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bad as well as from the good characters. Then what lessons are taught by the Some people exist for examples and oth- common records of every day! Look at ers for warnings. It is the commonest of the love of parents, – the endurances of morals that you are to imitate the one and married women, – the crimes and heroavoid the other. It is necessary to recol. ism, the frauds and follies of men — the lect not only dates and names, not only Bankrupt and Insolvent Courts, events, but to examine also their signifi. cidents and offences set forth in newspacance and import on later times. You pers, – the news from distant lands, must draw inferences from them in order the tyrannies and cruelties and revolts in to comprehend their value.

foreign countries, – the privations and Look at the French Revolution. The perseverance of travellers, – the frightful scholar will recollect what a state of things agonies of the castaway, the recoveries existed before it. The most unjust privi. from shipwreck, — all that people think leges were possessed by the nobles, the and do and suffer at all times. Not one clergy, and the bigher classes. These of these facts should lie barren in the persons enjoyed almost exclusively the mind. They should be dwelt upon; they fruits of the abundant earth. The people should be planted in the memory, and were oppressed and without rights. They produce a new thought, a new growth. In were stung into rebellion by a long series the course of time some of them may be. of abuses, which finally became no longer come events in history, and may be taught endurable. The people themselves were as lessons for the times to come. equally unjust and cruel in their turn. In the course of reading, a variety of Horrible cruelties were exercised during subjects will occur to the mind of any one the Reign of Terror. There arose a con- who tries to look at a subject on all sides. fusion of religions, discordant policies, We read, for instance, of a man's children every species of passion and policy came inheriting funds or money, and we think into power by turn, until at last they were at first only how lucky he is. But reflect ! finally subdued by a great military genius, What a fine effect of social polity it is, who commenced a new domination, not which enables a man who has toiled dur. very different from the old against which ing his life to bequeath at his death to they had rebelled formerly.

those who were dear to him, those probAll this from general history. But ably for whom alone he has toiled, all the would the inquiring reader enrich his results of his labor. Although he must mind further, let him read and lay to his go from this world into the next as naked soul the thousand instances of individual as he was born, he can — by means of a heroism and devotion, which made the will or social agreement - give that which time illustrious as well as disgraceful; the be cannot take with him to persons whom good which was seen on both sides, roy- of all the world he loved the best. When alist as well as republican. What cour. we abuse and deride the law, let us recol. age, what generosity, what tenderness, lect that it is an aggregate of many intelwhat fidelity, what self-sacrifice shone out lects, a body of polity dealing with the in those terrible and stormy days ! most difficult subjects, and formed for the

Again, what a world of knowledge may benefit of all. De gathered by meditating on the lives of remarkable men ! Their thoughts and actions, their birth and growth and fulfil. ment, all the chances and accidents of their

From The Athenæum. course, are pregnant with more than ordipary meaning. As their stature is beyond their fellows, so are their lives transcend- In the year of grace 1690 the first ament in value, abundant in their depths, bassador that a Moorish state had ever fertile in the shallowest places. A distin. sent to the court of Spain arrived with his guished writer has said, that the history suite at Gibraltar. The sensation was of a great man is the history of the time prodigious. How would the infidels be. he lived in. Now, although the humors have themselves ? What did they want of dominating persons have frequently of his most Christian Majesty Charles contributed to certain results, yet the char. 11.? Were they going to mix themselves acter of a people, their bravery or indus. up in the war of the grand alliance that try, their patience or other qualities, and was already raging among the great and the growing intelligence of the times they

* Voyage en Espagne d'un Ambassadeur Marolived in, have generally, I think, detero cain (1690-1691). Traduit de l'Arabe par H. Sauvaire, mined the result.

Consul de France. Paris, Leroux.

