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sity, no doubt, of defending the credibility right of resisting the claims of conscience of the testimony by which the truth of by the voice of so-called reason. “ The Revelation is established. On the other design of this Treatise,” says Butler, hand, they know that it is not incumbent speaking at the conclusion of his “ Analo. on them to persuade the Christian world gy," " is not to vindicate the character of of the truth of Revelation, but rather on God, but to show the obligations of men; their adversaries to prove its falsehood, it is not to justify his providence, but to and that this is a physical impossibility: show what belongs to us to do." The moral obligations imposed by Chris. If we turn from religion to the sphere tianity on the conscience can never, there of politics, probably every one will readily fore, be disregarded. “Religion,” says allow Burke to be the best representative Butler, “is a practical thing, and consists that could be selected of the broad Con. in such a determinate course of life, as servatism of the eighteenth century. He being what, there is reason to think, is is the most eminent of the Whigs or mod. commanded by the Author of Nature." erate Liberals before the French Revolu. Relying, then, on the strength of their tion. Since that epoch there has been a moral and spiritual position, Christian constant tendency in the leaders of the writers have often made use of intellectual Whig party to gravitate towards Revoluweapons calculated to give their adversa. tionary Radicalism. They have shown ries wrong ideas as to their belief. Jeremy the greatest ingenuity in appropriating to Taylor, in his “Liberty of Prophesying," their faction abstract principles, as when employs a purely sceptical line of argu- Fox drank to “The Sovereignty of the ment in order to establish the right of People," and his successors to “ The freely interpreting Scripture. Locke, in cause for which Hampden perished in the his " Reasonableness of Christianity,” field, and Sidney on the scaffold.” Such followed a course of reasoning which Platonic enthusiasm is harmless enough, Toland afterwards developed into an argu. so long as it is confined to animating the ment for Deism. As for Butler, no one Liberal party to exertions sufficient to who reads the following passage can mis. turn out the Tories when they happen to take, except designedly, the purpose of be in power. But now that it is being the “ Analogy:"

employed to persuade the people of the I desire it may be considered with respect inbred wickedness of the Tories, it is well

congenital virtue of the Lib als, and the to the whole of the foregoing objections, that to remember that old-fashioned Whiggism in this Treatise I have argued upon the principles of others, not of my own; and have was something fundamentally different in omitted what I think true and of the utmost character from anything that at present importance, because by others thought unin disguises itself under the name. Wbig. telligible or not true. Thus I have argued gery, in Burke's days, meant simply ad. upon the principles of the Fatalists, which I herence to the principles of the Revoludo not believe; and have omitted a thing of tion of 1688, and the Whig party meant the utmost importance which I do believe - the connection of noblemen and gentle. the moral fitness or unfitness of actions priormen associated in Parliament to control to all will whatever ; which I apprehend as the still preponderant power of the crown. certainly to determine the Divine conduct, as And because it meant this, and only this, speculative truth and falsehood necessarily de. there was scarcely a Tory statesman or termine the Divine judgment.

writer of distinction in the eighteenth cenPut into a summary form, what I may, tury who would have hesitated, as far as I hope without offence, call the Conserva. principle was concerned, to call himself a tive position of the Anglican divines of Whig. Oxford and Bolingbroke, as well the eighteenth century seems to be some as Pitt and Canning, started in their polit. thing of this kind : The fact that the ical careers in connection with the Whig Christian law, eighteen hundred years party; Bolingbroke avowedly bases his after its institution, continues to exercise political theories on the old Whis princi. a living power over the conscience of ples; Swift, long after writing his “Exmen, is the highest proof that can be aminers,” declares that he is still, what he afforded of its divine origin. But this always was, a Wbig of the Revolution divine authority is denied by some on settlement; Pope bitterly denounces Wal. purely speculative grounds: let us, there. pole in glowing lines which Warton defore, meet them on the grounds of specu. clares to be the incarnation of Whiggism. lation, and test the arguments on which What, then, made it so easy for rival they rely, so that, by proving their un statesmen in the last century to occupy soundness, we may deprive them of the common ground of principle? Two or

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three passages from Burke will set the tive movement, distinctive of the eighmatter in the plainest light.

teenth century, in its literature; but I In the ist of William and Mary [says he] in think that a little consideration will show the famous statute called the Declaration of it to be very visible in the work of Pope, Right, the two houses utter not a syllable of whom I have chosen as the natural repre“a right to frame a government for them- sentative of the poetry of the period. If selves.” You will see that their whole case we go back to the poetry of Chaucer, we was to secure the religion, laws, and liberties find very clearly shown in it the begin. that had been long possessed, and had been nings of two separate streams of inspiralatterly endangered. “ Taking into their most tion, each of which may be traced in a serious consideration the best means for making distinct course through the history of our such an establishment, that their religion, laws, literature, the poetry of romance and the and liberties might not be in danger of being

