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tion of a horse-ring in the upper lip, so stood expectant. Boliborus lay quiet for that they cannot turn it up to take hold a second or two, and then bounded to his of the maternal udder, and it is often in feet, glaring round in rage and pain to bad times a matter of life or death to the choose which of his foes to go for, when cows to get them ringed. After a con. he became aware of something wrong beference of a few seconds, the Marylander hind, and looking round realized the state shifted the rifle to the saddle of the En. of the case. Down went his head, and glishman (already ornamented with the round he went with a rush for his own frying pan and coffee-pot), and calling to tail end, but the tail and boy were equal the cow-boy, dashed off for the bunch of to the occasion, and the latter still bolding cattle. Next moment the cow-boy shot on tight by the former, sent back a defiant past us at full speed, gathering up his kick at the end of each rush, which, howlasso as he went; the bull-calf was “cut ever, never got within two feet of the out of the bunch as if by magic, and bull's nose, and could be only looked upon went straight away, through nesquite as a proper defiance. Then Boliborus brush and prickly pears, at a pace which tried stealing round to take his tail by kept his pursuers at their utmost stretch surprise, but all to as little purpose, when not to lose ground. It was all they could the ranche-men, who were

now both do to hold it, never for a full mile get mounted, to end the farce, rode round in ting within lasso-reach of Boliborus, the front of the beast, caught his eye, and ranche-man following like fate, upright cried, “Let go.” Whisking his freed tail from shoulder to toe (they ride with very in the air he made a rush, but only a halflong stirrups), bridle-hand low, and right hearted one, at the nearest, who just hand swinging the lasso slowly round his wheeled his horse, and as he passed adhead, awaiting his chance for a throw, the ministered a contemptuous thwack over cow-boy close on his flank, ranche-man his loins with the lasso. Boliborus now No. 2 clattering along, pot, kettle, and stood looking down his at the rifle soaring and swinging round his appendant ring, revolving his next move, knees, but availing bimself of every turn with so comic an expression that I burst in the chase so as to keep within thirty or into a roar of laughter, in which the rest forty yards. I, a bad fourth, but near joined out of courtesy. This was too enough to see the whole and share the much for him, as ridicule proves for so excitement (if, indeed, I hadn't it all to many two-legged calves, so he tossed his myself, the sport being to the rest a part head in the air, gave a flirt with his heels, of the daily round). The crisis came at and trotted off after his mother, a sadder, the foot of a mound up which Boliborus and, let us hope, wiser bull-calf; in any had gained some yards, but in the descent case, a ringed one, and bound in future to had slackened bis pace and the pursuers get his own living. were on him. The lasso flew from the On my ride home my mind was much raised right hand and was round his neck, occupied by that cow-boy, who rode along a dexterous twist brought the rope across by me — telling how he had been reading his fore legs, and next moment he was " Gulliver's Travels" again (amongst over on his side half throttled. I was up other things), found it wasn't a mere boy's in some five seconds, during which his book, and wanted to get a life of Swift lassoer had him by the horns, in his battered, old outfit, for which no No. 2 was prone with all his weight on Jew in Rag-Fair would give him five his shoulders, and the cow-boy on his shillings. The last time I had seen him, hind quarters, catching at his tail with two years ago, he had just left Haileyhis left hand. That bull-calf's struggle to bury, a bit of a dandy, with very tight rise was as superb as Bertram Rising clothes, and so stiff a white collar that ham's in “Rokeby," and as futile; for the on his arrival in Texas he had been nickcow-boy had caught his tail and passed it named “the Parson.” At home he might between his hind legs, and by pulling hard by this time be just through responsions kept one leg brandishing aimlessly in the by the help of cribs and manuals, having air, while the weight of the ranche-men contracted in the process a rooted distaste subdued his fore-quarters. The ring was for classical literature. Possibly, he passed through his upper lip and the lasso might have pulled in his college boat, and off his neck in a few seconds more, and won a plated cup at lawn-tennis, and all the ranche-men turned to mount, saying to this at a cost of, say, £ 250 the cow-boy, “ Just hold on a minute. is, besides costing nothing, he can cook The cow-boy passed the tail back between a sparerib of pork to a turn on a forked the hind legs, grasped the end firmly and stick, hold a bull-calf by the tail, and is



year. As it

From The Standard.