MOORISH AMBASSADOR IN SPAIN.*

66

as

little powers of Europe? The Spaniards | tain, who had his vessel in the roads, put flocked out to greet them, and the Mus. into the harbor until the sea was calm lims were proud of the respect which the again. They then sailed for Cadiz, the Christian dogs, mere “fuel for hell,” were harbor of which they state to be absoshowing to the putative descendant of lutely immeasurable. Aly, the Commander of the Faithful (according to the politics of Morocco) and

When we had drawn nigh to the city, being Grand Sherif Muley Ismail. Like many in the governor's galley, which was decorated

about two miles off, a captain approached us people less wise than himself, the Moorish with all manner of silks and brocades, and envoy kept a journal of his experiences in with a royal tent pitched on deck. When we the land over which his forefathers had had gone on board, he welcomed us on the once held sway, and where the culture of part of his superior, and, excusing his absence, Islam had set a noble example to the bar- informed us of the preparations for our recep; barous nations of Europe. This diary tion. We disembarked in a shallop and rowed has been preserved in the national library towards the city. On the shore we found the of Madrid, and Don Pascual de Gayangos, governor standing, with whom the whole popu. the indefatigable historian of Anglo-Span-lation had assembled, men, women, and chil. ish affairs, possesses another copy; and cian in Cadiz that he had not brought, and on

dren. There was not a single singer or musifrom these two M. Sauvaire, an Arabic the ramparts as well as the large ships there scholar who has made good use of his was not a cannon that was not fired. The opportunities as French consul at Alexan- governor received us with the utmost courtesy, dria and Casablanca, has inade a transla- and seemed extremely pleased at our coming. tion, which has just been published in All the Mohammedan prisoners in Cadiz came M. Leroux's charming Bibliothèque Ori. also to meet us; transported with joy, they entale Elzévirienne." It will be interest shouted the Profession of Faith, and invoked ing to learn what these foreign witnesses blessings upon the Prophet, whom God save, barbarian eyes,”

the Chinese

and made prayers for the success of our master

El-Mansour billah. would call them – saw in the kingdom which had but lately fallen from the po- Refusing all entreaties to stay a while sition of the first power of Europe to be at Cadiz, they pressed on, escorted out of the object of a general scramble among the town, as they had been received, by the foes to whom she had been wont to the entire populace. At Santa Maria, dictate her own terms.

whither they went by sea in the govern. The object of the embassy, as stated by or's galley, they were similarly welcomed; the envoy, was to command (Muslim po- and after having viewed the place, wbich tentates understand no gentler form of they greatly admired, and testified to the negotiation) the king of Spain to surrender fact ihat the faces of the people there five thousand manuscripts and five hun were more smiling and affectionate than dred Mohammedan prisoners to the Com. anywhere else,” they proceeded to Jemander of the Faithful, the emperor of

rez, Morocco; or if he could not find the MSS., to make the number of captives a

a city in the midst of an extensive country, thousand; whence it appears that a Moor. planted with trees, and watered by rivers ; ish prisoner is worth ten MSS., which where one sees plantations of olives, and vineseems a high price for mere human creat number not to be reckoned. Jerez is a large

yards, and gardens, and all sorts of trees, in The journal begins its record at town, with traces of an ancient civilization. Gibraltar, which is described as a large Vestiges are to be seen of its ramparts, but port, with a wide entrance, where a forti. the greater part is in ruins or vanished, befied castle rises, very solidly built and cause the Christians do not trouble themselves furnished with armaments and cannon about ramparts or fortifications except on the ... A wall extends round the base of the seaboard. This Jerez is called Jerez de la mountain, from the castle to the town, for Frontera, which means opposed; they intend about a mile, and along the seaboard, and by this to indicate that it is opposed to the

The here the ships put in. "It is a middle-sized country of Islam, which God exalt! town, or raiber small, and is inhabited the Andalos or Musulmans of Spain, and from

greater part of its inhabitants are derived from only by soldiers and people connected their chiefs who embraced Christianity; they with the military administration.” Many are cultivators and laborers. Mohammedan legends are told about the conquest of Gibraltar; but these reflec- Lebrija was their next halt, “a little tions were interrupted by a storm which town, chiefly occupied by nomads, its lasted eight days, and frightened the ramparts ruined and effaced.” On Utrera, Moors so much that they made their cap- | where they also discover, as anybody

ures.

