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for the whole system of weights and is said to possess the advantages of greater
The following account of the hardness and uniformity than that of the origin of this system (says Dr. Wagener) gray and other kinds. The seed is pointed contains fact and fancy mingled, but it is at the ends, and from one point to the easy to distinguish between them. In the other the length is somewhat greater than reign of the emperor Hoang-ti, who ruled in the direction at right angles. Lyngover China in the twenty-seventh century lun now fixed the length of the pipe, before Christ, the scholar Lyng-lun was which gave the keynote at eighty-one commissioned to complete the musical grains of the seed placed lengthwise in a system which had been discovered two row. But when the grains were placed hundred and fifty years earlier, and par- breadthwise it took one hundred grains to ticularly to lay down fixed rules for mak. give the same length. Thus the double ing musical instruments. Naturally, he division of 9X9 and 10X 10 was naturally had to commence with the bamboo, which arrived at. According to the dimension had already been long used to give the in question, it was called a musical or an note for other instruments. He therefore ordinary foot, the latter being introduced betook himself to the province of Siyung with the decimal subdivision as a measure in north-western China, where, on the of length. The breadth of a grain of seed northern slope of a range of high moun. was i fen (a line), 10 fen=1 tsun (an tains, a species of bamboo grew, which, inch), io tsun =i che (a foot), so che =
=I on account of its uniformity and its struc-chang, 10 chang
In subsequent ture, being neither too hard nor too soft, times the line was divided into tenths, was exceedingly suitable for a wind instru- bundredths, etc. Lyng-lun also laid down ment. He cut one down and tried it. rules for the breadth as well as for the Tradition says that gave the same note length of the pipe, because, although the as his own voice when he was excited by note is essentially dependent on the length, no emotion; and the rippling of the it is nevertheless necessary for its purity sources of the great Hoang-ho, or Yellow that the pipe should be neither too broad River, which were in the vicinity, followed nor too narrow. He therefore fixed the in the same tope. At the same time the circumference on the inside at nine grains fabulous bird Fung-Hiang, accompanied laid lengthwise. With these dimensions, by his mate, fiew to the place. Both namely, a length of eighty.one grains, and perched themselves on a neighboring an internal circumference of nine, the pipe branch, and commenced a song, in the which gives the keynote contains just course of which each of the birds gave six twelve hundred grains, and this volume separate notes. These are the notes which accordingly was made the unit of dry are called the six male and the six female measure, and was called a yo; 2 yo=I tones in the scale discovered by Lyng-lun, ko, 10 ko=i cheng, 10 cheng= I ten, 10 and which correspond to the ancient doc ten = 1 hu. So far we see how the units trine of the male and female principles in of length and dry measure were connected nature. As a matter of course, the deep with the musical keynote. The twelve est of the male notes was the one already notes of the scale are all derived from the discovered by the philosopher himself. keynote, and are to a certain extent comHe now endeavored to reproduce the prehended in it. Hence if the twelve hun. other notes with the help of bamboo pipes, dred grains contained in the pipe are and succeeded. His task was now to lay divided among the twelve notes it gives down fixed rules as to the length of the to each a hundred, and the weight of these pipes, so that thenceforth they could be hundred grains was made by Lyny-lun the easily constructed everywhere. For this unit of weight. This was divided and reason, and also because such a scale of subdivided on the decimal system until a notes depends upon slight differences of single grain became the lowest weight of length, and there were scarcely at this all. At a later period even the coinage time instruments to divide great lengths, became connected with this system, for he necessarily arrived at the notion of one of the weights, the leang, correspond: passing from the less to the greater, and ing to our ounce, became the weight of of laying down an adequately small natural metal put into a coin, so that the modern unit for his measurements. That could be tnel, in which mercantile quotations are nothing else but a grain of seed; and now found every day in the Times, is merely the point was to get seeds of the greatest an ounce of silver, and is thus directly possible uniformity. He chose a sort of connected with the musical scale. Finally, millet, the Sorghum rubrum, the seed of says Dr. Wagener, it appears from this which is of a dark brown color, and which account that, in China, weights, measures,
coinage, and the tuning of musical instru- ures, appears as if he were poor, and that ments have been derived quite consist the superior man, whose virtue is comently from a constant unit supplied by plete, is yet, to outward seeming, stupid. nature herself, and that the essentials of Put away your proud air and many desires, this system are over forty-six hundred your insinuating habit and wild will.
