Roinan cement. There is, of course, a to place the congregation at the best ad. wide difference in point of taste between vantage. the finest of artificial ruins and the poorest What a modern cathedral needs, as disof modern cathedrals; but the same spirit tinguished from an ancient one, is a large which produced the one is seldom, per amount of unobstructed space. Even the haps, quite absent from the other. Nor is great area under the dome of St. Paul's is this entirely to be regretted; for the spirit too small for the crowds who often press is a good one, however mistaken may be into it. And, looking to the future, prothe ways in which it has occasionally vision may wisely be made in a new buildshown itself. When, almost a century ing for the people who are brought together ago, the modern world first came to see not only by an ordinary service or by a how much there was of interest and of favorite preacher, but also by the performexcellence in the work of the Middle Ages, ance of important musical works of a reliit naturally tried, as the first result, to copy gious character. For this last object a that work line for line. It is always so more extended nave may be allowable with learners. In the nature of things than the very short one that would suffice they must begin by imitating their model for the others; since a chorus, and even just as it stands; and it is only later, if at a powerful voice as a solo, can be fairly all, that they come to see what points in it heard at a distance which makes a speaker are fit and what are unfit for the ultimate inaudible. The first thing, then, looking object they may have in view. Till they for the moment only at the utilitarian assee that, they are at best only apprentices: pect of the problem, is to provide space when they see it and can act upon it, they for as large a congregation as possible are nearer by one step to the level of the within hearing of the prayers, the lessons, men whose productions they study. and the sermon. This, probably, is all

The most careless observer cannot fail the space that will commonly be used. to see much in our old cathedrals which, When this has been done, inore space however admirable as art, is unsuited to can still be added by lengtheniog the nave the purposes of to-day. They contain towards the west, which will be valuable many features which, both for their his- at those special times when singing rather tory and their beauty, ought to be most than speaking is intended to be listened religiously preserved where they exist; to. These conditions seem to point to a but which, like artificial ruins, cannot with wide nave and a large central area; yet any regard to truth or reason be set up not to so large a one that, as at St. Paul's, where they do not. Of this kind are the it will dwarf all the rest of the church, numerous chapels which, as at Westmins. and absorb nearly all the sound, either of ter, cluster round the choir, and which, speaking or singing. There is one other deprived of their priests and their altars, alternative, and that is to make this cennow serve only as receptacles for tombs. tral area in itself the church - expanding We may

be very sure that the men of old it till the pave becomes a mere vestibule, would never have built them in this shape and the choir a mere appendage. Such a for this purpose alone, and that they would scheme was proposed, as most people by no means have designed the chevet of know, in the original design for St. Paul's; Westminster or the eastern transept of but it was rejected then, and it departs so Durhan for a ritual which practically ad- widely from customary forms that any, mits only one altar for each of its churches. thing like it would probably be rejected It is possible, however, to limit too nar- Its possibilities would be magnifirowly the uses of a cathedral. Some five cent in the hands of an architect with an and.iwenty years ago the late Sir Gilbert unconquerable determination to Scott remarked, in a report on the sub: “scale,” solidity, and proportion : without ject, that the great difficulty about our old this it would be little better than a second cathedrals was to find any purpose at all Albert Hall. for the greater part of their area; and be There is no reason, probably, why the extended ibis remark, which was true actual choir of a new cathedral should be enough of the side aisles and chapels, very different from that of an old one. even to the naves. Since then the pave The transepts might with advantage be of one cathedral after another has been shorter and perhaps wider, for acoustic reafitted up for popular services, and in sons. And though the chapels, with the large cities the present difficulty is, not exception of one for early services, would that no purpose can be found for the nave naturally be omitted, it does not follow of a great church, but that its proportions that the aisles should also go. They would are too long, and especially too narrow, still be invaluable as means of access and




communication, though they would in no far, on the other hand, as it deals with case be occupied by seats; and they would convenience of arrangement and dignity be narrower not perhaps in reality, but of proportion, it is as practicable now as still in comparison to the pave

-than ever.

If a modern cathedral, then, should in old examples. A place for monuments in reason depart at certain points from the and memorials is wanted in every cathe old lines, it can yet be built at all points dral and this they would easily supply on the old principles. What its first build. A great" lantero." would fitly stand above ers do they will do well and permanently; the central area, and throw down a flood but they will leave room for the handiwork of light on that important part of the of many a future generation, so that when interior. The central tower is the most their cathedral grows old it may, like its characteristic of all features in our ancient predecessors, be at once a work of art and churches of the first rank; and this mod. a volume of history. ern use of it would only make it a little more important, and internally a little more effective. The architectural treat. ment of the wide nave would present, it

