destined as officers for the higher ranks free from this difficulty. In spite of her of the army. The system is that of “one- protective tariffs, France imports about a year volunteers.” By paying a certain fifth of the grain which she coosumes, sum (it was fifteen hundred francs in and the proportion increases. No doubt France), and passing examinations, edu- the tendency of any maritime war would cated youths could insure for themselves be to raise the price of food, especially a comparatively refined life during their corn, to check the astonishing wastefulactive service, which service would close ness of the people in this respect, and to at the end of the first year. The French drive an immense number of recruits into Deputies lately carried by large majorities the army from inability to provide for the committee stage of a bill which will, if themselves otherwise. This last result finally passed, put an end to the “one deserves consideration which has not yet year voluntariat," and oblige every son of been given to it. France, not an officer, to serve three years But a blockade of our coasts is inconin the active army, however inconvenient ceivable. People talk of the naval power it may be or destructive to his chances in of France because she has of late years bis contemplated profession. This is the been active in providing new iron and direction taken by democracy. It can steel built ships to take the place of her hardly be said to be the way of peace. old wooden ironclads which are fast falling Mr. Mathew Arnold, in his “Culture and to pieces. But naval power does not rest Anarchy," tells a story of a manager of on the number of ironclads afloat, though works at Clay Cross, who said during the even in this respect we are considerably Crimean war that, “sooner than submit superior. It depends on power of adding to conscription, the population of that rapidly to existing fleets, keeping them district would fee to the mines and lead a on the ocean by means of numerous cenRobin Hood life under ground.” Yes, tres of supply and the exertions of a mere but he meant, “sooner than be enlisted cantile navy, and, above all, upon the sea. forcibly by aristocrats.” Are we quite faring genius of the people. Now it so sure that in this “epoch of expansion happens that we are by far the greatest we may not see the proletariat forcibly ship-builders, that we have the greater enlisting the wealthy classes as one means part of the coal-fields of the world at our of producing equality? A naval Sedan disposal, harbors for refuge and refitment might make some of us acquainted with scattered all over the navigable ocean, strange bed-fellows.

and not only at home but almost every: There is, however, one development of where the pick of seafaring population. our modern commercial life which has France is just beginning to set about achad a direct tendency towards peace, and quiring a few of the useful spots left un. would expand that tendency into a great touched by England. Her carrying trade European force if other nations would, as by sea is only about one-tenth of ours, they do not, follow our lead. The adoption and her navy is recruited by the same of free trade, while increasing our wealth means as her army - conscription. The and favoring the existence of a population simplest statement of facts is so enor. greater than could have lived in these mously in our favor that it appears as if islands on any other conditions, has made it must be exaggerated. Judged accordus dependent on places beyond sea for a ing to the laws which from time immemoconsiderable portion of our food supply, rial have governed power at sea, a French and would hamper us to a certain extent fleet acting anywhere out of reach of in case of war with one or more great France would be like a flying column in maritime powers. But the effect of this an enemy's country