These are of no advantage to you. This is what I have to tell you.”. Confucius, when he left him, said to his disciples: “I know how birds can Ay, how fishes
can swim, and how beasts can run. And From Progress.
the runner may be snared, the swimmer LAOU-TSZE AND THE TAOU-TEH KING.
may be hooked, and the flyer may be shot In China three religions exist side by by the arrow. But there is the dragon. side: Confucianism, which is the religion I cannot tell how he mounts on the wind of the State and the educated classes, through the clouds, and rises to heaven. Buddhism, which was introduced into Today I have seen Laou-tsze, and can China from India in the century before only compare him to the dragon.” The the Christian era, and Taouism, which dragon being the Chinese symbol of claims as its founder Laou-tsze, author of power, this was intended as a compliment. the Taou-teh King. The doctrines of The Taou-teh King, the only writing of Laou-tsze, however, are no more to be the old philosopher, is a short but very gathered from the practices of the Taouists noticeable product of ancient philosophy. than those of Jesus from the Jesuits. It | It is not half the size of the Gospel of is with the sage and his thought we have Mark, yet is full of pithy though often to do, and not with the corruptions of obscure utterances. Laou-tsze is a mystic those who call themselves his followers. in the sense that his thought goes deeper The name Laou-tsze signifies either the than his language. Essentially he is a old son
or "the old philosopher.” The Quietist, with the quietist's disregard of former is derived from a fabulous account aught save equanimity. “There is nothing of the sage which makes him to have re. like keeping the inner man,” he declares mained seventy-two years before birth in (Chap. 5, Rev. J. Chalmers's translation). his mother's womb. He is said to have “He who knows others is wise. He who been born from her side, and to have had knows himself is enlightened. He who white hair at birth. “The old or venerable conquers others is strong. He who conphilosopher,” however, is the more rea- quers himself is inighty. He who knows sonable account of the designation. Ac- when he has enough is rich” (chap. 33). cording to the great Chinese historian Of a personal God Laou-tsze knew nothSze-ma-Tseen, Laou-tsze's name was Uhr ing. The supreme thing with him is (an ear) and his surname Le (a plum-tree). Taou, the right way or course of nature. From this have arisen myths of his having The title of his book may be compared to large ears and being born under a plum- the Buddhist Dhammapada, or Footsteps tree. The date of his birth is usually of Virtue. The word Taou is not the ingiven as 604 B.C., and as he lived to a vention of Laou-tsze. It was often in the great age he was probably contemporary mouth of Confucius, and with him it meant with Pythagoras, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and the way." Buddhists also used it in the Gautama, as he certainly was with his sense of "intelligence" and "reason." fellow-countryman Confucius, though the Many Christians are under the delusion latter was his junior by fifty years. There that humility, forbearance, and forgiveness was little in common between the medita. are peculiarly Christian virtues, though tive recluse and the practical sociologist. they were taught both by Chinese and The interview between Confucius and Indian moralists ages before Christ. The Laou-tsze might be compared to a talk doctrine of returning good for evil, so disbetween Comte and Carlyle. Confucius tinctly enunciated by Gautama (Dhammahad been expatiating on the wisdom of pada 5, 197, 223), is as certainly enforced the ancients. Laou-tsze said: “Those by Laou-tsze. He says: “The good I whom you talk about are dead, and their would meet with goodness. The not good bones mouldered to dust; only their words I would also meet with goodness. Virtue remain. When the superior man gets his is good. The faithful I would meet with opportunity he mounts aloft; but when faith. The not faithful I would also meet the time is against him he moves as if his with faith. Virtue is faithful.” “ Recomfeet were entangled. I have heard that a pense injury with kindness" (49 and 63). good merchant, though he has rich treas. | Upon this doctrine being mentioned to
