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ured up a card of mine. It was the talis. | her roses blanched, brought in the med. man to which he trusted as the one link icine the doctor had sent. connecting his life with hope. He left “They've sent this for the heathen, London, and followed the setting sun, in sir,” she said, and hastened away. I quiring bis way by humbly showing my scarcely wondered at her dread, for inaddress to those who passed him on the deed there seemed something, uncanny muddy country roads. His few shillings about Abdoolah now. He had crept so were soon exhausted; the rain rained mysterious to our remote home in search upon him, the wind blew upon him; but of his ungrateful master, and now be Jay still he trudged on, sleeping in barns or silent and still in the little bedroom, like outhouses, but often in the open air. In some tawny-skinned creature in a white country villages the children ran after nest. For two days be lay motionless, him, throwing stones, and calling him and for the most part unconscious, with “Blackie," or inquired when the circus the balo of a romance behind him and an was coming, evidently connecting his pic unknown past in his own land, of which turesque figure and' tarnished lace with we could know nothing. On the third some company of itinerant mountebanks. day, about twelve o'clock, he seemed to Here a gentleman gave him a shilling, rouse himself. We were alone, and he there a cottager a loaf of bread; and every turned towards me. day he was a little nearer my house. But “Sar!” he murmured, in so low a voice the pain in his chest was daily worse and I could scarcely hear it. his strength less, until at last, utterly worn • What is it?" I asked, placing my ear out, he had cast himself down in the place near his parched lips. I had found him.
" Master come?" We arrived home in a deluge of rain, “No; not yet.” and my wife and little girl ran out to the Then a little spasm passed over his hall door in surprise to meet us.
face, and he closed his eyes and began to “ Poor fellow, how wet he is !” said my fumble the white sheet with bis bony wife.
black fingers, murmuring I know not He was so stiff, cold, and exhausted what. that it was not easy to get him off the Hearing my voice, my little daughter, horse, and when he was dismounted he who had been listening outside, crept into swayed backwards and forwards, unable the room with silent feet, and remained to stand, and leaned against the doorpost near the door in awe, watching. for support.
Abdoolah's lips were moving. I lisWe put him to bed, offered him food, tened intently. which he could not eat, and left him for “ Sar-rah Bernhardt. Gerran-ole-man." the night.
Early next morning I went to And the ghost of a smile flickered on his room. He was lying, looking strangely his face. dark against the white bedclothes, staring “Is the poor black man saying his up at the ceiling with wide eyes, evidently prayers ? ” whispered the little girl, in a
“ Abdoolab !” I said, but he did voice full of childish awe. not heed me. His mind was wandering, “No, dear, he's talking to his donkeys." and be muttered words in a low tone in She began to cry — silently, for fear of his own tongue. His skin was parched disturbing him. and dry, his breathing labored. I sent • Master Selby.
Me say me did it. off the groom for a medical man, who ar- Den we go back to Cairo. Gerran-olerived shortly. Meanwhile my wife had man. Donkey, sar?” succeeded in making him swallow some Then slowly, like an unseen cloud, a beef tea. The doctor declared the patient great change stole on him, and be inurto be suffering from a complication of mured no more. The dark face became diseases of the lungs, evidently of long rigid, the eyes stiffened, the breathing standing, and when be heard Abdoolal's ceased. story said it was a wonder he had lived Look, papa, look,” cried the little girl so long. It was plain to us all he was in terror, "he's sinking now.