From The Spectator. may be, the chief difficulty in inodifying

BOOKSELLING IN RUSSIA. the common cathedral type as reason and naturalness seem, for present purposes, to The measure which English teetotallers suggest. This is only saying, in other would deal out to sellers of drink is meted words, that it would afford the chief op- by the government of Russia to sellers of portunity for a really able architect to books. In that country literature cannot show what was in him. Naves of all be reached without a special license, and a widths still exist in old churches, abroad special license is hard to obtain. In the if not at home – from the common one of whole of the empire there are only five or five-and twenty or thirty feet, up to sixty six firms who hold patents from the crowa feet at Alby and Florence, and seventy for the sale of books. The rest are simfeet or more at Gerona and at Palma in ply tolerated; they merely hold permits Mallorca. The difficulty is not one of granted by the local police, and revocable construction but of proportion; and even at their pleasure. It is a strict condition here enough has been done to indicate that they deal only in books which have pretty clearly the path of success.

been officially approved. If they are Our old cathedrals were not finished in found in possession of any other, their one generation, nor need we wish a new permits are cancelled and themselves one to be. If the present age supplies prosecuted. Thus, while they may sell the construction, and in the strictest sense the first volume of Lecky's “ History of the architecture, we may well leave much Rationalism in Europe,” which was sancof the decoration for future times. Con- tioned by the censors, the second, which sidering what decoration is in these days, has been placed on the index expurgatoand yet considering too that there are rius, they may not sell. Should a pub. signs of its gradual improvement, it will lisher desire to bring out any sort of sebe almost enough, in a new cathedral, to rial issue, if it be but a monthly magazine map out an appropriate field for it, and of stories for children, he must undergo a then to leave its execution to "the wiser searching and insidious examination as man who springs hereafter." Nor is it to his religious and political opinions, and only on artistic grounds that this course if these are not found satisfactory, the may be defended. Decoration of a high application is peremptorily refused. The class must have a meaning and a purpose police may, moreover, visit his shop when.

must tell a story or set forth a creed. ever it seems good to them, and turn his The question at once arises, what story or stock topsy-turvy in a search for contrawhat creed? Every party in the Church band literature. or the State will give a different reply; and In these circumstances, as may well be even if it were possible to find a compro- supposed, the opening of a new book-store mise to which they would all agree, com- in a provincial town is regarded as an promises are too tame and spiritless to event. Hence it was that when, some two form the basis of real art. Art, it has been years ago, M. Kervelli obtained permistruly said, belongs to people who have sion from the local authorities to sell made up their minds; and therefore, so far books in Karkoff - albeit Karkoff is a as it relates to stories and creeds, it cannot city of sixty thousand inhabitants, the be attempted with much hope of success seat of a university, and disputes with in transitional times like the present. So Kieff and Odessa the intellectual suprem



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acy of southern Russia – his boldoess the unfortunate bookseller to Odessa, won him admiration, and his success where he was kept in prison twenty.five caused surprise. M. Kervelli, though a days before being examined. Moreover, French citizen, has lived in Russia from the examination, when it did take place, his youth upwards, knows the ways of the was little more than a farce. He was country, and speaks the language without asked whether he belonged to any secret the slightest accent. He is also an ener- society, and whether he was in relation getic man of business; before many with conspirators, or had himself plotted months had passed he was doing an ex. against the established order, questions cellent trade, and had become the largest which, as a matter of course, he answered and most successful bookseller in the re in the negative. He was next asked if he gion of Kakoff. All the new books pub- had any friends among the officers of the lished in Moscow or St. Petersburg were Karkoff garrison. This question also be found in his store; he kept also a fair was able to answer in the negative. Then assortment of foreign books, and was al- a large box, divided into compartments ways ready to procure direct from Paris like a compositor's case, each filled with any French works desired by his custom photographs, was produced. Taking one ers, thereby saving them the trouble, ex. of these in his hand, the police functionpense, and delay of getting their supplies ary who conducted the examination in. through St. Petersburg. He became quired of M. Kervelli whether he knew bookseller to the university by special the original. The bookseller recognized appointment, published several scientific it as that of a customer who had several works written or translated by the pro- times been in his shop. “You are quite fessors, and his shop was frequented by right," said the functionary, and then orall the readers and bookbuyers of the dered the attendant gaoler to reconduct town. It is hardly necessary to say that him to his cell. A few days later he was in M. Kervelli's establishment contraband taken to St. Petersburg and there lodged literature was strictly tabooed. His ob- in prison, where he lay seven months ject being to build up a business, it would without being once examined or informed not have suited his purpose to risk the of the nature of the offence with which confiscation of his stock by contravening be was charged. Hoping that he might the law. Nevertheless, the police took be released and allowed to return to his umbrage. Prone to suspicion, and always business at Karkoff, he did not like to viewing askance anything like intellectual complain to the French ambassador, and activity, they could only account for M. thereby render the police altogether im. Kervelli's popularity and success on the placable. But at length he lost patience, supposition that he was dealing in for and as the mildest measure he could adopt bidden books. They made him several sent a communication to the French conunexpected and unwelcome visits, and sul. This gentleman at once came to see minutely inspected his stock. But ex him, and at his request sought an internihilo nihil fit; there being no contraband view with M. Pleve, chief of the political matter on the premises, none was found. police, not to demand Kervelli's release, These proceedings served only to increase but to ask that he might be examined M. Kervelli's popularity; and in August, without further delay. He was thereupon 1883, the police, still under the impres brought before M. Pleve and asked some sion that all was not right, took him into questions, and he took the liberty of askcustody, and searched both his house and ing some in return. his store