Confucius, that practical-minded philoso- / while in course of construction, were expher remarked: “With what then will hibited at the Lyceum, Exeter Change, you recompense kindness? Recompense Strand. We learn froin the description injury with justice, and recompense kind- given by the inventor that the balloon was ness with kiodness”. (Lun-Yu xiv., 36). composed of five hundred and twenty yards Very similar to the Christian gospel, too, of oiled silk, in alternate stripes of blue are his exhortations to humility. " The and red. It was one hundred and two feet Taou of heaven may be compared to the in circumference, and was enclosed within extending of a bow. It brings down the a strong net, from which an open gallery or high and exalts the low." " He that hum. car was suspended by means of forty-five bles himself shall be preserved' entire. cords. It was originally the intention of He that bends himself shall be straight. Lunardi to employ both wings and oars. ened. He that is low shall be filled. He They were in the form of large rackets, that is worn out shall be renewed. He covered with loose founces of oiled silk, that is diminished shall succeed. He that and with these he hoped to be able to is increased shall be misled” (76, 22). steer his balloon. In the preparation of Like Jesus, Laou-tsze deprecated riches, the hydrogen gas or “inflammable air,” and even more strongly denounced war. as he terms it, he was so fortunate as to He says, “To wear fine clothes and carry obtain the assistance of Dr. George Forsharp'swords — to eat and drink to satiety dyce, who devised an apparatus consisting and lay up superfluous wealth – this I call of vats and casks in which zinc was acted magnificent robbery. This is not Taou upon with dilute oil of vitriol, and the gas, sure enough” (53). Nations fond of mili. after being purified, was passed into the tary display may note the saying, “ As the balloon. Arrangements had been, in the fish cannot leave the deep and live, so the first instance, completed for an ascent warlike weapons of a nation cannot be from the gardens of Chelsea Hospital, displayed before the people without deadly about the middle of August, but in conseperil” (36). “ Conduct,” says Matthew quence of the failure of a Frenchman, Arnold, “is three-fourths of life." It is Monsieur Moret, to make an ascent, as he more. It is the basis of society and makes liad undertaken to do, from a garden at civilized society possible. The influence Chelsea, a few days previous to the date of such a teacher as Laou-tsze-for-twenty- fixed for Lunardi's attempt, and owing to five centuries is incalculable. His max. a riot which took place on that occasion, ims must have done much to form the Sir G. Howard, the governor, withdrew solid and imperturbable character of the his permission to Lunardi to start from Chinese.
the hospital gardens. After many vexa. tions and annoyances, not the least of which was the seizure of his balloon by the proprietor of the Lyceum, Lunardi at
last overcame all obstacles and set out From The Pall Mall Gazette. upon bis adventurous voyage at five min. FIRST BALLOON ASCENT IN utes past two on Wednesday afternoon,
September 15, 1784. His companions The name of Vincenzio Lunardi, secre. were a dog, a cat, and a pigeon; he passed tary to the Neapolitan ambassador, will over London in a northerly direction and long be remembered as “the first aerial first descended in a cornfield on South traveller in the English atmosphere," as Mimms Common, where be parted with he is grandiloquently styled on the frontis. bis cat. He then rose again and finally piece to the account published by him of landed in a meadow at Stondon, near his voyage in 1784. A hundred years ago Ware, at twenty minutes past four. Luto-day Lunardi ascended in a balloon, filled nardi at once became the lion of the Lon. with hydrogen gas, from the Artillery don season; he was presented at court; Ground, Finsbury, in the presence of the he dined with the lord mayor and sheriffs, Prince of Wales and of a company esti- and was flattered by bench and bar, one mated at one hundred and fifty thousand of the judges assuring him, as a set-off to spectators. Signor Lunardi appears to the fact " that a lady, seeing an oar drop bave encountered many difficulties in the from the balloon, had died of fright, that construction of his balloon and in securing he undoubtedly saved the life of a young a place from which to make his ascent. man, who might possibly be reformed." The necessary funds were obtained by The circumstances thereof are narrated as means of public subscription, and the bal. follows: “The jury were deliberating on loon, the car, and the other apparatus, the fate of a criminal whom, after the ut
