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simply move on a bit;” and the lati-ling, - a man who had that fondness for tude with which this word is used may big words so frequently observable in the best be illustrated by a further anecdote. Irish peasant, - delivered himself in the This same lady, when stopping with her course of bis evidence of the following husband at a fishing ion in South Kerry, remarks: “I have rayalized [realized] was sorely tried by the dirtiness of a small siven childhren, and if I were to rayalize protégé of hers. "At last, in response to siven more, I wouldn't wish one of them her repeated requests, he went so far as to imbibe an acre of land.” And later on, to wash his face. “ But why didn't you reverting to the saine metaphor, he obwash your neck, Johnny?” “Och, ma'am, served, “'Tis bad weather for one that is 'tis too far wesht entirely.”
immersed in land." Another marked characteristic of the This brings me back again to the "bull," Celt is his fatalisın. This resignation has of which I have one or two fresh speciits ludicrous as well as its tragic side. As mens. I mentioned in my former letter with the lower middle classes of the north our old doctor, who possessed a facility in of England, a death in the family is a sort uttering them that was positively papal. of excitement, and is often unhappily His remarks, though paradoxical in form, made the excuse for a great deal of feast were often not without an admixture of ing and drinking. Fortunately, the Irish. truth; but when he said, “ The day is far man has not the same facilities which his spent, bedad, and the night aiqually so," English brethren possess for spending he gave vent to an utterance of Delphic large sums on all the hideous pageantry ambiguity. The writer's sister, some of an elaborate funeral. Still, the event years ago, after leaving the ticket-office in in a poor Irish household is an important an Irish station, went back in the belief one, and the following story would seem that the clerk had given her too much to show that an unexpected recovery is change. But on counting it over, he exregarded as an unfair proceeding on the claimed, “ No, but it's I who's given you part of a moribund person. A doctor vis. too little. And there's the reward for iting the house of a poor family, found your honesty, for ye get sixpence for yourthem all gathered round the bed of a sick self.” The following malaprop, the proman, sprinkling it at times with holy wa- duction of an Irish lady, is perhaps worth ter, and saying at intervals,“ Depart, chronicling. Speaking to a friend, she Christian soul.” On inquiry, he ascer- declared that she would sooner be tied by tained that this process had been going the neck to a milestone than marry a on for a great many hours, during which Frenchman. no nourishment had been administered, With regard to tbe long words which for as they said, “Why should we inter- the Irish peasant is so fond of, it must be fare wid a dyin' man ?” My readers will borne in mind that in outlying districts be prepared to hear that the exercise of many of the “mountaing” men, as they a very little skill sufficed to restore the are called, still speak English as a foreign patient to complete health. Paddy is language, and carry away from their early very superstitious and very devout. But schooling a good many bookish words just as in Roman Catholic countries on which they reserve for their conversation the Continent, this devoutness carries with the" quality.” A ragged native once with it a familiarity in speaking of things offered to carry "my thrumperies," i.e., divine that is occasionally grotesque and traps; and another, an assiduous fishersuggestive of irreverence. The following man, has spoken of having "perused the conversation between two tenant farniers, stream for several hours." On this point one of whom had been worsted in a suit it seems that the Highlanders resemble with his landlord, was overbeard outside the Irish. Only the other day when I the courthouse in Kenmare. “Won't ye was staying at a shooting-box in Ross. appale?” said the one. “No," replied shire, my host related to me how his gillie the unsuccessful litigant, “ I'll lave him to liad diverted him by replying to his reGod Almighty, and he'll surely play the mark that the wind was very good for divil with him.”. Though not always con- driving the deer, “ Yes, its jeest classi. veying an edisying impression as to the cal.” honesty of the Irish peasant, the proceed- Much that is picturesque and quaint in ings in court at Petty Sessions are often the speech of the Irish peasant is due to exceedingly diverting. So, too, the trans. his surroundings and the conditions of his actions of the land commission in Kerry life. Inasmuch as seaweed is largely have been enlivened by sundry humorous used in agriculture, one can realize the episodes. The tenant of a swampy hold I feelings which prompted a countrywomao
- called in at an emergency to do house- veniently high, if not alarming. In some maid's work, and seeing some alga em- districts from ten to fifteen of these wanployed as ornament - to exclaim, derers will daily implore alıns at a way.