might, the Moorish origin of the popula. The ambassador, with pardonable pride, tion, they make this remark :

traces most of the nobles of Andujar from The people are of the high class, The the Ulad es-Sarrâj, or Abencerages, who ruling idea with them, in either sex, is beauty. embraced Christianity under the rule of I saw two young people, one the daughter of Hasan, king of Granada. The nobility the governor, the other of the judge, who were of these converts is not, he admits, conextremely lovely and perfect in all points. . I sidered equal to that of the Christian did not see more perfect beauty in all Spain; nobles, but they enjoy the privilege of They were descended from the Andalos, and wearing a cross embroidered on their from the family of the last king of Granada.

shoulder. They did not, it appears, deny At Utrera a certain Don Alonzo used to their Mohammedan origin. coine and chat with the envoy, and showed From Linares, where the envoy was half an inclination to listen to the evi. much struck with the cheerful habits of dences of Islam - - a tendency which was the people, and the custom they had of attributed to the fact that his mother dancing, man and woman together," the evinced an extraordinary predilection for embassy proceeded by the nomad settlethe Turkish dish of kuskusu before he ment of Torre Juan'Abad to Socalana, was brought into the world. By Marchena where they experienced the novelty of an and Ecija they arrived at Cordova, where inn. The chronicler expresses the most they naturally visited the splendid mosque: naïve surprise at this extraordinary cathedral, which must have been full of method of providing for the needs of the memories for the co-religionists of Abd. traveller, who, he adds, never thinks of Er-Rahman:

sleeping out of doors or taking his rest It is an immense mosque, massively built, exactly where he likes, but it is all marked and of beautiful construction. Three hundred

out for him by the government post. and sixty is the number of its columns, all in houses. The charges, however, seem to white marble, and between each pair of columns have struck the frugal mind of the Mois an arch surrounded by a second arch. Now there are forty doors, but many others have hammedan as very heavy, and he says a been built up. Its niche has remained un- man may strive to observe all possible changed; indeed, nothing has been altered in economy in eating and drinking, but a the structure by the Christians except the crown a day will not cover his expenses, erection of a grilled window of copper with a and to live well must cost a deal of money. cross in front

No one enters there but those In spite of the prosperity which he notices who take care of the cross. Nothing great or in his way through Spain; in spite of the small has been added in the interior except to excellent” inns, and the admirably orthe wall. The mosque has a very large court, ganized system of official couriers, which with a basin in the middle, and around are he describes in some detail, he is surplanted 117 orange-trees. The ceiling and doors of the mosque rest in their primitive prised to find people always travelling in

He did condition, with no additions but those neces. companies for fear of brigands. sary for the support of the ceiling. The not, however, encounter any of these genChristians have made an innovation in the try himself, and reached Madrid without middle of the mosque. Opposite the mihrab any contretemps, full of wonder at the they have erected a great square chamber, things he had seen en route. He seems covered with a cupola and lighted by grilled to have been especially struck with the windows of yellow copper. . . . In front of discomfort of the convents and the luxury the mosque rises the great Kasbah, which of the rural clergy. One priest enterformed the palace of the king who ruled Cor. dova and the rest of the kingdom of the Mustained the embassy with great cordiality ulmans while this was united under one sceptre, and works of art, of which he was a con

in charming house, filled with pictures before the petty dynasties began. We pray God, whose name be exalted, to make it again noisseur. He begged them to drink some an abode of Islam by the merits of his Prophet, of his wine, which he said he had laid on whom be peace! The walls of the Kasbah down many years ago, and could confiare preserved in their original beauty; they are dently recommend ; and when the Mo. as high as those of the mosque.

hammedans protested that their religion It is interesting to compare this record did not allow them to drink wine, and put of the preservation of the Saracenic monotheir protest into practice by drinking umenis of Cordova with their present cold water with nothing in it, he looked state. With all the care that has been very compassionate. It was no wonder given to them, as compared with the neg. the good father was surprised, for his lect of Egypt, it is to be feared that it is cure was surrounded by a forest of vines not possible to say still that they retain -in fact, "there was no other tree than their pristine beauty unchanged.