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voluntarily wrestling (not without certain from the flowers and leaves of these plants glimmerings of light) with “Sartor Re- requiring low, warm, and sheltered spots. sartus.” Which career for choice? How But the violet grows sweeter and sweeter say you, Mr. Editor ?

as we ascend from the lowlands, and is VACUUS VIATOR. most highly scented just as the foot bills [Our bright correspondent answers his of the Alps are approached. Again, own question. Why is he pleased be though France and other southern coun. cause of that “Sartor Resartus”? – Ed. tries send us plenty of oil of peppermint Spectator.]

and lavendar, none of it can rival that grown at Mitcham, in Surrey, almost a suburb of London, which is said to bring eight times the price of the foreign oils. It is thus clear that the Kentish flower

farmers have some margin within which ESSENTIAL OILS.

to work. Every year there is imported AMONG the various devices for making into this country between two hundred the soil of England commercially profita- and three hundred thousand pounds ble, the growing of flowers for the sake of weight of essential oils, the greater por: the essential oils, though it can hardly tion of which – leaving out of account become a great enterprise, deserves en cassia, vanilla, cloves, and lemon, which couragement wherever success is possible. are scents of far-away lands - could just A considerable acreage of land at Grove, as easily, and a great deal more profitably, near Canterbury, has lately been planted be produced within the bounds of the with lavender and mint, and the result United Kingdom. Lavender, for exam. has proved so successful that it has been ple, has for centuries been grown at determined to establish extensive works Hitchin, in Hertfordshire, and as a comon the spot, in order to carry on the proc. mercial speculation it dates back for at ess of extracting the essential oils. So least sixty years. The plants at present far there is no reason to question the in cultivation do not produce seed, being profitable outcome of the venture, though, propagated by slips or by dividing the of course, the demand for the oils of lav- roots. The crop is, however, somewhat ender and peppermint is more limited precarious. During the severe winter of than for wheat or Kentish pippins. Still, 1860 many of the plants were killed, and they are used in more industries than of late years a peculiar fungus bas so people generally know of, and there is, decimated them that the price of the oil moreover, this to be said for them, that it has, in consequence, risen considerably. the market is not so great, neither is the At Market Deeping, in Lincolnshire, competition for purchasers so keen. No where lavender was formerly grown, the discovery of the laboratory has ever yet business has been discontinued on that managed to supply an ether which will account. Hitchin, however, still harvests replace the natural scents elaborated by the crop of about fifty acres - a sandy nature in the cells of wild herbs. Nor loam with a calcareous substratum being can the cultivator of the plant yielding the regarded as the best soil for the purpose, precious oils contrive to so stimulate his while the most favorable position for the crops that the products of one locality will lavender plots is a sunny slope, which the fetch the same figure as those of a more fogs do not reach, and where light airs favored region. It is not more hopeless blow freely, but which is not so high as for the tobacco-grower of Germany to to be in peril of early frosts. At Mitchpass the rank leaves which have matured am, Carshalton, and Beddington, localiunder the Teutonic suns for real Habana, ties all near each other, about three hun. than it is for the flower farmer of one spot dred acres are still under lavender, and a seemingly as suitable as any other to de considerable area under mint, though here ceive the perfumer with the tale that the as elsewhere, for the reason mentioned, herbs have been nurtured in a soil the rep- and other causes connected with the al. utation of which stands in greater esteem. tered habits of the people, the culture is Curiously enough, it does not always fol- reported to be on the wane. At one time low that the lands of sunshine are always it was an important industry, and the the best for this description of harvest. Church tithes of the parishes in question Thus, the shores of the Mediterranean, were proportionally valuable. near Grasse and Nice, are the best locali- The lavender flowers are collected in ties for the orange and mignonette, the August and taken direct to the still, when perfection of the essential oils extracted the turn out of oil to a great extent de