most allowance for some favorable circum- | Regent's Park, where Lunardi tells us he stances, they must have condemned, when received the compliments and congratuthe balloon appeared, and a general in. lations of two or three thousand persons attention and confusion ensued. The jury in a day;" Lunardi apears to have atwere perplexed with considerations on the tached his name to pumerous copies of case, which their curiosity would not bis book, which were sold to visitors to suffer them to weigh, and being under a the Pantheon. On a subsequent occasion necessity to determine before they de- – namely, on December 20, 1785 — Luparted, they took the favorable side and pardi ascended from Heriot's Hospital acquitted the criminal, immediately on gardens at Edinburgh, and was blown out which the court was adjourned to indulge to sea. He was, however, rescued by a itself in observing so novel a spectacle." fishing-boat, with the loss of his balloon. But a still more dignified assembly was the balloon was afterwards picked up dissolved in order to gaze upon the trav- by the Royal Charlotte," cutter, while eller; for we read that “ His Majesty was drifting on the surface of the water, and in conference with his principal minis- returned to him. Lunardi soon bad imi. ters.” On being informed that Lunardi tators. Messrs. Blanchard and Sheldon was passing," the king said, 'we may re. ascended from Chelsea, October 16, 1784; sume our deliberations on the subject and Blanchard and Jeffreys crossed the before us at pleasure, but we may never Ch el from Dover to Calais January 7, see poor Lunardi again. The conference 1785. Sir Edward Vernon and Count was broken up, and his Majesty, attended Zambecarri, with a young lady whose name by Mr. Pitt and other great officers of is not given, ascended March 23, 1785, state, viewed the balloon through tele- and sailed from London to Horsham. Mr. scopes.” Lunardi appears to have been a Thomas Baldwin has written a very cir. handsome and rather effeminate-looking cumstantial narrative of his ascent in Luyoung man, and mightily enjoyed the nardi's balloon from Chester, September, sensation be created. The balloon was 8, 1785. Lunardi's portrait was painted afterwards exhibited at the Pantheon in by Sir Joshua Reynolds. He died in 1799.
Poor FRENCH COOKING. — A returning tus and various appliances, the difference is tourist launches out into bitter complainings infinitely less, and likely to go on reducing, of the miserable fare that is furnished to visit- since attention not being particularly called to ors at hotels and inns, making out a terrible the subject in France, and general satisfaction list of grievances against hotel dinners and being felt, the status quo may be expected. As cooks, accusing the latter of homicidal inten. for the French peasants, they neither practice tions towards the world at large, mine host nor understand even reasonably good cookery. being party, willing and active in the crime. I have often smiled at the readiness with which He dates indispositions without number, and English writers on the subject make assertions prolonged digestive disturbances to the fatal concerning their superiority over the English table-d’hôte, to the coarsely made, greasy side laboring man. Such superiority only exists to dishes, to the cold, tough, unwholesome en- any extent in towns; our Paris ouvrier and trées, to the sticky sweets and fossilized des ouvrière prepare their food better and more serts. Having suffered much, he not only takes cheaply than your London mechanic's wife the public into his confidence by way of re knows how to do; but Jacques Bonhomme is lieving his own mind, but gives them the ben. too fond of saving every penny to spend much efit of his own sad experience, hoping it may even on such a matter, and his daily menu is profit them somewhat. The English reader hardly more extensive than that of which the may also not be sorry to hear what a French- principal item is cabbage and bacon. Thou. man has to say on this really important sub sands of country people in France never tasted ject. It is popularly supposed that all French meat otherwise than boiled; and while bouilli people know how to cook ; but this, like many - beef cooked to shreds — is the weekly Sun. another general axiom, is very far from being feast in the inland departments, soup the truth. They used certainly to be miles made from conger-eel and dogfish
- a horri. ahead of the average English in the matter; ble compound is the ordinary nourishment but since so much has been said and written of the dwellers on the seacoast during the about cookery in England, and above all, since summer, while salt mackerel and herrings improvement was made in the kitchen appara compose the winter bill of fare.
Ladies' Gazette of Fashion.
Fifth Series, Volomo XLVIII.
No. 2108. – November 15, 1884.
404 414 422
CONTENTS. I. PASCAL'S “PENSEES,”
British Quarterly Review,
author of “Citoyenne Jacqueline," " Lady
London Quarterly Review,
Spectator, XI. THE PLACE OF ART IN History,
426 433 436 439
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