the vine in most of these parts,” remarks

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the journal — and not to drink wine must who manages the revenue. On this minis. have been almost as incroyable to the ter's right was the queen, surrounded by a priest of Manzaneres as not to breathe.

number of the wives and daughters of the

grand seigneurs. On the king's left were the They have multiplied the vineyards because other ministers. the people of the neighboring metropolis consume wine constantly, at all times, as well as the interview that followed was merely at their meals. Wine is their chief beverage. formal. You will find very few people in this country health of the sherif, and pleased the am.

The king inquired after the drinking water. Yet, in spite of the quantity bassador by raising bis hat every time he of wine they absorb, you never see one of them

A few allumé, or drunk, or deprived of his reason. I mentioned the sherif's name. He who drinks to the drunken point is despised civilities about their journey, and the by them.

visitors were given a bint that the object

of the mission would be considered at an. The writer adds that some drink their orher interview, and departed. wine with water, others pure, in small

“The king is still a young man, of about quantities, and that the liquor is taxed to thirty. His color is fair, his stature low, two-thirds of its value at the gate of the bis face long, and his brow large.” Our city of Madrid; but the people pay no at- authority then branches off into an actention to that: “ They cannot do without count of the history of Spain, and the the wine they have become accustomed great deeds of Ferdinand and Isabella, to; men and women and children, aris. and thus comes to discuss the whole ques. tocrats and common folk, priests, deation of the War of Succession and the cons, monks — etc., all the world drinks.” policy of the various European States.

The embassy entered Madrid in state, into this we shall not follow him; but it and were lodged in a magnificent palace, is impossible to help being struck with where one of the servants of the king's the sound information, the clear judgment, bedchamber waited upon them with greet: singular toleration, and, in a word, the ings from his Majesty, who had himself statesmanlike qualities of the ambassador. been watching the arrival of this unusual He may be wrony in points of detail, but cavalcade from a window of his palace. he is better informed and less prejudiced The king bade them rest after the fatigue than any contemporary on the Christian of their long journey, and for twelve days side would have been in the like position. declined to allow them to trouble them. His observations on the people of Madrid selves upon the subject of their missions are often penetrating. After describing At last, however, the question of a formal the Spanish conquests in the New World reception by Charles II. was taken into and the immense wealth that proceeded consideration. And here a inighty diffi. therefrom, be adds : culty arose How would the strangers greet his most Christian Majesty? The Nevertheless, the love of ease and of the ambassador replied that he and his suite comforts of civilization rules the Spaniards, would give the king the salutation which and one can scarcely find an individual among belonged to misbelievers, “ Peace be with them who engages in commerce or makes him who follows the right path,” and never voyages to foreign parts for the sake of traffic, a word beyond. After some hesitation as is the custom of other people, like the Charles accepted this ceremonial ultima

Dutch, the English, the French, the Genevese,

So, too, the mean trades which are plied tuin, and the royal messenger proceeded by the lowest classes of the people are repudito instruct the visitors in the order of the ated by this nation, which hölds itself superior levee and the general etiquette of the to the rest of Christendom. The majority of court. The next day they went to the those who busy themselves with these mean palace, were received by the officers of trades in Spain are Frenchmen, and this bestate and the noblesse of Spain, and were cause their own land with difficulty furnishes conducted into the presence of the king, the means of subsistence. They invade Spain who was

to serve there and acquire and amass money ;

in a short time they lay by a large fortune. standing, with a gold chain about his neck. ... The Spaniards regard themselves for the Such are the habits of European monarchs. most part as government officials or officers of This chain with them takes the place of a the army, and think it beneath them to take

On his right was a gold table inlaid up with a trade or devote themselves to comwith precious stones. He had prepared this merce, in the hope of being reckoned among after our arrival in order to lay upon it the let the nobility, or at least of bequeathing rank to ter of the Sultan, out of respect for the sender, their descendants. No artisan or merchant is whom God exalt! At the right of the table allowed to ride in a carriage in the capital stood one of his ministers called the Constable, where the king resides.

