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OVER THE SEA.
I see the kirk-crowned sward of Kiel, I am looking back through the days and weeks
The old grey cross against the sky: That lie in the shadowy land of yore,
The eastward-ordered grassy graves, And'a waking spirit stirs and speaks,
Where holy generations lie. The spirit of dead years gone before,
I seem to see in visions fair, Speaks with a murmur of mournful sighs,
The summer Sundays long ago : In a voice that carries the sound of tears,
The little church — his kingly head And lighting the lamp of its passionate eyes,
Stooping to pass its lintel low. It opens the shroud of the buried years.
I hear the old, familiar sounds The wind is blowing up from the wold,
That broke, but did not mar the calm : The stars are shining down on the sea,
The clear, sweet piping of the lark, But the wind is bleak, and the light is cold,
The plaintive cadence of the Psalm. And 'tis only of pain they speak to me.
But past the shores of Achabeig, For the wind once toyed with a silken tress,
By craggy Dhucraig — AchnahawAnd the stars once shone on a saintly face;
By Savary's beach and wooded knoll And how can a faithful love grow less?
We swiftly sweep, and nearer draw Or a new love take the old love's place?
To where, the midmost channel reached, The sea is swirling up to my feet,
Blest Fuinary I behold once more: Singing its monody, soft and low;
The double gables, flanked with trees, But the song of the sea is deadly sweet,
The gleaming arch above the door. For I mind how it slew me years ago.
And ev'ry spot on which I gaze, We had been parted, I and she,
From sandy beach to cairn-topped ben, With many a hundred miles between,
Islands and cottage, fields and burns, And now she was coming across the sea,
Green Fingal's bill, the bridge, the glen : (Oh, the sky was blue and the waves were all — all to-day but speak to me, green !)
Of that bright past forever filed, Coming - and yet she never came !
Of him whose presence haunts them all Meeting -- and yet we met no more!
A year past numbered with the dead. She heard me not when I called her name, Lo, the Grey Isles ! - our paddles forge Though the dead might have heard me on Througlı rushing tides a track of foam, that shore.
The sullen shores of Mull are gained,
And I once more have lost my home. Oh, love, though my eyes but dimly see,
In the day when the sea gives up her dead.
TO KING HUMBERT OF ITALY.
'Mid rocks and Alpine snows in other days PASSING MORVEN,
A rugged cradle, where from sire to son
Thy hardy race first learnt their simple ways — July 31, 1883.
A people's acclamation made thee heir Down Mull's dark sound, from port to port,
Of all that lies within th' historic bound The vessel holds upon her way:
Of gracious Italy - her cities fair, From green Lochaline's wooded shore,
Her hoary monuments, her hallowed ground; To yonder castle-crowned bay.
Sad Venice, glorious Florence, Capri's isle,
Rome's crumbling walls, and Naples' fatal And silent, 'mid a motley throng
smile. Of strangers, on her deck I stand :
And thou hast shown thee worthy of thy place, Watching, with thoughts unutterable,
Because alone thou didst not fear to die; The glory of the gliding land.
But mindful of thy birth and royal race,
Where Death's enve noin'd shafts did thickest O land of Morven ! dearer far To me than fairest spot of earth :
Thou like a king didst seek him in his lair, O land on which my eyes first looked,
The King of Terrors. Wherefore on that day The land that gave my fathers birth. His darts were quenched; for they, who greatly
dare, Scanning to-day thy winding shores,
With death and pestilence unharmed may play. Although as through a haze of tears, O noble prince ! well hast thou done thy part, I feel anew thy wondrous spell,
And won a people's trust, a people's heart. Rich heirloom of a hundred years.
Froin The British Quarterly Review. world, the MS. was entrusted to a comPASCAL'S “PENSEES." +
mittee, who conceived themselves at libAMONG the books which have moved, erty to retrench, to prune, and to modify, and continue to move the world, is one
to shape what was formless. - so giving which considered in itself and in its his. of necessity a different result to the first
idea and to weaken what was strong. tory is unique. For, properly speaking, it is not a book at all, but rather an undi. Yet in spite of this, and in spite of the gested heap of detached thoughts and wholly different minds of the men affected fragments for a book which was only par
by the “ Pensées,” they have had Con
dorcet as an editor, and Voltaire as a tially written, if even fully planned. Pascal took in hand his great work against work on Port Royal, brought to bear on
commentator; Sainte-Beuve, in his great atheists and unbelievers in the thirty-fifth them and on the character of Pascal the year of his age, after finishing the “Pro.