Glory be to God, to think that I should side cottage or in a lonely village, while live to see the manure in the drawing. the men are busy in the fields, and as their room.” So, when in reply to the question wives and daughters, partly from good of a friend of mine whether he had seen nature and partly from fear, hardly like to any rabbits, a native answered, “ Yes, your refuse a crust, do inconsiderable tax is honor, whole funerals of them,” he only levied on the honest and the industrious. employed the word representing the great. It is only those parts of the country which est combination of length and numbers offer unusual attractions to the vagabond with which his experience bad rendered which are subjected to such a visitation as him acquainted.
this; but no place is entirely free from From the style of their speech, one annoyance. According to one estimate, would naturally ipfer what is the fact, that the number of tramps in Germany last when they get the chance the peasantry year amounted to two hundred thousand, of Ireland read, and read widely. Unfor- and the expense they caused the commu. tunately, the supply at their command, pity to seventy-two million marks, or both in quantity and quality, is entirely about £3,600,000; and though, from the unworthy of the appetite they display. difficulty of obtaining accurate informaNevertheless, I am inclined to believe tion, it is impossible to rely on such a that although they may have drawn their calculation, most of those who have made knowledge from untrustworthy sources, the matter a subject of study seem to the Irish peasantry know more of their thiok it fairly correct. It would be a great past bistory than the average Irish gentry. mistake to look upon all these wayfarers The state of literary destitution in the as idle or improvident. Many of them society of an Irish provincial town is are honestly in search of employment in really lamentable. And yet there is a their various professions; indeed alınost counterbalancing advantage in the fresh- all seem to have begun their wanderings Dess, brightness, and humor, so often to with the best intentions; but by degrees be met with in the conversation of Irish. they are apt to lose their taste for regular men and Irish women of all ages who have work and a settled life, and so a large and never muddled their heads with culture or growing class has been formed which is suffered from over-pressure. There are contented to live upon alms, which bears several such men within my own acquaint. the hunger of to day in the hope of the ance, who, whether as original humorists orgies of to-morrow, and so wanders from or as retailers of anecdote, have for all place to place, not to seek, but to avoid their lives been supplying food for honest work. As this state of things is compara. laughter, - a by no means common com- tively new to the country, it is not strange modity nowadays, - and yet because they that it should have excited attention, and are lazy themselves, or have no Boswells that great efforts should be made both by about them, all this wealth of fun will be the authorities and by private charity to lost to the world.
meet the evil. It is from the writings of In conclusion, let me say to those of those who are actively engaged in this your readers who have followed me thus good work, especially from a little pamfar, that the best literary reconstruction phlet by Herr von Bodelschwingh, a clerof the humor of Irish peasant speech is to gyman whose self-devoted efforts bave be found in the inimitable Irish stories of been rewarded by considerable success at the late Joseph Sheridan Lefanu ; as the Wilhelmsdorf, that we take most of the best sketches of the Irish character, in its following particulars with respect to the latest phase, are to be met with in the life of the contemporary German tramp. pages of Terence McGrath's “ Pictures." He can boast of a descent which is both
M. ancient and respectable. From time im
memorial the Wanderjahre have been recognized as a distinct period in the life of the German handicraftsman, and almost
as a necessary part of his education. As From The Saturday Review.
soon as his apprenticeship was over, it GERMAN TRAMPS.
used to be considered a matter of course Of late years the number of German that he should shoulder bis knapsack and tramps has been steadily increasing until go out into the world to seek employment, it has reached a figure which is incon- l if not a fortune. Unless he had very
pressing reasons for doing so, the youth | meal, beer, and spirits which had been the who stayed at home was considered a occasional luxuries of their youth were milksop, unworthy of the freedom that was now regarded as daily necessaries, and so now his by right. With a few thalers in the small sums they had saved from the his pocket, and all his other possessions wreck were soon spent.