Yes; poor Abdoolah was dead. The doctor left; the servants moved If you go to our little churchyard, where by the door in awe, as though we were all the gravestones bear old west country hárboring some strange creature, and names, you will find a new one, that of feared to enter the room, but I sat and Abdoolah, and will know, now, whose watched over the fading life. The house. faithful memory it preserves. maid, a rosy: Devonshire girl, but with all
From The National Review,
authorities in the preservation of peace
and order we may live to see another A REMINISCENCE OF THE FIRST REFORM BILL three days like those at Bristol, and “an
infuriated and reckless mob" in the posBristol in 1831.
session of a fair city; its chief magistrate In the present crisis, all lovers of the "unsupported by any sufficient force, civil Constitution may read with instruction or military, and deserted in those quarters and as a warning the following narrative where he might have expected assistof “The Burning of Bristol in 1831," one
Forewarned is forearmed. of the most disgraceful incidents of the Until the later years of the eighteenth agitation by which the first Reform Bill century Bristol held the proud position of was forced on the legislature. In it they the second commercial city in England, will recognize the types of the present and though from that time displaced by agitation on the Franchise Bill. The Bir- the increasing activity of Liverpool, still mingham Caucus, with its affiliated six retained an eminent place among the great hundreds in other towns, occupies the centres of our trade. Compared with the position and wields the power then pos. Bristol of the present day; its inhabited sessed by the Political Union of Birming. area was narrow, and its population scarce. ham. The prime minister of to-day hurls ly half as numerous as at present.
Within similar threats against the House of Lords this area, some three-quarters of a mile in to those his noble predecessor then did - length and breadth, a population of less not, indeed, in the same short and plain than one hundred thousand persons was language, for to plain speaking the fluent closely packed. The working classes in and involved orator of the present day is it, almost entirely dependent on the trade a stranger. His burly henchman at the of the port- a strong, rough, and too Home Office, whilst professing to explain often turbulent race were fairly proaway his leader's phrases, covertly en- vided with employment, but notoriously dorses his threats. Mr. Chamberlain re. improvident, and to an almost unexamcalls to a crowded meeting the threat of pled extent dependent on the poor-rates their brother Radicals in 1831 to march and charities of the city. on London a hundred thousand strong.
At the time of the events now to be Another member of Parliament signifi. chronicled the merchants and greater mancanily alludes to the fall of Charles the ufacturers of Bristol, with but few exFirst; and a metropolitan representative, ceptions, lived near the scene of their otherwise respectable for his professional operations, and the homes of their artifi. position, abuses the peers in the language cers and laborers, near the cathedral and of the fish-market. Again the cry is raised, bishop's palace on College Green, or the “ Down with the House of Lords,” and Mansion House in Queen's Square. The a Cabinet minister, the heir of one of our latter was an open space, about two hun. noblest dukedoms, conveniently retires dred yards square, bordered by broad from a Liberal gathering, so as to allow avenues of trees, with a grass enclosure a resolution to be carried disestablish. in which stood an equestrian statue of ing his own father. Again, as in 1831, King William the Third. money is readily provided by those in the On such a population as that of Bristol background to promote processions of the news of the “Three Days' Conflict in thousands trooping wearily along for the Paris," and the consequent overthrow of sake of the day's pay, and knowing little, Charles X., liad a marked effect. Hence and caring less, for the cause in which Bristol was one among the first of the they are nominally enrolled, obeying as great cities and towns in England to hold clockwork figures the fugleman on the meetings congratulating the citizens of platform. That all this is looked kindly Paris on the success of their appeal to on, if not promoted, by ministers, who can arms, and to pass resolutions hailing the doubt? Happily, the bulk of the people struggle in the streets, as "giving the are not now, as in 1831, uninstructed in fairest hope that the progress of modern their duties as citizens, and the inertia of civilization, and the influence of popular a widespread faith in the Constitution acts forms of government, had opened a new as a dead weight on the violence of the history in the civilization of inan.”† Still, Radical agitators. Still, if Constitutional- notwithstanding the impetus given by the ists are to be content with an inert resist head centre at Birmingham, the change of ance - if they are not prepared to speak
* Verdict of the jury in the case of the mayor of out as plainly and as boldly as their oppo: Bristol. nents, and to rally round the constituted † Meeting at the Guildhall, September 8ih, 1830.
opinions thus fostered in Bristol might believing that adults in the nineteenth have worked its will with comparative century were to be led like children or peace and order, had the political unions driven like barbarians.”* been curbed instead of being encouraged Against the peers the language was, if by the partisans of the government, and possible, even more bitter and abusive. had not leading men connected with the “ The whole aristocracy,” it was said, ministry inflamed the multitude by their had been brought into derision and disspeeches.