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pends on circumstances beyond the con- weight of the "attar," which sells for £10 trol of the farmer. If June and July have sterling, a little fact which may suggest been bright the result is satisfactory; but to the lady that the “real Oriental attar" if there has been dull, wet weather during which she brought in the Stamboul Ba. these months, only half as much oil will zaar for 1os. the ounce was not quite whal be expressed. The oil from the stems is the Moslem merchant so loudly swore by ranker and less valuable than that from the Prophet it was. In reality, the true the flowers; consequently, the portion attar is almost invariably adulterated with which first distils over is collected sepa. sandal-wood oil, or diluted with sweet rately, that which appears after about an salad oil, even in the Indian bazaars close hour and a half bringing a lower price. to the far-famed rose gardens of Ghaze. Should the flowers be distilled separately pore.

This seems almost pardonable a finer oil is obtained. But as the extra when we remember that, during unfavoralabor demanded by the operation adds ble seasons, it will take as many as one about ten shillings per pound to the cost thousand roses to yield two grains of the of the oil, it is not usually done, since the oil. In the forenoon the red blooms are “fractional distillation" described effects collected by hand and distilled into clay nearly the same end. After three years stills with iwice their weight of water the oil — which has been mellowing up to the water which comes over being set to that date – deteriorates, unless it is cool all night, and throwing up the thin mixed with alcohol, or redistilled. In film of oil which covers it in the morning France, Piedmont, and especially the like cream on new milk. This is the attar, vicinity of the villages of the Mont Ven. which must be carefully swept off with a toux district, and those to the west of feather, and transferred to a small phial. Montpellier, the collection and distillation After repeating this operation night after of lavender is widely practised; but the night, and morning after morning, nearly very best French oil does not approach in the whole of the oil has been extracted, price that of the English article, and the the little which it is impossible to separate cheapest varieties are made by distilling so flavoring the liquid that it is sold as the entire plant. Some oil comes also “ rose water,” just as the minute particles from America. Near New York the plant left in the course of distilling lavender or is affirmed by Professor Johnston not to peppermint are known as the "waters” of be very hardy, but in the neighborhood of their essences. It is also quite out of our Philadelphia it is grown in considerable power in England to compete with the quantities, chiefly for “sachels," or sweet south for the production of jasmine oil, scent bags, and for “laying up linen," a which is almost as costly as attar of roses, use for lavender which is, unhappily, not the "neroli” which is obtained from oron the increase in this country. The ange flowers, or the petit grain extracted Lavandula spica, which yields the "oil from its leaves. But there is no reason of spike” is a variety which cannot be why the anise, the carraway, and the iris grown in this country except in very shel. should not be more grown for the pur. tered situations, and is in any case infe- poses indicated, nor why the rosemary rior to that yielded by the common spe- and the juniper should not be pressed into cies. Peppermint culture requires no the service of the perfumer by the bands such nicety, and the distillation of the of the English agriculturist. At present leaves is a very simple operation. The attar of roses reaches this country mainly oil is still in good demand as a flavoring from Smyrna and Constantinople, the oil for lozenges, and as one of the drugs used of lemons from Sicily and Portugal, berin the pharmacopæia both as a stomachic gamot from Sicily, anise from Germany and as a means of disguising the taste of and the East Indies, and oil of cloves to other medicines. The cultivation of roses a small extent from the Malay Islands, for the distillation of the precious attar though it is believed that a large amount would, in our uncertain climate, be a los- is distilled by the London wholesale ing speculation, taking one season with druggists. Carraway is, however, still another, though the profits for a fine crop mainly a home product, and should the are tempting enough to send some dis. experiment pronounced so successful in couraged wheat-growers into the business. East Kent be extensively followed, the The oil yielded by roses is very little; not inconsiderable quantity of oil of lavhence it is said that twenty thousand ender and oil of peppermint distilled in blossoms are required to yield a rupee England is likely to be largely increased.