-as Adiniral Cour. is commonly exaggerated. It has been bet, who knows that between Toulon and shown above that we grow meat enough Saigon there is not a ton of French coal for ourselves if calculated on the Conti- to be had, is now beginning to find out. nental scale of consumption; and though It is to supply this want that costly expewe should be pinched for corn if block. ditions to Tonquin and Madagascar are aded for a considerable period, it is im- sent forth, but it may be predicted with possible to conceive that no supplies some certainty that whatever life may would reach us. A permanent blockade bereafter be visible in the new ports will could only take place if our naval power be greatly due to the presence of ships were destroyed, and in that case the whole fying the British flag. empire would be tumbling to pieces and It would be quite as easy to show that we should have to make the best terms our best course would be to join the peace we could. Other nations are not quite alliance of Continental Europe against France and Russia, and we all know that | French were threatening invasion, and this was the idea of Lord Beaconsfield to Admiral Byng caused our English feet to a certain extent. It might be said that show its back to the enemy near Minorca. because our interests touch and cross It is true that Continental armies were not those of France everywhere, because Rus- so great as they are now, but the disprosia will soon be our close neighbor on the portion was even greater. To match the continent of Asia, and because we have a three English battalions, Prussia had one small army wbile the eat central Euro-hundred and fifty thousand men and the pean powers have enormous land forces, allied armies intended to act against we should do well to ally ourselves with Frederick numbered about iour hundred those who are strong where we are weak, and thirty thousand. Yet no one can and to whom we could offer the immense doubt that the support of England was advantage of our naval power. There the one thing needful to enable the king would be as much sense in such a pro- to struggle on through the terrible seven gramme as in the proposed effacement of years' strife. Pitt said that be intended Great Britain in Europe. The objection to conquer America in Germany, which to the one course is, however, the same meant, as Professor Seeley has pointed as to the other. We should be volunta. out, that "he saw how, by subsidizing rily placing ourselves in an unnatural Frederick, to make France exhaust herposition, and tying our hands when we self in Germany, while her possessions ought to preserve the greatest freedom. in America passed defenceless into our No one, except here and there a very full- bands." History repeats itself, and more favored Jingo, desires that we should mix unlikely things may happen than that ourselves unnecessarily in the quarrels of France may now build up a colonial emthe Continent, and, on the other hand, to pire of the second class and see all that proclain ourselves indifferent to anything is valuable in it pass hereafter into Enthat may happen would be to assert a glish hands. position which Englishmen will never If we now multiply by ten the figures accept, or, accepting, will throw to the just given of the Continental armies in winds under several conceivable circum- Frederick's time we shall not be far from stances. Suppose, for example, that in a the truth; but if we multiply the English general European war Germany and Aus. force by a hundred the number will still tria were crushed and treated as Poland fall far short of the present standard for was in 1772. Could we see with equa- home defence. Exclusive of India and nimity a new Napoleon with a doubled all the colonies, but including the Medifeet close all the ports of the Continentterranean fortresses and Egypt, it will be to English trade? Such things are pos: within the mark to put the regular arny, sible. The close of the Seven Years' with its immediate reserves, at FrederWar left France apparently exhausted and ick's strength when he began the Seven on the highroad to revolution. In less Years' War, that is, one hundred and than half a century all Europe was at the fifty thousand. Roughly speaking, we feet of the emperor. Surely our best may put the militia at one hundred thou. course is to avoid entanglements and keep sand, not forgetting that the right of con. our powder dry.

scription for the militia is still extant; It is quite true that we are not in a and we may count the volunteers at two state of preparation to face alone on the hundred thousand, for if some of them Continent the armies of any single great now in the force would be unable to serve European power. But as a matter of fact in war, others would soon come to take we never were during the whole period of their places. There are, then, no less than our greatest life. To quote many in- four hundred and fifty thousand men stances would be wearisoine and useless : one example may stand for all. At the * These rough figures are within the mark. beginning of the Seven Years' War during stated by Lord Hartington in the House on the sth.

numbers actually present in the United Kingdom, as which England obtained the freedom of July, were-the seas, chased France out of America, Regular Army, N. C. officers and

men, excluding officers

84,900 and established herself firmly in lodia,

First Class Army Reserve there were just three battalions in this


Total available for general service at country, and so divided were we politi.

once, exclusive of Mediterranean cally that the Duke of Newcastle could garrisons and Egypt

150,875 – 150,875 not have colonels for new ones because Second Class Army Reserve


82,525 the patronage would be in the hands of Militia, exclusive of Militia Reserve bis rival, the Duke of Cumberland. The Carried forward

90,985 150,875




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Militia Reserve

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available for defence, and of them prob. I buy a bigger boat instead of sapplying ably two hundred thousand might be law. oars for the small one. The expedition fully used, or would readily volunteer, for to Egypt two years ago was on a small general service in a European war. Now scale compared with what might be rethis is a greater number of men than quired, and could easily be provided so fought on the German side at the battle far as men are conceroed. Yet we have of Gravelotte, and quite sufficient, if prop- lately heard from the witnesses before erly organized, to turn the scale in any the Committee of Investigation that the European contest during our time. Half arrangements for transport were so bad the number would have raised the siege that the force could not have moved for. of Paris during the Franco-German war. ward at all if Arabi Pacha had thought of It is true that, taking the regular army that obvious measure, the cutting of the without its reserves, hampered as it is Sweet-water Canal. We were saved from with the necessity for foreign reliefs, there humiliation because he only dammed it, is still need of a small increase for that and the dam leaked or was able to be particular purpose of relief. But, regarded broken. Clearly the oars were wanting, as a whole, England could put a very sub. but we found a chance plank wherewith stantial force of men into the field, even to paddle. A scheme was prepared some if all the volunteers were left at home. years ago for the movement of troops by How comes it, then, that we are in diffi- sea, and the main principle of it was that culties whenever we enter upon such a each body, whether cavalry, infantry, or trifling business as the Egyptian cam- artillery, should embark complete with its paign of 1882? It arises from the preva: own regimental transport and so on, med. lence of a belief that England is effaced ical and other departments, with their from the list of great European powers, own stores. Yet no sooner do we come and has no need to be prepared for war. to practice than, from want of preparation The result is as simple as shameful. The or some strange idea of economy, we find men are preseut with their arms - this is the old errors of the Crimea revived. all that the public asks; but everything Regiments land without means of motion, else is absent, or present in such' small and medical stores or other necessaries proportion as to leave the army practically are buried uoder ammunition or rotten useless for the field. We want organiza. bay, or something of that kind. These tion, proper distribution, and preparation. faults have been pointed out again and There is a true story told of a man whose again by experts. Probably Lord Wolsewife had fallen into a stream which would ley has called attention to them. The carry her over a cataract. She was caught answer is the same. The Treasury will by a friendly rock, and might be rescued. not give the money. Her husband rushed to a boat which was An Intelligence Department was formed near, launched it on the swift waters, under Lord Cardwell to investigate the sprang in, and then found that there were state of affairs and draw up a scheme of

