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effect on scorbutic and tubercular dis- But in this respect the geysers of New eases, or cutaneous eruptions, while others Zealand are not to be compared with those are equally remarkable for their action on of America. Moreover, they appear to be various phases of disordered liver. With less energetic than of old, as several out going into medical details, we may which are said to have been very active safely say that there is scarcely a physical twenty years ago are now quiescent. ailment for which some alleviation is not They are singularly influenced by atmohere offered.
spheric changes. Thus, in a strong southCertain pools (and especially the lovely westerly wind, the principal geyser at blue geysers which in cooling form the ex- Whaka-Rewa-Rewa occasionally throws quisite terraces of dazzlingly white silica) up a column to a height of sixty feet, and are found to be highly efficacious in the several of its usually quiescent neighbors treatment of all gouty and rheumatic af. seem equally inspired with unwonted aspifections; this is said to be due to the rations. Their working hours are generspecific action of silicates in expelling the ally from 7 to 9 A.M. and from 3 to 4 P.M., gout-producing acid from the system. whereas the noontide hours are almost Happy are the patients who find bealing invariably devoted to rest. One geyser is in such beautiful nature-built marble bachs called by the Maoris Whakaha-rua, i.e., as even the luxurious old Romans never the Bashful Geyser, because it only bedreamt of! Happily, too, for the non-gins to play after dark. suffering general public, there can be no Strange to say, the temperature of many excuse for disfiguring the white and sal. springs is also singularly affected by the mon-tinted terraces of Roto Mahana with direction of the wind, and when it blows an artificial building, inasmuch as some from the north or east they rise from 100° of the most powerful geysers, and most to 190°, and bathing becomes impossible strongly charged with silica, are found till the wind changes. Sometimes a northwithin a couple of miles of the new town east wind blows for weeks together from at Whaka-Rewa-Rewa on the Puarenga sunrise till sunset, and the springs daily River, a stream which flows into the lake, reach boiling point at about noon, and so and whose course is marked by innumera continue till the fall of the wind at even. ble steam-jets, mud cones, mud pools, tide permits the temperature to subside solfat as, and sulphur banks.
sufficiently to allow of bathing. At Whaka-Rewa-Rewa these are Of the springs already in highest reclosely clustered together as to form a pute, I may mention one whose success very extraordinary scene, especially when has been so often proved that it is known viewed from the summit of one of the as the Painkiller. It is a powerful sulhigher mounds. The surrounding hills phur bath, clear and colorless, with a temand the river banks are partly covered perature of 204°. It unfortunately has a with dark green manuka scrub and luxu- most offensive smell, as have also the riant ferns, and from this dark setting Sulphur Bay springs, which consist of rise numerous great cones of dazzlinu innumerable sulphur jets, bursting up whiteness, like gigantic wedding cakes, all through the sands on the brink of Lake formed by the deposit from silicious gey Rotorua and forming a famous natural sers. One of these monster cakes is fifo sulphur bath. Wai-bunu-hunu-kuri is a teen feet bigh and three hundred feet in muddy, ferruginous bath with excess of circumference, and there is no saying how silica. Another which retains its Maori much larger it may become, as this geyser name is Te Kawhanga, a large and very is exceptionally active, and from its cen. muddy, chocolate-colored pool, constantly tral funnel throws up a fountain about six discharging a gas which produces a sensa. feet high once in eight minutes. These tion of faininess like that caused by inhalsilica cones are the special feature of this ing laughing.gas. strange place, but they are seamed by fis. Manupirua, a beautifully clear-blue hot sures of burning gold – in other words, pool, twenty feet in diameter, is in great with scalding sulphur crystals. The Mao-favor with the natives on account of its ris, who have a. favorite settlement here, bealing properties. It lies at the foot of have distinctive and descriptive names for a bigb pumice cliff on the shore of Lake each of the principal cones and geysers. Rotorua, and deposits a large amount of They say that the Waikati, of which I sulphur. The temperature ranges from have just spoken, is most energetic at 107° to 110°. But still more precious are midsummer, that is to say in January and the waters of Te Kute, the Great Spring, February, when it sometimes ejects a col. which is about ten miles from Ohinemutu. umn to a height of thirty-five feet. It is a muddy-brown boiling pool three
quarters of an acre in extent, and from its some in fine and some in faint lines; and surface rise dense volumes of steam. Its a few, it must be confessed, io very perwaters contain a large proportion of sul. plexing characters. History, science, pburetted hydrogen, and it is considered politics, poetry or fiction, and morals, to work miracles in the cure of rheumatism occupy all the inquiring heads in Chris. and sundry cutaneous diseases.
tendom. But it is useless further to particularize At one time knowledge was the property a few out of the many thousand springs only of a few who had. to gather it with which await analysis. Those I have extreme labor. Now the road has been enumerated sufficiently indicate the char-made tolerably easy. It is one, indeed, acter of the whole, and afford some idea on which all of us may travel. of the materials which await investigation, The diffusion of letters — like the over. and which, when their uses are under flowing of the Nile at first traversed stood and practically applied to the relief only the neighboring regions — the homes of human suffering, must exalt the new of scholars and men of learning. In the city of Rotorua to a position above all course of time it spread over the middle others in the health-conferring regions of levels of society. Then it rose higher, the world.
amongst warriors and nobles; and finally it has penetrated deeper, fertilizing the intellects of the artisan and the peasant.