like.” + The political unions, however, were now “ The House of Peers,” said a brother in full operation under the practical pro- lord, “bad evinced no sympathy for the teciion of the Cabinet. From Birming, people, and could, therefore, expect none ham, agents were steadily spreading from them; in the eyes of the people that throughout the great towns. The arti- House had no character to lose.” They cles in the Reform newspapers, and the were denounced by a subordinate minisspeeches, not merely of the usual Radical ter as “hard and oppressive taskmasters, orators, but of men in good social stand- who wrested from the people a power they ing, and even of those who held high po bad no right to enjoy." S With the peers, sitions in the Cabinet, were most un. the bishops and clergy were classed as guarded and violent. The existing sys. “arraying themselves against the happi. tem of representation had been denounced ness of the people.” The dignitaries of by the introducer of the bill as at once the Church were stigmatized as “a cum“barbarous, immoral, and destructive of brous lumber; the arch-disturbers of the freedom; that it had disregarded the ex. peace when their own interests were conpressed wishes of the nation, and set at cerned,” and “who only supported gov. nought the petitions and demands of the ernments when they were military ones,"
One minister had described it and as “the patrons of indecent and blas. as “offensive and disgusting;” | another phemous papers.” Lord Grey had told
an abuse so monstrous, that its de. the bishops that, in opposing the bill, fects did not require to be detailed ; "I a they were supporting a system founded third, as “a juggling system, a hideous in hypocrisy, falsehood, and fraud, and depravity, a plague-spot to be purified, a were confirming the pollution by which vice to be held in execration;”S and a the edifice of the Constitution was desefourth, as “foul, fraudulent, disgusting, crated,” and then applying the words of vile.” || One law officer of the crown had the prophet when announcing the ap: declared that "it was batched in jobs, and proaching death of King Hezekiah, bad ever producing new ones.” T Another warned them “to set their houses in order had said, that "he found in the present to meet the coming storm.” House of Commons the dirt and rubbish The utterances of the newspapers will of unconstitutional practices, conventional hardly be believed by the readers of abuses, crimes, and evasions of law."** their present successors. Not to crowd And even the stately premier bad pro- our limited space with other examples, claimed the present system to be “odi. “Usurpers of the public franchise, cutous, illegal, unconstitutional, disgusting; purses of the people's money and robbers founded in hypocrisy, falsehood, and of the public treasury, under laws enacted fraud; an eyesore, a blot, and a consum- by the plunderers for their own extoring ulcer.” ft. The lord chancellor had tion," were the epithets used by one joureven justified the political unions, as "the nal, and that no mean one, in describing natural consequences of justice denied, the House of Commons. Speech-makers rights withheld, wrongs perpetuated, the at public meetings out-heroded the press force which common injuries lends to mill in their denunciations, and there were not lions, the wickedness of using the sacred wanting in their hustings addresses such trust of government as a means of indulg: significant hints as "that, if necessary, ing private caprice, and the frenzy of the arms as well as the voices of the peo
ple would be raised against the enemies * Speeches of Lord Jolin Russell. Hansard, 3rd of the Bill." series, vol. i., p. 1663 ; vol. iv., p. 906. † Lord Palmerston. Hansard, vol. iii. p. 1328.
Many of these denunciations may have # Privy Seal.
been uttered in haste and under excite. $ House of Lords, October 6th. ' Hansard, vol. iii., ment - as mere strong expressions, ora|| Hansard, vol. iv., pp. 679-80. Attorney-General Denman. Hansard, vol. iii., * Mirror of Parliament, October 7, 1831.
Hansard, vol. 111., p. 1021.
† Hansard, vol. iv., p. 113. ** Solicitor-general for Ireland, September 21, 1835. I Mirror of Parliament, October 10. tt Earl Grey, October 7, 1831.