whole vincial Letters” in the spring of 1657. A
power of his searching and luminous certain languor had succeeded to that vast editors in France, MM. Faugère, Havet,
criticism, while no less than three modern intellectual effort, carried to so triumphant and Molinier, have gone back to the orig. a conclusion, and, always in feeble health, inal MSS., have discussed each line and he was able during that year only to word and marginal mark, have arranged sketch in part the course his work would
and rearranged each fragment to see take, to write fully, and with great elabo.
where best it would fit, and, in a word, ration, certain paragraphs and portions of
have treated this book, which is no book, definite chapters, and to make notes, after. wards to be expanded viva voce for lec- as one of the sacred scriptures of the
world. These men have labored, and entures at Port Royal. But in the following spring he was attacked by neuralgia in tering into their labors we may study the the face, which proved to be the begin. pleasure and profit
, and find order arise
thoughts, the man, and the time with ning of other pervous affections, taking
out of the disorder. from him all power of sustained labor,
As justifying and explaining mediæval racking his body with pain, and obliging
monachisin and asceticism, a modern him either to depend not a little on the aid of an illiterate servant as amanuensis, and foulness of the time, by a natural
writer has well said : “ The very ferocity or to jot down his own thoughts on sepa. revulsion, called forth at the same time rate slips of paper, which he was never the apostolic holiness and the Manichean able to work out nor to fit into their place. asceticism of the mediæval saints. The These have lain strewn, so to speak, on world was so bad that to be saints at all the world like the feathers scattered by the fairy Disorder; it has been the task of they were compelled to go out of the
world.”* In the same manner the terrimany editors to try and restore them ac ble laxity of what is called society in cording to the plan in Pascal's mind, not
France fully known to them, and only in part sanctity of cloistered life, and poisoned
a laxity which had invaded the described by him to his most intimate
wells of religion — called out the friends. Then, when the pen fell from the dead austere holiness of Port Royal, and of the
lives associated with it during, roughly hand, and his family determined that the thoughts so left should be given to the speaking, the last century of its existence.
Among these lives that of Pascal is the
one which most naturally, even more than 1. Port Royal. Par C. A. Sainte-Beuve. Paris, that of Le grand Arnauld, or La mère 2. Port Royal. By Charles Beard, B.A. Lon- Angélique, rises to our mind when we
hear the name of the great abbey. 3. Pensées, Fragments et Lettres de Blaise Pascal.
The Cistercian Convent of Port Royal Par M. PROSPER FAUGERE. Paris, 1844.
Par Ernest Havet. Deuxi- des Champs is, or rather was, for scarce ème edition. Paris, 1866
one stone is left upon another, about eigh5. Les Pensées de Blaise Pascal. Par AUGUSTE MOLINIER. Paris, 1877-9.
• C. Kingsley, preface to The Saint's Tragedy.
4. Pensées de Pascal
teen miles from Paris, in a pleasant and these made, when made, to any priest' narrow valley, such as the order of St. and not to bim appointed by authority, Bernard always chose. "He established sick sisters uncared for, the food of the his monasteries," says one of the Port community stinted, together with grave Royal historians, "in deep valleys where personal imputations against the abbess. the view of the world was excluded, and The lady who succeeded her when she nothing but the heaven could be seen." ran away reformed the kitchen at any Or, as the old lines have it
rate, and does not appear to have been Bernardus valles, colles Benedictus amabat,
open to blame. But — and nothing shows Oppida Franciscus, magnas Ignatius urbes.
the whole state of feeling outside and in
side the convent more than this — she Valleys Bernard chose : but Bennet built on took as assistant superior, with, as it would
the mountains : Francis in smaller towns: where men throng little girl aged seven years, Jaqueline
seem, the vested right of succession, a thickest Ignatius.
