and in size and shape much resembled a greyhound; it had a long tail also, which it carried like a greyhound; and I should have taken it for a wild dog if, instead of running, it had not leapt like a hare or deer.

Mr. Banks also had an imperfect view of this animal, and was of opinion that its species was hitherto unknown. The work exhibits an excellent figure of the animal. Again, on Sunday, July 8, being still in Endeavor River, Captain Cook tells us that some of the crew

set out with the first dawn, in search of game, and in a walk of many miles they saw four animals of the same kind, two of which Mr. Banks' greyhound fairly chased; but they threw him out at a great distance, by leaping over the long, thick grass, which prevented his running. This animal was observed not to run upon four legs, but to bound and leap forward upon two, like the jerboa.

Finally, on Sunday, July 14th, Mr. Gore, who went out with his gun, had the good for tune to kill one of these animals which had been so much the subject of speculation; [adding] this animal is called by the natives kangaroo.

The next day (Sunday, July 15th) our kangaroo was dressed for dinner, and proved most excellent meat.

"marsupial," a structure possessed by no beasts which are not found in the Australian region with the single exception of the opossums of America, which are marsupial also.

The group of marsupial animals is one of very exceptional interest, but in order to understand wherein this interest lies, it is necessary to have a certain preliminary notion of the mass of beasts or "mammals" which are not marsupials.

All mammals, whether marsupial or not, constitute what is zoologically called a CLASS of animals — viz., the class Mammalia, composed of "mammals,” i.e., of animals which suckle their young.

This class is divided into a number of orders as follows:

(1.) The order to which men and apes belong, the order Primates.

(2.) The order to which dogs, cats, wea sels, bears, civets, and seals belong, the order Carnivora.

(3.) The order to which all cattle belong, the order Ungulata.

(4.) The order of whales and porpoises, or Cetacea.

(5.) The order of elephants, Proboscidea.

and dugong belong, as well as the extinct (6.) The order to which the manstee Rhytina-the skeleton of which was to be seen last year in the Fisheries Exhibition, the order Sirenia.

(7.) The order containing the moles, hedgehogs, shrews and their allies, the Insectivora.

(8.) The order of bats, Chiroptera.

(9.) The order of gnawing animals, such as the rat, squirrel, rabbit, and guinea pig,

the order Rodentia.

(10.) The order of the sloths, true ant eaters, the pangolius, the aard-vark, and

Such is the earliest notice of this crea- the armadillos, the Edentata. ture's observation by Englishmen.

The kangaroo, and various other Australian beasts-notably the duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus) and the spiny ant-eater (Echidna) — soon attracted much attention. Nevertheless, the amount of divergence existing between the structure of the beasts in this newest world and that of the beasts of the rest of this planet's surface, was not appraised at its just value till long afterwards not till after the time even of the illustrious George Cuvier.

With the exception of the native dog the dingo (probably introduced by man) one kind of rat, and a few bats, all the beasts of Australia are of a special kind of structure technically spoken of as

Now these ten orders include animals very different both in appearance and structure. The squirrel and the whale are not very much alike, neither does a bat closely resemble a horse, nor is an elephant very like a mouse. Nevertheless all these ten orders of creatures, different as they may be in size, habit, and appearance, yet form one natural group united by a variety of very important characters which every member of the group possesses. It is convenient to be able to speak of this group of ten orders as one whole, and to be able to do this we must distinguish them by some com. mon name, and the common names which have been given them are those of Placentalia or Monodelphia, and they may be

spoken of altogether as "placental" or as | obtains between the Marsupialia and the "monodelphous " mammals.*

Another point to note is, that different as are the different orders of placentals, nevertheless the kinds contained in each placental (a monodelphous "order") are tolerably alike. This is obviously the e.g., with the creatures which make up the order of bats, and with those which respectively compose the orders of whales and porpoises, of gnawing animals, of cattle, and of apes and man.


When, however, we pass to the next, or eleventh order of mammals, we find that that order is a singularly varied one, and at the same time widely distinct from any of the other ten. This eleventh order is the order Marsupialia, and includes all marsupials that is, almost the whole of the Australian beasts, together with the opossums of America.

The marsupial order is much more varied than any of the placental orders, for it contains creatures which present analogies with several of the latter namely, with Carnivora, Insectivora, Rodentia, Ungulata, and Edentata respectively.

Thus, it contains carnivorous creatures, such as the native cats (Dasyurus), and the Tasmanian wolf (Thylacinus) and their allies, which, as their English names imply, may be said to parallel monodelphous carnivora.

Monotremata. The last is the lowest of all the mammalian orders, because it presents great differences of structure from all these orders, and shows various affinities to creatures which are reckoned as inferior to the class of beasts—namely, to birds and reptiles. In what these differences consist cannot here be fully explained. Too much space would be required in order to make any such explanation intelligible. It must suffice to say that in the structure of the bones of the shoulder, and those of the ear and jaw, in the conditions of the renal apparatus and of the parts adjacent thereto, there are (in the platypus and echidna) wide divergences from what we find in all other mammals, and considerable approxima tions to what we find in birds and reptiles.

What indications do the fauna and flora of this newest world afford as to its age? Have we here a rare and still surviving population which has elsewhere become extinct, or has this isolated land been the theatre of a peculiar and more recent creation - or "evolution," to use the language made familiar by modern science?

It has now been known for the best part of a century that the animal popula tion of the earth has changed from time to time, new and for the most part higher species successively replacing, at irregu lar intervals, older and in the main less It also comprises small insect-eating highly developed forms of life. For the opossums (Perameles, Phascogale, etc.), last quarter of a century it has been growas well as the American opossums (Didel-ing continually more and more probable phys) which represent placental insectiv


The tree and flying opossums (Phalangista and Petaurus) much resemble rodents in their habits, while the wombat (Phascolomys) is quite rodent in its dentition.

The kangaroos (Macropus and Hypsiprymnus), roving and grazing over widespread plains, may be said to represent amongst marsupials the deer and antelope of the monodelphous series of animals.

It is the echidna which reminds us most of the Edentata, but the echidna and the platypus form a group by themselves which has at least the rank of a distinct order, called Monotremata. We say "at least," because, different as is the marsupial order from the whole of the ten higher or placental orders, that difference is vastly exceeded by the distinction which *The term "placental" refers to a mode of reproduction; "monodelphous to a structural condition of the organs serving that function."

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that the true relation between older and more recent forms is that of direct parentage, new species being slowly or quickly "evolved" from progenitors of dissimilar kinds by the combined action of internal powers and external conditions. If we accept this now generally adopted view, how are we to regard these Australian beasts? Are we to regard them as the last survivors of forms once generally spread over the earth's surface, or as a peculiar local development of comparatively modern times?

The suggestion has been made that there was at one period a widely spread monotrematous fauna (of which the platypus and echidna are the sole survivors), afterwards succeeded by a generally dif fused marsupial fauna, which has since been replaced by varieties of placental mammalian life. For the existence, at any period, of a widely spread monotrematous fauna there is as yet, however, no tittle of evidence.

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