$ Chief secretary for Ireland, September 30.
torical clap-traps. But when these utter-guage the recklessness of his opponents.
were circulated throughout the Unhappily for Bristol, the usual day for masses, in journals, pamphlets, and flying the opening of his assize came round'soon sheets, they could not but have the effect after the bill had been rejected by the of spreading discontent and producing Lords, and furnished the opportunity and disaffection among the lower classes, nominal occasion for the violence that especially when these learned that "they broke out on his arrival. Previously to had been received with indifference by his expected coming he had been studiministers, who either apologized for the ously attacked by the local press, whilst offenders or visited them with a degree placards on the walls, pocket handkerof reprobation ludicrously inadequate to chiefs with his effigy and appropriate abutheir offences." *
sive mottoes, and ballads in the streets, The effect of this language was pain- were freely used in creating an unhealthy fully exhibited when the Bill was rejected and dangerous excitement. by the Lords, in the first week of October, Aware of this, the magistrates, after 1831. The agitation that was then ex- consulting with him, sent à deputation to cited throughout the country was unex. Lord Melbourne, the then home secretary, ampled. The funds fell three or four per which represented to him the necessity cent.; the shops in London were closed, for the aid of a military force to protect to a great extent, for fear of the mob alike the peace of the city and the person which, almost unimpeded, demolished the of the recorder. At Lord Melbourne's windows of the residences of the opposi- request, the members for Bristol met the tion peers; the various Reform asssocia. deputation at the Home Office, when their tions, headed by the Political Unions, renewed application for efficient military called the masses together to condemn aid was opposed by one of the members what they stigmatized as "the insolent - Mr. Protheroe who had been reinjustice of the House of Lords,” and to turned as a Radical reformer at the last demand its immediate abolition; the de- election, and was an active leader of the termination not to pay taxes was openly Political Unionists. lf, said Mr. Prothe. advocated, not only by the crowds to roe, he might be allowed to enable the whom the tax-gatherer was a stranger, but people of Bristol to express, in some by men of high social position ; threats of measure, their strong and unalterable disviolence soon became acts of violence; approbation of Sir Charles Wetherell, and the lives of the leading opponents of the be could be secured against thieves and Bill were endangered. At Nottingham adventurers from other places, he, with the old castle of the Duke of Newcastle his friends of the Union, would keep pero was sacked and burnt; and at Worcesier fect peace and order.” Notwithstanding and Derby the violence of the rioters was this impudent offer, Lord Melbourne so only repressed by the exertions of the far agreed with the deputation as to sanctroops and at the cost of several lives. tion the holding of the assize, and the Bristol remained quiet. The Radical placing of three troops of cavalry under leaders contented themselves for a time the orders of the magistrates; insisting, with transforming their trades' union into however, that they should not be employed a political association in alliance with that except in the case of actual necessity and at Birmingham, and inviting this central the failure of the civil force to maintain power" to call a meeting of delegates from the peace.* The magistrates, on their all the unions to deliberate on the best part, did their best to raise a sufficient means of general organization and simul civil force for the occasion, but were taneous action.”
thwarted by the unwillingness shown on It was the misfortune of Bristol at that the part of the citizens to give their sertime to have as its recorder Sir Charles vices. Wetherell, one of the most bitter oppo. The Political Unionists, on the other nents of the bill in the Commons, a man of hand, were in action. Snatching at the undoubted learning and ability as a lawyer, excuse that they were ignorant of the instaunch in his antipathies, unflinching in tention of the government to give military his opposition, and rivalling in his lan- aid when they authorized their member to
promise that they would keep the peace, See a very clever pamphlet, in the form of a peti- at the price of being permitied to insult tion on behalf of the prisoners convicted at Bristol and Nottingham, stitched as a handbill with No. 93 of the • The total number of troopers was ninety-three, of Quarterly Review, 1832, attributing the riots to the whom more than hali were of the 14th Hussars, who language of ministers and leading Reformers, in Par- were sent away to Keynsham, six miles from the city, liament and elsewhere.
by Colonel Brereton's orders.