We learn because we desire to learn,
and the having learned begets the desire
From Temple Bar.
to teach. For every cultivated mind en
genders thought, and becomes self-pro19, Albert Hall Mansion, Kensington Gore,
July 18, 1884.
ducing; otherwise the world would be DEAR MR. BENTLEY,
stagnant. As it is each brings his little I find, looking over some old records of the hoard to the great whole, and the moun. past, some remarks made by my husband on tain of knowledge is made up of a million reading books.
parts. Thousands have contributed to The paper was written for our old friend ihis before us, and there will be thousands Mr. Brookfield, who wished to give a lecture also will do the same after us. on that subject. I believe he did not carry
Let no one despise even his own con. out this intention,
The paper may perhaps interest a few old tribution, however small, to the general friends who still remember Barry Cornwall.
heap. It elevates ourselves, and helps No man ever loved books more intensely: others to creep towards that summit, they were his solace and delight from youth to which no one will ever be able entirely to age, and cheered and made endurable a long ascend. and painful illness. Unable to speak to his But let us do our best. What we wish living friends he turned to his dead ones. to do must be done by a division of labor, Yours, dear Mr. Bentley,
for no one person can do everything. Very truly,
Even these present observations (however ANNE BENSON PROCTER.
humble) are an attempt after a fashion to The curiosity of the world is divided do something rather than remain idle. mainly between the thoughts and actions Do not forget that there are millions of of men.
The deeds which men do, and things to be seen and discussed; and be the words which they write (or say), have satisfied that everything, may be seen almost an equal influence upon their age from a different point of view. It is true and posterity. We profit by a maxim or that in whatever way you look at a sphere proverb full of wisdom, almost as much it is always round. Yet it has different as by the example of a philosopher or a aspects. No one side is exactly like anhero. It is necessary, therefore, to study other. The color, the shade, the marks both.
or veins of each has its peculiar charac. At present we will confine ourselves to ter. The views may also be taken from ove only. This one, indeed, has become several distances. You sometimes see in of far greater importance than the other, a picture a man whose height is a yard, since men's deeds have been turned into and sometimes only an inch. Yet both words, by the ingenuity of historians and are true, because the artists have taken others.
their sketches from different distances. Hall of the world, which at one time The senses and powers of all men differ was a huge sheet of unblotted foolscap, from each other, and these prompt them has now been converted into a tremendous always to do something new. One man book. Every leaf has been written upon; / fiods a stone, which another cuts, and a
third polishes until it dazzles the sense. I gather a portion of this knowledge, and One brings a seed, producing apparently the object is to know how to begin this a mean flower; but another transplants it humbler task, and how to proceed for the into better mould, whilst a third marries purpose. to à congenial blossom, and lo! comes We must not read to waste. We must forth a radiant wonder such .as summer be moderate if we wish to gain much. bas never beheld.
The bee does not overload himself with Again, nothing should be despised by the nectar of Aowers, but takes what he a person desirous of knowledge. There can carry away. We must select also, is nothing, however minute, which does and see that the quality of what we take not deserve attention, for observe, scarcely be good. any object, however simple, consists of We should read, not merely that we one indivisible substance. The human may make money, not to sharpen our in. body is made up, as anatomists will tell tellect, but to enlarge it. We should read you,
of many parts. Each has its design in order to know and feel what is good, and use; and to these must be super. and what is evil, and to do what is good added the senses, and the intellect, which and useful. Are we ambitious ? let us no one has bitherto been able to explain. learn humility. Are we avaricious ? let The sea is made up of countless water. us learn content. When a man can truly drops, the shore of cour less sands. Nay, say to himself, "My mind to me a king. even a single drop of water, or an insect's dom is,” a kingdom of which he is the egg (smaller than any water-drop), con- absolute ruler, there is no king beyond tains thousands of inhabitants, each capa bim. ble of receiving and enjoying life, of pos. And now I propose to offer a few obsessing a mind (which we call instinct), servations on the mode of reading books ; and each like ourselves subject to the i.e., to show how books may be read with common law of death.
profit. All this and far more you will learn I do not pretend to exhaust the subject, from books, upon which we are now to but simply to state what I myself have
found to be useful. Every man gaios
something from his own experience. DurThere is perhaps no greater wondering his periods of study, he must have than a hook. By the help of little figures noted the times when he derived advan. or marks placed upon reeds, or skins, or tage, and when he did not succeed in some other available material, men have reaping any. His gain and loss on these been able to transmit their thoughts occasions, properly pointed out, cannot through thousands of years. The names fail I thiok io be of use to others. Withand shapes of things, the deeds and sor. out some counsel, a man at first reads to rows that have occurred as far back as the waste he reads much that becomes of time of Adam, have been made known to little value.