again without result. On this Why,” he demanded, “ have you kept he naturally expected to be set free, the me in prison eight months ? I have more especially as the police hinted that broken no law, neither sold contraband he had been arrested under a misappre. books, nor taken part in any secret socihension. But as they continued to detain ety.” “ That I know quite well,” anhim, M. Boutakoff, one of the richest citi. swered the chief. You have done nothzens of Karkoff, accompanied by several ing openly illegal, I admit; but that only professors of the university, waited on shows how very prudent you are, and, the governor, bore testimony that M. Ker therefore, all the more dangerous. It is velli had sold none but useful and author. true, also, that we have found no forbid. ized books, and pleaded warmly for his den literature in your possession. All the release. The governor said he would same, we know quite well that it is possi. look into the matter, and promised his io- ble so to arrange an assortment even of terviewers that justice should be done authorized books as to spread subversive a promise that was fulfilled by sending ideas quite as effectually as if they were



revolutionary pamphlets printed at Ge. and set free, they are taken to Siberia and

These were M. Pleve's very left there for life. According to a despatch words. M. Kervelli replied that it was not from St. Petersburg, cited a few days ago he, but the public for whom he catered, by several English papers, translations of that chose the books, which they bought works by Agassiz, Bagehot, Huxley, Luband he sold. He could not make people bock, Louis Blanc, Marx, Mill, Reclus, as buy this or that book. Moreover, accord- well as Sir Charles Lyell's Geology," ing to the chief's theory, the more inno- Adam Smith's “ Wealth of Nations,” Her. cent a man was, the more he deserved bert Spencer's books, and several others, punishment. He was then taken back to have been excluded by imperial decree his cell. On the consul hearing what had from the reading rooms and public libra. come to pass, he informed M. Pleve that ries of Russia, and also from all lending unless Kervelli were either set at liberty libraries. This is likely enough, but as it or put on his trial, he would bring the may possibly be inferred from the stateaffair officially before the ambassador. ment in question that those institutions This brought matters to a crisis. A day abound in Russia, it is as well to mention or two later M. Kervelli was informed that there are only two public libraries in that he would be set at liberty, but that the country, those of St. Petersburg and be must leave the country forthwith. As of Moscow. It is highly significant of the a matter of favor, however, he would be reactionary character of the present allowed, before being conducted to the gime that all the works in question have frontier, to proceed to Karkoff, in order to undergone the ordeal of the censorship, dispose of his business and put his affairs some of them several years ago. The in order. So, early in March (1884), he government is evidently determined to was sent under police escort to the other persevere in its policy of treating literaend of the empire, and, on arriving at his ture and science as enemies, and punishdestination, the local authorities politely ing independence of thought and freedom informed him that he might remain in Kar. of speech as the most beinous of crimes. koff exactly twenty-four hours, and not a moment longer. It is not easy to liquidate a business and dispose of a large stock of books in a day; but the police had thought. fully facilitated his task by shutting up his

From St. James's Gazette. shop (on March 22nd), and taking posses.

A SMALL-POX CAMP. sion of the key. So all that M. Kervelli On a pleasant slope, situate about three had to do, or, indeed, could do, was to put miles from Dartford, lies a large encampthe matter in the hands of an agent and ment for the reception of convalescent take his departure. Two gendarmes - small-pox patients, received from the Lon. whose travelling expenses, as well as the don hospitals and from the ships which expenses of his escort from St. Peters have lately been converted into floating burgh, he was forced to pay saw him to hospitals. As one approaches, a huge the frontier, and he arrived safely in Paris, white flag with a red cross on it immedi. where he told his story, and gave our in- ately fixes the eye, and reveals to the be. formant leave to make whatever use of it holder the purpose of this immense spread he might think fit. M. Kervelli has been of canvas. That banner is the Geneva advised within the last few days of the Cross. Far and wide are numbers of sale of his stock at about a fourth of its tents, interspersed here and there with actual cost.