the recorder, the Council of the Union | The magistrates, however, had experience withdrew this offer and threw the whole only of the turbulence that always attended responsibility on the corporation.* This the elections; and the command of the step was followed by the issue of the fol. handful of military fell to Colonel Brerelowing extraordinary placard : t
ton, simply by reason of his being the “It is the opinion of the Council that, head of the recruiting staff, a man of unif the magistrates feel themselves incom- doubted personal courage, but whose petent to preserve the public peace with peaceable intentions led him into the out being supported by the military, they gravest errors, and contributed so largely should resign their offices, and suffer the to the sad events that followed. civic authorities to be elected by a majority of the votes of their fellow-citizens.
The First Day of the Riots. The Council thinks that a man clothed in Early on the morning of the 29th of the robes of magistracy ought never to be October, the mayor and magistrates moved a politician; as such a magistrate cannot out of the city towards Totterdown Hill, possess the public confidence, without on the Bath road, with a body of constawhich he will be incompetent to preserve bles. Early as it was, the high banks on the public peace. They would, therefore, each side of the road were lined with recommend to the Corporation the imme. persons, and, from the streets of the city diate resignation of Sir C. Wetherell as crowds of the lower orders were converg. recorder, such being the means best cal. ing to the point at which the magistrates culated to prevent riot and perhaps blood. were to meet the recorder. No sooner shed.”
was his carriage seen approaching, than Of the disgraceful and alarming riots the most discordant cries arose from these which so soon followed this incident, it crowds, who now pressed dangerously on seems more than probable that the origi- the constables, one and all bent on prenators and instigators were not residents venting the recorder from being transin Bristol. For several days before their ferred to the mayor's carriage. When, outbreak, strangers, idle but well-dressed, with much difficulty, this was managed, had been seen in the streets of the city, and the procession moved back towards and delegates from the north-country po- the city, the cries and yells became deaflitical associations had been visiting pop- ening, an the carriage was not unfre. ulous places in the counties around, and quently assailed with stones and other urging the inhabitants to be in Bristol on missiles. Thus, at last, amid noise and the day of the recorder's arrival. The violence, the recorder was brought to the old citizens agreed that they knew but Guildhall, got out of his carriage, and few of the mob-leaders as inhabitants.enabled to take his seat on the bench. Aware of these manœuvres, the Council Through the now open doors of the court of the Corporation warned the citizens the mob rushed in, and were with difficulty that in the event of a disturbance, “they reduced to sufficient silence to allow of should find it their imperative duty to use the commission being opened, and the all lawful means for apprehending the court adjourned to the next Monday. rioters and bringing them to punishment.” | Whilst one section of the mob was thus
The lawful means on which the magis employed in the Guildhall, a far more nutrates could rely were nominally small
, merous one had been preparing a recepless than three hundred special constables, tion for the judge on his leaving the court and a hundred cavalry. Still, in a city to proceed to the Mansion House, in naturally so easily defended as Bristol, Queen's Square. On the way, an attempt these would, probably, have sufficed, had to upset the mayor's carriage happily they been well handled before the mob failed, and furtier molestation was had dangerously increased, and before fined to yells and groans, until it reached thousands, who had nothing to do with the door of the Mansion House, when the inception of the riots, were drawn into stones were freely thrown as the party them by idleness or predatory habits.I escaped into the house. One of the most
active of the mob was captured, and at Mr. Herepath, president of the Union, to Aldermau Daniell, October 26.
once the cry arose, “ To the back! to the Handbill signed by J. P. Venn, secretary of the back!” where piles of faggots were Union, October 25.
I In the United Service Journal of that day, a competent military authority wrote: “ Bristol is ihe most open places on the most central and commanding defensible city in the kingdom, being intersected, and, points. These last-named localities, though offering in parts, almost insulated, by a deep muddy river, little obstructions to the operations of cavalry, were by crossed by several drawbridges; whilst the ground some unaccountable infatuation suffered to remain, for gradually rises from the right or northern channel, with three days, the principal scenes of destruction."