In the mean upon his shoulders, the young tailor, time, the relaxation of the police regula. smith, or watchmaker, started on his trav. tions had enabled men of the most dis. els. While his money lasted, he led a reputable character to establish inns which pleasant and careless life in the open air, were supported chiefly by vagabonds and and the little inns frequented by persons beggars, and these the workmen were soon of his class. When it reached a low ebb, obliged to frequent. However small their he sought for work in some neighboring store, they were sure of a hearty welcome, town. How long he remained in his new and were freely supplied with food and position depended upon circumstances. spirits, for which afterwards their tools, In summer it was seldom longer than their clothes, and even their papers, were enabled him to earn money enough to re- held as a pledge. Indeed, the host re. sume bis vagrant life. When autumn garded the latter as a valuable piece of came, he grew critical as to the character property, as he could sell or hire them out of the masters, and made full inquiry of to confirmed vagabonds, who were thus his companions as to the mistress's liber- enabled to impose on the more discreet of ality with respect to diet, before he ap- the charitable. When he had his guest plied for work; for it would have been entirely in his power, he introduced him unpleasant to have to turn out again in the to a friend, who instructed bim in the ice and snow. Two or three years would whole art of professional begging. This, be passed in this way, and then the wan. according to Herr Von Bodelschwingh, is derer would fall love, and either return usually the first stage in the German home or settle down in the place in which tramp's progress; and he adds that these he happened to be. This harmless body vagabond inns are usually provided with a of wandering craftsmen seems to have complete list of the houses at which alms formed the centre round which the great may be expected, and of the good-natured, army of tramps that now afflicts Germany but unscrupulous, cooks who give food to has formed. Even in the old days there beggars without the knowledge of their were, of course, black sheep among the employers. This, we believe, is also the Handwerksburschen; but the authorities case in many English lodging houses ; insoon discovered these, and kept their eyes deed, there is a sameness about the life upon them. If a man was evidently living of the criminal and semi-criminal classes upon alms instead of seeking employment, in all countries which makes it, on the he soon found that the good-natured in. whole, an uninteresting subject. The dulgence with which he was accustomed sudden growth of vagrancy in Germany to be treated had come to an end. An rendered it worth while to dwell upoo elderly wanderer was always regarded some of the causes of a phenomenon which with suspicion if he made any claim on is exciting considerable alarm. There public charity, for it was generally thought can be little doubt that the occasional that, though circumstances might compel begging of the Handwerksburschen has him to change his place of residence, he rendered the transition to vagabondage ought to have saved enough to be able to pure and simple easier than it would do so at his own expense; and without otherwise have been lo many workmen, straining their powers the police were able and we fear that the Wanderjahre which to make the most indolent feel that honest have played so large a part in the popular work was less disagreeable than a con- life, fiction, and poetry of Germany are stant series of indignities and vexations. now doomed. It was one of those insti. We have already said that almost all of tutions which could only exist under con. them set out with the best intentions. ditions which modern ideas rather than Work was all they asked or hoped for. modern circumstances have rendered im. But their short period of prosperity had possible. Whether the comparative free. rendered them improvident. They had dom from the rule of the police, which been earning four or five times as much every German subject now enjoys, affords as they had ever done before, and as they the young handicraftsman an adequate believed that the age of gold would last at compensation for the loss of his few years least as long as the unity of the Empire, of youthful travel is another question, and they had spent what they earned. The one to which we shall attempt no reply.