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The ambassador was evidently a shrewd | furnished with iron plates, and thus in a single observer, and took care to see everything morning reach distant places for trading and that could be seen in the Spanish capital. carrying on their business, and return at night He witnessed a tournament for the band to their abodes. I have seen Christians skating of a young heiress; he hunted in the on this river supporting themselves on one royal forests, and was shocked to find that foot and raising the other

, preserving a perfect Charles II. was so sedentary in his babits balance, without leaning to either side. Thus

they went like lightning. that he used to drive everywhere, even to the chase. He studied especially the con- tions of the manners and character of the

Many rious and valuable observa. stitution of the Catholic Church, and was greatly struck with the unbounded power tury might be quoted, and the descriptions

Spanish people of the seventeenth cen. of the loquisition. He has a true Mo- of the Escurial and of the Moorish city of hammedan's dislike to the private confes. sion of women, and predicts the worst

Toledo are particularly interesting; but consequences; and after his own fast of enough has been said to show that the Ramadan he is inuch amused at “what journal of the Mohammedan ambassador they call fasting” in Spain. They eat all forms a really useful and important addi. day, he says we have seen them - and

tion to the existing contemporary records then they call that fasting! They only

of the court and country of Charles 11. of give up meat, but they drink whenever Spain, and that M. Sauvaire has done a they are thirsty, eat eggs and fish and all good service to history in translating it

from the Arabic MSS. in which it was in. soris of nice things — all of which must have appeared very easy fasting to a good

terred. Moslem, who never touches meat or drink from suorise to sunset during his own great fast. He has, however, only admi. ration for the devotion of the nursing

From Chambers' Journal.

CURIOUS NEWSPAPERS. brothers of charity of the Order of St. John. There are fourteen hospitals in IN 1828 a paper was published called Madrid, be says, which are large, very the Cherokee Phænir, which is interesting comfortable, and well supplied with beds, on more accounts than one. It was pubprovisions, medicines, and attendance. lished in English and Cherokee, the latter * These establishments are in a perfect portion being printed with characters in. state of efficiency, and the sick are de vented after years of patient labor and prived of nothing they need in the treat thought by one of the Indians, whose ment. I have visited several, and have curiosity had been excited by the “speak. seen that there was no parsimony in the ing leaf,” as he called a newspaper which expenditure.” He describes the routine he one day heard a white man read with of the patient's reception and treatment, surprising readiness and facility. After the number of sheets and coverlets he is producing his alphabet, be taught it to allowed for his bed, etc., and is delighted the other members of his tribe, and eventwith everything he observes. One of his ually, with the assistance of government, own suite fell ill, and though he refused was enabled to start the Phænix. Very to allow him to be taken to an "infidel” similar was the Sandwich Islands Gi. establishment, the brothers insisted on zette, first started in 1835, and boasting of visiting the sick man until he was cured. woodcuts, for which the publisher reNo wonder that he describes them as the ceived a license from the king, worded as best of their nation, and wishes that God follows: “ To Stephen D. Mackintosh. – would bring them to the true faith. I assent to the letter which you have sent

Among the amusements of Madrid he me. It affords me pleasure to see the saw a bull-fight, where, he says, anybody works of other lands and things that are who wished to show his prowess used to new. If I was there, I should very much enter the arena on horseback and engage like to see. I have said to Kivan, . Make the bull in single combat; but he was printing-presses.' My thought is ended. especially charmed with the skating in the Love to you and Reynolds. — By King royal park:

Kainkeaguoli.” This paper was of eight Those who are most given to this amuse

octavo pages, and was published in En. ment, and perform best, are the Dutch and glish. The present ruler of the Sand. English. This is because their country is sit- wich Islands shares the liberal views ex. uated in the north, where snow and ice abound pressed in the above letter of his predeeverywhere, and specially on the rivers. They cessor. Since that time the practice of say the Dutch women glide on the ice on shoes publishing papers in the native tongues

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