Marie Arnauld, whose parents had caused Founded in the first decade of the thir. her to enter into religion for that end. teenth century, and presumably fulfilling The whole circumstances were amaz.. its functions as a place of pious retreat ingly discreditable, and go far to justify and prayer for many years, it had become the cynical remark of a distinguished judge lax and irregular at the opening of the of our own days, who has said that "it is sixteenth century. The abbot of Citeaux, always the very best persons who do the visitor of the convent, made his formal very worst things.” M. Antoine Arnauld, visitation in 1504, and found, first, that the father of the infant nun, caine of a the divine offices were ill suny, and cele good family in what would now be called brated with extreme irregularity. Before the upper-middle class; an advocate in all things, he says, they must get an abbey great practice, a man esteemed by all as clock as one means to punctuality. Sec. honorable and religious, selected by the ond — which would seem much more im- University of Paris as their counsel portant in these days the dormitories against the Jesuits, the confidential adwere ill arranged; in fact, there was a viser of half the great world of Paris. He common dormitory, the rule of strict se had ten children, and not unnaturally in clusion was not at all observed. Thirdly, those days looked to the convent as the the nuns wore fashionable dresses with destiny of some of his daughters; since to wide sleeves and trains, the price of which, a man in his position to ask for them the said a preacher of those days, would have post of abbess, or at least of assistant sumaintained a whole poor family; and when perior, was to gain it. The appointments the fashion changed they thought that were in the patronage of the crown, and it they did much for God in making these was easily arranged that the abbess of dresses, used and soiled though they Port Royal should nominate Jaqueline Arwere, into altar coverings. They even nauld as her assistant, and that a similar wore jewels, forgetting that a nun was post at St. Cyr should be filled by Jeanne, dead, and that trinkets were ill suited to a still younger sister; the office of abbess a corpse.
then vacant being given to a lady who was In 1572 and 1574 further visitations bound to resign when Jeanne reached the showed a still worse state of things, under age of twenty. The future abbess of Port a careless abbess who was threatened Royal was placed for her religious educawith excommunication, and who ended by tion at yet another Cistercian abbey, that deserting her convent on the pretext that of Manbuisson, the superior of which was she was troubled by the wars of the a pluralist, being also abbess of BertauLeague. She betook herself to an abbey court near Amiens. These high positions in Normandy, where, presumably, she was Madame Angélique d'Estrées owed not to less looked after. These visitations dis- any exalted spirituality – such is scarcely covered irreverent services, sacraments to be expected when ecclesiastical offices disregarded, confessions neglected, and I are crown appointments - but to the fact
that she was the sister of La belle Gabri- | bis part in the masquerades, which were a elle, the mistress of Henry IV. The easy favorite diversion of the community. The manners of the time placed no barrier nuns also wore masks on occasions, and, between the intercourse of the cloistered which seems to have been considered allady and her of the court, who often re. most as worldly, gloves. Much of this, tired for a while to her sister's convent however, was at once set to rights. Mafor country air; and Madame Angélique dame Arnauld, having turned out the disd'Estrées obtained the second abbey as solute nun of thirty-three, found a prioress, being within an easy distance from Paris, a Madame du Pont, to take management not too far for a visit from the king when of the house, which she did fairly well, hunting. Under this singular instructress and being herself a busy, practical woman, Jaqueline Arnauld passed her novitiate, she and other members of the family were and at the age of nine made her profeso constantly driving over from Paris withsion, changing her name to Angélique in out notice to visit the young superior. compliment to Madame d'Estrées. It was While manifesting no remarkable sanctity and is common that a nun on quitting the - how was it possible ? — La mère Angé. world should take a new name, but there lique said her offices regularly, and read a was a special reason in the case under good deal – romances and Roman history consideration. For when the original ar. being her chief study. M. Arnauld, when rangement that Jaqueline should after the law courts were not sitting, came to wards succeed to Port Royal was proposed stay occasionally at the nunnery, and the at Rome, the ratification of the royal ap great patron of the family, King Henry pointment was absolutely refused by the IV., knowing that the father of the abbess. pope, and the whole affair was for some was there, bimself arrived, during one of time in abeyance. But now the abbess bis hunting excursions. The little abbess, was dead, and without sanction from preceded by her cross-bearer and followed Rome the assistant superior could not by her train of nuns, went to meet his take her place. In applying to the pope Majesty, and had prudently put on pat. all mention of Jaqueline Arnauld was tens, so that the king thoug!it her very. dropped, and Angélique was named to his tall for her age. He had never even af.. Holiness, accompanied by the false state. fected to believe the fiction which had ment that her age was seventeen. This been presented to the pope. age seemed scarce sufficient, and it needed It is not strange that this life of routine all the diplomacy of Cardinal Ossat to undignified by devotion, yet undiversified carry the point and gain consent at last to by the distractions which had made the the king's nomination. It is difficult to life of worse nuns endurable to them, besee why, if a direct falsehood were to be came intolerable to Anyélique; she saw a told at all, the Arnaulds and their sup-way of escape in the fact that her profes. porters drew the line at seventeen, and sion had been made before the lawful age. shrank from declaring Jaqueline to be of She determined to leave the religious any age which might have satisfied the life; and, as a preliminary, good Catholic pope without further trouble.