Even those abstract and invisible Were I to collect the opinions of others, thoughts, which have no shape or sub. I should probably place before you bril. stance, but which nevertheless inspired liant sentences, imposing maxims. But as the writer, and have since inspired others, I have not found all instructions easy to are all put down in little letters or figures, follow, or profitable in the result, I shall, and made eternal. The songs of David, by taking everything from my own expe. the sublime grievings of Job, the specula- rience, from my own point of view, show, tions of Plato, the visions of Homer, have amongst things that may be questionable, by these means been handed down faith things that are at least stamped with my fully for many centuries, and distributed own convictions. amongst mankind.
Let us first consider the temper in If there were no books, our knowledge which we ought to commence our siudies. would be almost confined to the liinit of We should come to our studies, then, sight and hearing. All that we could not with a clear, unprejudiced mind, with a see or hear, in action, would be to us – resolution to persevere, until we fully like the inhabitants (if there be any) of the understand our author: to read bim, in planet Saturn - a mere matter of idle con- short, with candor and industry. It is jecture.
indispensable that we should strive to To read, mark, learn, and inwardly di- discover the truth or beauty of a book, gest all the thoughts and learning of oth rather than its errors. We should begin ers is evidently impossible. It is beyond with a trusting, rather than with a carping the compass of any intellect. But we may I spirit. The faults generally float upon the
surface, and may easily be discovered. and take them to pieces, and examine the But the truths lie deeper, and must be parts separately. It is a good practice, sought for. The latter will strengthen especially in books which profess to deal and fertilize the mind of the reader. The with science, or to encounter difficult discovery of the former will merely only problems. It tends to prove them and feed his self-conceit. A boy who has been render them intelligible. a year in geography, may know that Bo. At first, you should treasure up facts, hemia is not on the seacoast. But it as so many items of knowledge. After a requires that a man should have a fine time you will select from them. A fact mind and a cultivated intellect to appre- to be useful must be suggestive; otherciate the vernal beauties that lie scattered wise it is no better than a tissue of words. about in. Shakespeare's pastoral of the There are many facts as barren as the “ Winter's Tale."
sands on the seashore. These you will If you should not understand the pre discover in the course of time. cise meaning of an author of repute, or Some persons are for reason only — or fail to appreciate him at his current value rather for books which proceed upon cal(for humor, or style, etc.), don't rely on culation and reasoning. But reasoning your first impression, but try again, at a deals with only one faculty of the mind, future time. Do not complain that the and we should not confine ourselves to author has not done what he has not pro.one. The most famous works, those which fessed to do, or that he has not come up have lasted longer than others, are not to a model at which he has not aimed. works proceeding merely from reason. Give him credit for what he has done, The Bible, Homer, Shakespeare's works, apart from all other considerations. Haz proceeded from other infuences. litt said, “ Mr. B- criticises Mrs. Sid. Besides facts, besides reasoning, there doos, and says that she is not a philoso. will probably appear the opinions of the pber.” The answer is, “She does not author. Read and consider these also. pretend to be a philosopher; all that she 1f the book be the product of a great attempts is to be a great actress, — and in writer, observe the style carefully. For a this she succeeds."
good style is not a mere grace in writing. Always consider the character or qual. It consists of words which have the best ity of a book. If it be a history, do not meanings, and more meaning (i.e., truer, look for wit. If it be a book of jests, do deeper meaning) than words that are not look for a moral discourse. There placed in a dull, and poorly written book. are indeed sometimes sparks of wit in a There is no style worth the name which history, and sometimes a moral in a joke, does not involve new ideas. It is, in fact, but these are occasional only, and do not this accession of new thoughts which con. form the staple of the bcok, on which stitutes the merit of any style in writing. alone the author is strictly amenable to We always read with a view to profit critical judgment.