Such would be the position of mobilization. The only scheme produced England if she were called upon to mobli. was one for a case of invasion. It showed ize an army in time of great danger. We a plethora of infantry, and a striking de

. have a costly boat on which we spend im- ficiency in everything else. Not a step was mense sums of money annually for repairs, taken to correct the proportions or supbut in time of trial it would be found that ply the auxiliary services. The monthly there were no oars. To carry this illus- Army List contained the absurd skeleton tration a little farther, we must suppose corps for a while, and then the whole that the proprietor of the estate is anxious scheme was laughed out of existence. It that the boat should always be ready to had only shown what might be and ought save life, and the boatmen are constantly to be. The steward would not provide asking the steward for oars, but he replies the oars. Such facts as these explain the that he has no money for them, and mean- feeling expressed by Mr. Delane when he while the proprietor is being adjured to said that the country would grudge noth

ing to have a good army, but disbelieved Brought forward

90,585 150,875

in the skill or good faith of the adminis. Yeomanry

trators. We may say, then, of the land Total available for home service, a

forces that there are men enough if they portion of whom would be sure to

were all put in their proper places, and

310,985 — 310,985 the whole organized with an eye to the Grand Total exclusive of troops in

requirements of war rather than to make Egypt and Mediterranean

461,860 | a show in blue-books.

no oars.

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11,400 209,000

volunteer in war


And what of the navy? Here, at least, that mastery of the outer world which had there is no question what the wishes of been taken from France by England. His the country are. Our first line must be attempt to expand France led to all his strong, or all our strength is shorn, our European conquests and to our long strug. position even as a colonial power endan- gle with him. France seems again to be gered, and our very liberties at the mercy bitten with the same mania, and it is not of others. Nothing is more improbable sweet words which will preveot collision, than a duel at sea between England and nor only a consciousness that we are too any one Continental power. But in such strong to be meddled with. As a matter a case, none are so strong in ships as of fact we are strong, but our groans we, though it would be well to push on make the world count us as weak. And the changes in armament a little faster. our own disbelief in war has bred a careAnd if it came to “ Alabama” work, we less acceptance of unreadiness in organ: could put ten swift ocean steamers in ization and that preparation which is the cruising trim for every one which the next chief feature of Continental armies and greatest maritime power could provide; navies. It is here that the shoe pinches, that is to say, we could find the ships at and the naval and military authorities can

It is by no means so certain that not but be aware of the fact. we could find the suitable guns. Here, There are, however, certain consola. again, it is much to be feared that we are tions when we udy the condition of the unready, and we are receiving business powers whose interests cross ours in so lessons from abroad, even in naval mat. inany directions. Take France as a type ters. Quite lately the German feet at of modern military organization, and let Kiel was the subject of an experiment us see what she has lately done. The which may yet be famous. A telegram force present in Tonquin, including the arrived from Berlin to mobilize the force troops which were there before the serias quickly as possible. In a few hours ous concentration took place and the rein. all the crews were on board, and the forcements sent at different times, was ships, ready for action, steamed out of the under twenty thousand men. Yet to obharbor. Since then landings and other tain even these she was obliged to draw useful maneuvres have been practised. upon the cadres of the home army, partly Again, torpedo boats now form one of the deranging her scheme of mobilization, and most important parts of a fleet. But the she could not furnish more without seriuse of them needs to be practised in ously weakening her whole system. An peace, not left to be improvised in war. armed nation is good for great wars, but The Italians have constant practice with it cannot put one hundred thousand men them, and on a definite system. An ene in the field without completely throwing my's ship approaching an Italian harbor out the whole system of organization and might, perhaps, expect to see a small weakening the country for defence. Vast group of the dangerous little craft pushing as is her land army compared with ours, out from the port. But it would not see she dare not engage us unless she had them. The practice is for the torpedo first made sure of the neutrality of all her boats to slip outside as early as possible neighbors. The Tunis expedition, unopand creep round, advancing at last from posed as it was, placed her for the time different points of the compass, some even completely at the mercy of Germany, befollowing the course of the big ship. A cause it pulled many of the bolts and nuts keen interest is taken by every European out of her military machinery for great power in the preparation of their ships wars, though the great machine itself and their naval tactics, and schemes are stood idle. Or suppose the case of Russia ready for different eventualities, just as desiring to invade lodia. We have there they were for the Prussian army when it some two hundred thousand troops, En. astonisbed Europe in 1880. It has been glish and native together, and our great pointed out earlier in this article that we feudatories have an even larger number. are vastly stronger at sea than any other Supposing the Indian forces properly power, but it is much to be feared that prepared for war as the armies of Contisome of them are stealing a march upon nental nations are prepared, what sort of us in training, because our country is force must Russia send through hostile Julled to sleep by the sweet promise of Afghanistan across mountain passes 10 perpetual freedom from European war. attack us, what would such an enormous