From The Spectator. i be satisfied with a spot when she might LANGDALE LINEN.
have had – what I have seen on a tableAMID the smoke and stir of this fever- cloth — the wbole history of Jonah, the ishly active century, it is a refreshment to exact portrait of the whale which swalhear of a quiet but earnest attempt to lowed him, the facade of a gorgeous palrevive a long-disused and very peaceful ace in Nineveh, together with her own industry. Time was when spinning played initials in the corner, betrayed a grovelsuch an important part in a woman's ex- ling mind. In the days of homespun linea istence that, as Grimm observes, it came every woman made it a matter of pride to be regarded as her sole occupation, - and conscience to leave behind her in the nay more, as ber very life and being. Our family chests and presses at least as much own legal code appears to have taken pre- as she found when she “came," — i.e., cisely tbe same view, for the only portion married into the family. Another matter of the female sex which up to the last year of innocent pride was to send away each or two seemed to have any claim to be daughter who married with a "handsome recognized by it at all, was recognized plenishing of linen;" and this was done, by the appellation “spinster.” And yet even if the mother of the family bad, like for the last sixty or seventy years all Solomon's virtuous woman, to rise up in spinning-wheels have been silent. I well the night to spin. Such pleasures and remember a lumber-room in my grand prides have long been things of the past. father's house, into which, when a child, I I have heard an old lady say, almost with used to peep and see more than a dozen tears, “ All pleasure in having beautiful old ones; some were prettily inlaid with linen is gone! We used to hand down mother-of-pearl, but all of them were over- what we spun ourselves from mother to laid with other wheels made by spiders, daughter, but what you buy now drops and thickly covered with layers of white into holes in a year or two." dust. My poor grandmother used to look About twelve months ago Mr. Albert very sad when I asked about these spin- Fleming, a devout disciple of Mr. Rus. ping-wheels; they were hers, and her kin's and a companion of the Guild of St. mother's, and her grandmother's, and no George, while pondering how to find some doubt she sometimes fancied she heard way of helping certain poor women living the whirr which feet that trod the earth on the fell-sides above Elterwater and its no longer had once set in motion. She neighborhood, had the happy thought that herself had, as she averred with gentle it might be a good thing to try to revive triumph, "spun a rare good thread in her what Wordsworth calls “the venerable day ;” but when I asked her why she did art torn from the poor.” The women Mr. not go on spinning good thread, her an. Fleming wished to help were too old to go swer was, " No one spins now," and if 1 out to clean, and too blind to sew. Spin. pushed my inquiries further, I was told ning is a work which can be carried on at it was easy enough to spin, but that there home. It can, as peedlewomen say, “be
do way of getting the thread you taken up and put down,” – that is, it can made used, for there were no hand-looms be done during odd moments of leisure.
That, no doubt, summed up the What is more, it does not require much whole difficulty.
eyesight. The difficulty was to find a Every little group of villages once had spinning-wheel, for all those once in use its weaver, to whom the good housewife in this valley had, as the local expression could take the fruit of her own industry, goes, long since been “broken down." or the thread she had charitably bought A wheel was, however, found in that storeof her poor but industrious neighbors. By house of ancient things, the Isle of Man; his help she could either have this con- and then an old woman of eighty-four was verted into good sheets, or perhaps satisfy found whose fingers had not forgotten some dimly perceived longing for art their cunning. She taught Mr. Fleming, pleasure by choosing a lovely design of and gradually a few infirm old wheels flowers and foliage, or strange, outlandish were got together from various parts of birds for a best table-cloth. Much ear. the country, and from these he pieced to. nest thought was given in those days to gether a model from which a clever local patterns for table-linen, and one of the carpenter made fifteen new ones.