of some kind or other; to obtain informa. Then in reading a book, remember that tion, to determine an opinion, or for almost every author writes on the pre- amusement, which is profit in another sumption that the reader knows some shape. thing of the history or science, politics, or This being the case, never read when other subject on which he treais. With-the mind is listless, nor when you are dis. out this presumption, all books would be posed to be idle. This is frequently the flat aod tedious. There would be no case when the body only is fatigued. style, no clearness or rapidity of narra. Above all, never read when the mind has tion, were the author to stop at every sen- been fatigued by exertion. For the mind lence to explain what he has a right to can no more endure too much than the suppose that nineteep out of every twenty body. After a certain quantity of labor, readers know. There would be no incen. it fails either to distinguish, perceive, or tive or stimulus for the reader. The mere to remember very distinctly: Persistence, use of words and phrases which are not in in such case, damages and effaces much every-day use, the adoption of new combi. of what has been read when the mind was Dations, forces the reader to think, and fresh and impressible; the judgment bejoduces him to ascertain and verify mean- comes dull and fails to act. jogs, which he would otherwise idly take At such times it is better to let the upon trust, and never remember after-memory or the fancy have its will and wards.
stray elsewhere; better still to repose Sometimes, io compound words or com. altogether until you attain new strength. plicated sentences, it is useful to analyze | The bad consequence of “all work and
no play” has been enshrined in a provo; as the case may require. If you read of erb.
natural history, prints of birds or animals Do not content yourself, as I have said, will materially help you to retain in your with mere facts, and books of science. memory what you may read concerning Read also works of imagination, in prose them. The memory retains better what and poetry. They will enliven your mind, is impressed on two senses than on one. and enrich it also. All knowledge does Books relating to a science or a profesnot consist in amassing information sion should be studied carefully. But the trade with in future life, to serve you in quantity of study in each day should be your ordinary dealings in a trade or a moderate. Do not overbürthen your profession. There are vast treasures be mind with too much labor. sides, which stimulate and raise and edu. After having read as much as your cate the intellect, much that enables you mind will easily retain, sum up what you to judge of men and things in general, of have read - endeavor to place in view words, and actions, and motives, in a wider the portion or subject that has formed scope. Believe me, there is often hid in your morning's study; and then reckon a poet's verse a deeper moral than in a up (as you would reckon up a sum) the bulky sermon.
facts or items of knowledge that you have No treatise or essay, on politics or his. gained. If any of these should not be tory or morals, or on any branch of sci. distinctly impressed on your mind, turn ence which I have ever read, contains as back to that which is imperfectly rememmuch wisdom as a play of Shakespeare. bered and freshen your memory. It gen
Do not shut out any author of merit. erally happens that the amount of three To limit yourself always to certain books or four hours reading may be reduced to or subjects is to blind yourself wilfully to and concentrated in half a dozen proposi. all the wonders that lie beyond thein. tions. These are your gains — these are
Always read the preface to a book. It the facts or opinions that you have acplaces you on vantage ground, and ed. quired. You may investigate the truth of ables you to survey inore completely the them hereafter. The next day revert to book itself. You frequently also discover your last reading, and try if what you obthe character of the author from the iained yesterday still remain as so many preface. You see his aims, perhaps bis precise facts in your mind. prejudices. You see the point of view Although I think that one's general from which he takes bis pictures, the reading should extend over many subrocks and impediments which he himself jects, yet for serious study we should con. beholds, and you steer accordingly. fine ourselves to some branch of literature
Sometimes an author has a merit inter- or science. Otherwise the inind becomes mixed with obvious defects. His style confused and enfeebled, and the thoughts, may be absolute or indifferent, whilst his dissipated on many things, will settle reasoning may be good, and his thoughts profitably on none. original. In such case, meditate on the A man, whose duration of life is limited, valuable matter which he brings before and whose powers are limited also, should you, and forget the rest.
not aim at all things, but should content Understand every word you read; if bimself with a few. By such means he possible every allusion of the author; if may master one and become tolerably practicable whilst you are reading; if not, familiar perhaps with two or three arts or make search and inquiry as soon as may sciences. He may indeed even make val. be alterwards. Have a dictionary near uable contributions to them. Without you when you read, and when you read a this economy of labor he cannot produce book of travels, always read with a map of any complete work, nor can he exhaust the country at hand. It enables you to any subject. follow the author correctly; and it im. History in general is the story of crimes prints the facts upon your mind. With and conquests. It does not concern itself out a map, the information is vague and with peaceful heroes or silent blessings. the impression transitory.
It deals little with discoveries — little So also if you read on any subject with the progress of literature or science. capable of illustration, for the object of It seldom descends to individuals unless teaching is not to teach words but ihings. they be possessed of rank or power. Therefore, have the object or a printed Dante, Shakespeare, Newton, are rarely representation of it by you. If it be of mentioned in history, and then only in a the manufacture or ornamenting of china, cursory way. It has, however, this advanfor instance, have a vase or other figure, I tage, that you may extract profit from the