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From The Spectator. Nevertheless, the readers of the ad.

dress, and especially the readers who are Most Englishmen who read at all have, like Mr. Lowell, thoughtful friends of dewe fancy, read Mr. Lowell's address, democracy, will be somewhat disappointed. livered on Monday evening, to the Mid. He has either not perceived, or did not land Institute in Birmingham. His name, care to deal with, their secret fear, which to begin with, always attracts, for English is not whether deinocracy will arrive men who know nothing else of American they do not doubt of that any more than thought know Hosea Biglow's satires, of the coming of Christmastide – or and have been expecting from Mr. Low- whether it will be strong - they recognize ell, ever since he landed on our shores, that it will be gifted with supernatural something funnier than it has quite suited strength and clad in enchanted armor the decorum of the American minister to or whether it will be wise, for the wisdom bestow upon them. Since his appoint- of all the world must at least be great, ment he, like O. W. Holmes, though for and “human experience” is but the veranother reason, bas "never dared to be dict of democracy, but they question, with. as funny as he could." He has spoken out denying, whether it will be good. repeatedly and always charmingly, but not With Mr. Lowell they recognize that it is so as quite to satiate the desire that he a new king which is coming, an irresistiwould for once let himself go, and talk to ble king, and a king who has shown caus as be alone could talk, in the vein of pacity in all ages. It is not only Lincoln Birdofredum Sawin. Perhaps we should whom the democracy chose, though their not like it if he did ; but we all, neverthe choice of him was, perhaps, the most less, feel an indiscreet hope of such a marvellous instance of their instinctive display, and turn to Mr. Lowell when he discernment, but the strong men of all talks three columns with whetted expecta. ages. Has there ever been a ruler on tion. Suppose he should laugh at aris. earth whom the people did not recognize, tocracy as he did at slave.owning, what or who did not owe half his strength to would become of " Debrett"? His pres- that popular recognition ? Even conquerent subject, too, democracy, is his own, ors like Jengliz have owed much to the the one on which he built the reputation unrecorded democratic vote which caused which made him representative of the him to be raised on the bucklers; and no United States and a sort of personal king has ever been great whom the peofriend to every man who thinks in En- ple steadily resisted. But though they glish. [It must be something for a quiet have chosen great rulers, they have often man to know that there are ninety millions stoned great prophets; and there is as who would be unwilling that harm should yet little conclusive evidence that the come to him. We wonder how it feels ?] coming king will possess the morale which Everybody, therefore, has read him, and will alone make his strength and his wis. everybody, we think, will be at once de. dom safe. He will choose the man he lighied and disappointed. It is more than wants for his work, and choose well, pospleasant, at a moment when great orators sibly better than most kings; but will the are pitching sentences at us as some work he wants be, so far as his intention writers pitch their note-books, and as Mr. goes, altogether good? Kings have often Browning pitches verses, to read an ad been merciless, and the proof that Demos dress which is so perfect in literary form, will be merciful is yet to be made comin which, while every sentence is complete plete. True, he was merciful after the and polished, the thought flows on as American war; but he was not merciful easily as if it had just occurred to the after the French uprising, and we cannot speaker's mind. Chat never slid more judge by a single experience alone. He easily into eloquence, or eloquence into seems very intolerant of rebellion, espechat. Englishmen, too, love epigrams, as cially by colored people; hyper-sensitive witness the charm of Lord Beaconsfield's about invasion, at least as sensitive as oratory, and the address is studded with monarch ever was; and not too much in. them, while the pungent sense which is clined to spare traducers. We lack full the distinctive quality of the whole has confidence in his mercy yet; and mercifor them a double aitraction. They unlessness in a ruler who cannot be assas. derstand pungent sense, and they are sinated, and will not die, would be a qual. always striving to utter it, usually with a ity for a world to shiver at. Whether it sense of failure which makes them only will have to quake or no, Mr. Lowell tells more alive to Mr. Lowell's complete suc. us not. Kings have been intolerant; will

Demos be tolerant? He is so in Amer.