Mr. iruest touches in George Eliot's “ Mill on Fleming's next step was to take a cotthe Floss” is the contempt which the tage, which he dedicated to St. Martin, sister who "held with a sprig” felt for the whose typical act was clothing the poor. sister who had always " held with a spot.” Here, with the help of a clever and kind A spot was utterly commonplace, and to l lady friend, classes were held, and here
Mr. Fleming himself taught many of the wheels are now busily at work in the women; and as soon as one of these was Dales, – or, in other words, that twenty able to spin a good thread, he lent her a women who could not otherwise have wheel and gave her some flax, together earned a penny are now feeling hopest with an assurance that he would buy it pride in helping to provide for their famback when spun, at the rate of 25. a pound. ilies. Their cottages, too, are much Under favorable circumstances, and with brighter than they used to be, for it is out neglecting home duties, women can part of a woman's religion to put everyeasily earn 5s. or 6s. a week; but as they thing in order before sitting down to work. daily become more fond of the work and The Langdale loom produces a strong more expert, they will probably earn more. and thoroughly honest sheeting that can The finding wheels was by no means the be trusted to outwear many a machine. greatest difficulty Mr. Fleming bad to made rival. It is forty inches wide, and encounter; the next thing was to find a sells readily at 45. a yard. Some speciloom. At length, however, one that was mens were recently presented to Mr. Rus. very old was disinterred from a cellar in kin. They were of a finer quality, and Kendal, where it had been hidden away had been expressly woven for him. In for years. It was in no less than twenty the corner was embroidered, in soft silks, pieces, and no one had the least idea how the lovely cluster of roses from the gar. to set it up. Art came to the rescue. ment of spring in Botticelli's famous picA photograph was procured of Giotto's ture of Venus. _ This cluster stands on the
Weaving," from the Campanile at Flor- title-page of " Fors Clavigera,” on the fly. ence, and that proved of the greatest ser. leaf of all Mr. Ruskin's books, and has vice, for the old loom from Kendal was come to be regarded as the badye of St. practically the same as that which Giotto George's Guild. Besides linen sheeting has left to us. A weaver was found, too; of various degrees of fineness, the work. and now the work of teaching, giving out ers in St. Martin's Home produce an unfax and weaving, all goes on under the roof | bleached linen so good in tone and texture, of the pretty little cottage dedicated to the that when known it is certain to be in soldier-saint, and the webs which gradu. great demand for crewel-work and other ally grow into being are bleached within a kinds of embroidery. It is impossible not stone's throw of the house in the simple, to feel a hearty interest in Mr. Fleming's old Homeric fashion - Do chemicals are undertaking. To clothe the naked and used, all is effected by the honest and feed the hungry is an excellent work, but kindly agency of nature. The result of it is more excellent still to put them in this single-hearted effort on the part of the way of earning their food and clothing Mr. Fleming is that twenty spinning for themselves.
EXTRACTS OF TEA AND COFFEE AS SUB- would always, under definite conditions, pro. STITUTES FOR COCA AND GUARANA. — Dr. duce a given effect. Then he took such doses Squibb, in the Ephemeris, quoted by the De- of each drug as were needed to produce the troit Lancet, gives in detail the reasons why same effect as the standard doses of caffeine. he has sought to bring to the notice of the In this manner, he has ascertained that three profession the extracts of tea and coffee as grains of caffeine are equivalent to one hunsubstitutes for the extracts of coca and guarana. dred and eighty grains of coca, to seventy grains Briefly, he found by observation and experi- of tea, to sixty grains of guarana, to one hunment, that there was but little of good coca dred and fifty grains of coffee. The details and guarana to be found in the market. The given as to the process by which the extracts price asked for the poor article was very large. of tea and coffee are made is such as to gain As a result, the profession has been asking the the confidence of all who investigate it. The people to buy poor inefficient drugs at a high differences between the effects of caffeine and price. The results have been very unsatis- the extracts of green coffee, tea, coca, or gua. factory, both to scientific physicians and to rana, are difficult to describe. In general patients. To obtain a real substitute for these terms, it may be said that each of these is drugs, Dr. Squibb has taken the trouble to make caffeine and something more. The effect careful physiological tests.
All of these drugs seemed broader, more comprehensive, more contain caffeine, or an alkaloid having an agreeable, and giving a better sense of rest analogous action. Apparently most of their and well-being. We shall await with interest virtues depend upon this alkaloid Hence he the result of a wider clinical experience in the took as a standard a dose of caffeine which use of these agents. British Medical Journal.