wooden huts. They have much the apThe misfortunes of this gentleman are pearance of a military camp, with some not in themselves very remarkable, nor small tents set apart for the officers; but perhaps of any great public importance. the tents are in reality marquees capable But as an illustration of the ways of the of holding twenty beds each. At the comRussian police, and as a proof that the mencement of the road leading up, a proin. police are the real rulers of the country, inent sign-board warns one not to pass. the story is interesting and significant. Indeed, no one could pass; for a commis. That which M. Kervelli endured has been sionaire stand on guard, and, until the endured by thousands of Russians quite return message comes from headquarters as free of offence as he – is endured by that the papers are all correct, one must Russians every day — with this difference, remain prisoner in a hut. From here a

that they can appeal to no diplomatic winding carriage-road leads to a long cen. agent for belp or redress, and that instead tral footway constructed after the fashion of being conducted to the western frontier of a railway platform, and at regular intervals from this rise stout posts, each bear- | receive their discharge from the medical ing a modern street-lamp; for although officer. But a few highly appreciate the miles from a town, and cut off from the complete change, and have to be sought outside world, gas is at hand, brought after when the time comes for their de. through iron mains from the Asylum for parture. Patients are brought in regular Imbeciles which lies at the top of a neigh- ambulances to the camp, sometimes one boring hill. And from that asylum runs or two alone, and at other times as many a fine wire, first to one division of the as twenty or thirty together. Here the camp and then to the other, so that three doctor receives them, aod, having made a stations are brought into direct communi-preliminary examination of the cases, tion by the telephone. So here are gas orders their removal to the infirmaries or and electricity in a camp where daily tents, so that they may be subjected to papers are scarce and generally old. On special or general treatment. The infirmeither side of this footwalk, which is hon. aries are wooden structures about the same ored by the name of High Street, are size as the tents, but containing only sixpitched the principal tents in two parallel teen beds each; so that each inmate has lines. Each tent is numbered, and gives extra room, the constant attendance of a sleeping accommodation to twenty pa- nurse, and many more visits daily from the tients ten on either side. And here, doctor. Here may be seen some of those under canvas, live between eleven and cases where the terrible ravages of the twelve hundred people, forming a world disease have left the poor sufferers blind. by themselves, cut off by a cordon of sen- Sometimes members of the same family tries from all outsiders, and further iso- fail to recognize each other on meeting – lated by a double row of iron railings one so greatly can small-pox alter the features hundred and fifty feet apart. No one can and the expression. communicate with the outer world except A constant stream of human beings through the medium of the post-office, passes through the establishment, which is where all letters are first subject to disin. on such a large scale tbat brothers may fection. Although of the vast number in remain days together within a few hunthe camp over one thousand are patients dred yards of each other and not know it. passing through all stages of convales. During the recent violent epidemic of cence, quiet and peace reign supreme small-pox, many of the milder cases which everywhere. There is no bustle, no noise, would otherwise have been kept in a Lon. no turmoil, no screeching of railway whis- don hospital were transferred to the Datles; but life glides smoothly along, ap. renth Camp, and here they are placed in parently with all anxiety and care forgot the infirmaries. Strict discipline is mainten: for here the patients seem subdued tained in the encampment. At nine o'clock by the peace of nature, the pure air, the in the evening a sergeant commissionaire sunshine, and the bracing Kentish breezes. blows a shrill whistle, when all patients The camp has two main divisions, which must retire to their tents to bed. The are separated by a slight rise of ground: canvas door is then closed, and, save for on one side are male patients, and on the the periodical visit of the night nurse, other female. Beyond the tents, and high nothing disturbs them till morning. By up among the remains of fruit trees and half past seven all patients must quit the bordering on a wood, may be seen vast tents. At stated intervals those who are numbers of women and children - reclin in a fit condition to return home are col. ing, sitting on seats, or lying on the grass; lected and undergo a process of disinfecand open to their view are some miles of tion. The patient enters a hut, and dithe prettiest scenery in the county of vests himself of the clothes he is wearing; Kent. In the daytime all really conva. then passes on to the bath, and after lescent patients pass their time here or in emerging from it is provided with new recreation tents adjoining, where all kinds linen and clothes throughout. When of games and amusements are at their ready he retires from the other side of the disposal. Only at meal times do they de. hut by another door. He is then handed scend to large marquees to be served with a certificate, stating his freedom from ingood and wholsome food and liberally fection, and proceeds to mount a threesupplied with lemonade or, if they prefer horse omnibus which is in waiting. This it, beer. They have no thought of the omnibus receives its freight at some disvast system that is in work to clothe, feed, tance from the iron barricade, on the inner and house such a multitude. Most are side of which a vast concourse of the pa. eager to return to the abodes they call tients collects to wish good-bye to their their homes, and are always anxious to late companions. Whilst the coachman

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