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ica, bearing with obnoxious ideas right | Mr. Lowell, who has seen so much of the patiently; but are we sure the patience is operation of this temptation, and whose Christian and not Mahommedan - the salse patriot said, " I don't believe in prin. patience which is imperfect only from ciple, but, oh! I du in interest,” might pity, and endures unto seventy times sev. have reassured us on this point; but he en; not the patience which is perfect only leaves us to our doubts — perhaps enterfrom utter scorn, and bursts into a flame tains them himself; for all through his at last? We see signs outside America address runs its melancholy keynote, the as if Demos might be intolerant, might more melancholy because of his humorsay to the priest" Vade in pace,” as heart. ousness, — this also, O Englishmen, is lessly as ever the priest said it to a nun but an experiment. Yes, but is it not the with broken vows. Paris is as intolerant last? We derive little comfort from be. as Louis XIV., a Mahommedan people is ing told that the world has passed through harder on a convert than the khalif is. much, and man has contrived to be hapMr. Lowell might have comforted us as py, for we greatly doubt his happiness, to this; but he has not. Kings have and deny that happiness is his end. If been men of blood; will Demos be always democracy also is to rot — not, it may be, peaceful? No man knows, or can know, of malaria, but of luxury — what remains ? for he has not yet controlled armies; but That democracies do not stifle individualthere is a look in his eye sometimes as if ities, we not only concede, but hold the he could thirst for empire, and did not contrary opinion ridiculous; but are the greatly regard human suffering when his individualities they foster all good ? Linown imagination had taken fire. The colo was good; but that cry for Barabbas German Demos is tranquil; but will every sounds still across the centuries. other be? We could fancy him in certain parts of the world, England for one, a little mad with vainglory, a little intoxicated with triumph, a little in need of that slave behind his ivory car. Is Mr. Low

From Nature. ell fearful, or fully confident as to that? THE CONNECTION BETWEEN CHINESE Kings have been selfish; may not Demos

MUSIC, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. be? It is hard to answer the question, CHINESE music can now be heard by all for in him, as in other kings, selfishness who desire to hear it at the Health Exhi. may often be altruism; and at home be bition, and more may be learned on the bas this special gift, that being all, all subject from the pamphlet published by that he gains must be for all. But there the commissioners for the Chinese de. will be a king Demos for each race; and partment. A curious account of the comas regards other races, will he be less mon origin of Chinese weights, measures, selfish than Jenghiz or William of Ger- and musical notes is contained in a paper many? We see no proof of it yet, and read some years ago before the Gerinan much reason for doubt. It is not an old Asiatic Society of Japan by Dr. Wagener, monarch, but the new one, who orders The story is based on native legends, and "judicious destructions” along the bor. is also to be found among the Jesuit ders of a feeble State. Selfishness, how." Mémoires concernant les Chinois.Dr. ever, in Demos is so intertwined with Wagener says there is not the slightest patriotism that it is hard to separate the doubt that the Chinese system of weights impulses; and it is more profitable to ask, and measures is more than forty-six hun. Will he be sensual as other kings have dred years old ; and it is a highly remarkbeen? We fear it greatly. Money is able circumstance that, quite irrespective very attractive to King Deinos, and ease, of the fact that it is more scientific and and in many places lasciviousness too. exact, it possesses all the advantages for We can conceive of him resistless and which the French metrical system is so keen, yet sordid and comfort-loving and much praised. In the first place, it starts even brutish, with all nobler aspirations from a basis supplied by nature; secondstifled, raging with thirst for pleasure, ly, the decimal arrangement is almost conand saying, as cynically as it ever was sistently employed throughout; thirdly, said by king or noble, Thou shalt want linear and dry measure proceed directly ere I want.” It may be that God will from the same unit as the measure of preserve him, for in him lies the last weight; and lastly, what the metrical sys. earthly hope of man, who has exhausted tem does not do, it regulates in the sim. and thrown aside every other instrument plest manner the relations of musical of rule; but there is no certainty yet. I notes, wbicb latter form the starting point

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