though she was, determined to run away The condition of the community over and take shelter with her Huguenot aunts. which this infant was called to preside She was only prevented doing so by an was scandalous beyond measure. There illness, during which she was removed to were thirteen nuns, of whom the eldest her mother's care and tenderly nursed. was thirty-three, and as she was the eldest, Her father, becoming at any rate parily so she was the worst of the whole, and aware of what was passing in his daughMadame Arnauld, mother of the abbess, ter's mind, insisted on her signing a paper had to exert her influence to have her in which she renewed her vows; and she removed. Religious ceremonies had been returned to her post, still weak, but more reduced to their lowest possible measure, resigned, touched by the pleasure with the official confessor could barely read, which the nuns saw her return, and disbut he was able more intelligently to take | posed to find comfort and rest in reading
religious books, rather than romances, as | tain day they were wrought up to a great heretofore.
renunciation, and renewing their vows of But the great awakening of her own poverty, cast all their little private posses. religious life, and as a consequence that sions into the common stock. It were of others, was at hand. A certain Père long and needless to relate all that hapBasile passing by one evening, came to pened thereafter in the conventual reform the convent, and offered to preach. The the new and unaccustomed sanctity of abbess, then just coming in from the gar. the cloister, even against M. Arnauld den, refused, as the hour was late, but she himself, the rigid enforcement of poverty, afterwards consented. His subject was the seclusion even within the seclusion of the humility of the Son of God in his birth the convent in which the abbess and the and in his cradle. But how he treated stricter nuns shut themselves, and with. the subject, or what were his words, the all this, as the inner motive of the whole, Mère Angélique could never tell. She the passionate fervor of religion which only knew that her heart was touched by steeped the souls of La mère Angélique divine grace, and that the hour was as and of those who fell under her influence. the dawn, the light whereof increased From Port Royal the reform spread. unto the perfect day. The instrument of The most relaxed convents, even Man. this conversion was strangely ill adapted buisson, still under the profligate rule of to carry on the work begun by his means. Madame d'Estrées, felt the influence of, He was dissolute in his life, he had al. or were directly set in order by La mère ready proved the cause of scandal in more Angélique ; and, refuting the proverb that than one religious house, so that any help a prophet has no honor in his own coun. from such a man to a girl of sixteen wish- try, the whole Arnauld family one after ing to reform herself and her convent was another succumbed to the holy zeal of this out of the question. Nor did much assist. first convert. Six sisters became nuns of ance come from other advisers to whom Port Royal, two brothers, and four neph. she turned. One was too stero and an- ews were specially connected with it. other too little able to understand what La mère Angélique was fortunate in the this new crisis in a spiritual life meant; confessors and directors whom she chose so that, thrown on her own resources, La in this time of change, her spiritual advismère Angélique plunged into excesses of ers for many years ; but neither their unchecked austerity: Neither from within names nor they themselves are of impor. nor without could she gain aid or sympa- tance in our rapid sketch of the reform at thy, for her father disapproved of the at. Port Royal. Nor is it necessary to distempted reform, as well as of its exagger-linguish between the two houses which ated asceticism. But on All Saints Day, belonged to the community, that in Paris 1608, after she bad returned from a visit and that in Port Royal des Champs, or to to her home more sad and discouraged trace the migrations from one to the than she had ever been, and as it would other. It is enough to explain that from seem six months after the visit of the itin- the great reform there arose not only the erant Capuchin, there came another out. strict and populous convent or convents pouring of grace, which made all clear, with their schools of girls, but also a com. and was the true beginning of what con. munity of brothers at Port Royal, wor. cerns us in the history of Port Royal. shipping in the convent church, under,
This time the moving cause was the for the most part, the same confessor. It preaching of a Bernardine monk, for M. was headed, so far as we can speak of a Arnauld had found means to keep away head in so democratic a community, by the too exciting Capuchin. He spoke on relatives of the abbess, these breibren the beatitude, “ Blessed are they who are having under them a number of young persecuted for righteousness' sake," and men and boys also pursuing their studies. ihe shaft from his bow aimed at a venture It need hardly be said that the separation was driven home where it struck by one between the two bodies was carefully of the nuns, who said to the abbess, maintained, close as was the community “ You, madam, if you choose, may be one of sympathy of religion and interest, made of the blessed who suffer for righteous. more intimate by the boods of neighbor. ness."
hood and of united worship. Hence came struggles of spirit and of It was a part of the peculiarity of this conscience which once more seriously un religious revival, extending over many dermined her health, also entreaties and years, of which the above is a hurried discussions with the sisters, till on a cer- sketch, that it necessarily affected the