Professor Seeley has lately shown in expedition cost, and what would be the “The Expansion of England,” that Napo- result of failure? It is not too much to leon always had in mind the recovery of say that in a general European war Ea.






gland could hamper Russia in Asia much

From Good Words. more readily than she could hamper us, and we could draw the life-blood out of her through the arteries in her vulnerable

BY SARAH TYTLER, AUTHOR OF heel. In short, France is vulnerable in


,” “LADY BELL," ETC. her navy and her foreign possessions, Russia is vulnerable in Asia and, as formerly, in the Black Sea. If she became a Mediterranean power she would be still more vulnerable. Even without attacking ANY faint hopes of amnesty which Iris her we could neutralize a large contingent might have entertained were extinguished, of her forces. Probably it would never her face fell and was dyed with a crimson be worth our while, but since the possi- blush of shame and confusion, at the re. bility exists, why suppose that England is ception she met with from Marianne Dug. not still a great European power?" Grant- dale. The young lady had been riding ed that in the present state of foreign with some country companions who had politics there seems no likelibood of a turned up in town, opportunely for her. war in which it would be worth our while to She had come back alınost simultaneously meddle. Granted that the perpetual nag. with her grandmother and Iris, so that ging at Russia is undignified and absurd, Miss Dugdale was still standing in the because her interests are much more likely hall, holding up her habit with one hand to clash with those of Austria than with and releasing herself from the burden of English interests in the East. Granted her hat in the hot weather with the other, most heartily that a good understanding when Lady Fermor called out, “ Are you with both Russia and France is a wise there, Marianne ? Come here, I have policy. But all this does not hinder us brought you Iris Compton. Let me see us from having an equally good under if you two cousins bave any look of each standing with other powers; still less does other.” it require the abdication of our place as a

Marianne turned round and showed a great European power. On the contrary, short but well-balanced, well-carried fig. our wisest posture is one of quiet obser- ure, a face from which all the dusky, not vation, and our words to Continental na particularly tidy hair, was swept back from tions should be: “Our first and greatest the good forehead, a pair of the darkest interest is general peace; you are all at lib- brown, keenly inquiring, nay, baughtily erty to break it if you please ; in that case challenging eyes, an ivory complexion, as we know not which side we should take, if pale with passion, a straight nose, a or whether we should even take any side mouth so shaped to pout that one could at all. But of this be well assured, we hardly conceive it pacifically straight, or could not see with equanimity either des drooping lugubriously at the corners. potism or anarchy triumphant in Europe, Marianne Dugdale was one of the pale and we demand that our right and our roses so much in fashion, well set in power to throw a heavy sword into the thorns, if ever rose

She scale be recognized and acknowledged.” made a queer, half-mocking little bow, We still need a great deal of preparation touched the tips of Iris's fingers with her and organization, but the people which own, and saying decidedly, " There's not has the carrying trade of the world, the a shade of likeness between us, granny,” greatest force at sea, and, including India turned away and ran lightly up a flight of and the colonies, little short of three quar- stairs. ters of a million of armed men, with limit. “ How she detests me, at first sight! less resources to draw upon at home and Though I cannot help it, I need not won. in the East, can never be counted other. der at it.” Iris took the manner of the wise than as a great European power. reception to herself, in distress and hu

miliation, and asked in nervous apprehen.' sion with what show of friendship and enjoyment the two could live together, and go out together, certainly for the next month or two, possibly for years ?

For half a week Iris remained disabused of the impression that she was an object of half-righteous, half-vindictive abhorrence to Marianne Dugdale, who was watching everything Iris did and said with a hawk.

were so set,

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