The former had its again subverted,” they auspicate all their pro- poetry of manners. ceedings, by stating as some of those best source in the institutions of chivalry and means, " in the first place to do as their ances-in mediæval theology. It makes its first tors in like cases have usually done for vindi- appearance in many of the " Canterbury cating their antient rights and liberties, to Tales," and in poems like “ The Romance declare ;” and then they pray the king and of the Rose” and “The Flower and the queen" that it may be declared and enacted, Leaf;” it runs strongly through that all and singular the rights and liberties national ballad poetry; it attains a large asserted and declared are the true antient and and noble flow in the “Faery Queen, indubitable rights and liberties of the people and then, wasting itself among the refineof this kingdom.”

You will observe [Burke continues] that ments and gallantries of the seventeenth from Magna Charta 10 the Declaration of century, may be said to run underground Right, it has been the uniform policy of our till it reappears in a new and unexpected Constitution to claim and assertiour liberties, shape in the romantic outburst of the as an entailed inheritance derived to us from early part of the present century.

The our forefathers, and to be transmitted to our other poetical river has been sed by the posterity, as an estate specially belonging to life, action, and manners of the nation. the people of this kingdom, without any refer. After showing itself in full flow in the ence whatever to any other more general on admirable prologue to the prior right. By this means our Constitution

· Canterbury

Tales," it Imost vanishes from sight fo preserves an unity in so great a diversity of its parts. We have an inheritable crown, an in two centuries, when it is suddenly disheritable peerage, and a House of Commons covered again in the satires of Hall, and and a people inheriting privileges, franchises, the comedies and historical plays of and liberties, from a long line of ancestors. Shakespeare, being carried on through And again :

the series of noble historical portraits in

" Absalom and Achitophel,” through the We wished at the period of the Revolution, moral satires of Pope and the didactic and do now wish, to derive all we possess as poems of Johnson and Goldsmith - and an inheritance from our forefathers. Upon in prose through the novels of Fielding, that body and stock of inheritance we have taken care not to inoculate any scion alien to Smollett, Madame d’Arblay, and others the nature of the original plant. All the

- till it exhausts itself, temporarily at all reformations we have hitherto made have pro. events, in the “Tales” of Crabbe. ceeded upon the principle of reference to an- Now, if we trace the course of the ro. tiquity; and I hope, nay, I am persuaded, that mantic stream of our poetry, we shall find all those which possibly may be made here that it affords a very remarkable illustraafter, will be carefully formed upon analogical tion of what has been already said about precedent, authority, and example.

the exhaustibility of poetical materials. There is not a syllable in these utter. In Chaucer and in our ballad poetry the ances to which a modern Conservative volume of imagination is swift and strong; would not cheerfully subscribe. But how but in the poetry of succeeding genera. many leagues away do they carry us from tions the impulse is far feebler, and even the Liberal-Radicalism now crying out for in the " Faery Queen” the reader feels, the abolition of the hereditary branch of in spite of the genius of the poet, that aş the Legislature, because it appeals to the springs of social action, mediævalism and people against the arbitrary will of the feudalism are losing their force. The dominant faction in a House of Commons poem is an allegory: of dramatic life and which is approaching the term of its con- movement it is entirely devoid. When stitutional existence !

we come to the seventeenth century, the It may seem at first a more difficult source of inspiration seems almost to have and obscure matter to trace the Conserva. run dry. Here and there a genuine note


of chivalry is heard in poetry, as in the Till time, and rest, and Heaven allay noble lines of Lovelace :

The violent burnings of my blood.

For what effect from this can flow, I could not love thee, dear, so much,

To chide men drunk for being so ? Loved I not Honor more ; or in the monarchical fancy of the gallant

Perhaps the physic's good you give,

But ne'er to me can useful prove ;

Med'cine may cure but not revive;
My dear, my only love, I pray

And I'm not sick, but dead in love.
That little world of thee

In Love's Hell, not his world, am I,
Be governed by no other sway

At once I live, am dead, and die.
Than purest monarchy.
For if Confusion have a part,

Of writing like this we may say with
Which virtuous souls abhor,

certainty that a lover sufficiently master And call a synod in thy heart,

of himself to discover so many ingenious I'll never love thee more.

fancies could not have been so ill as he The muse of Herrick, too, seizes with he is not speaking "the language of the

would have us suppose : it is evident that the felicity of real inspiration, and adorns heart.” A still more remarkable speci. with delightful fancy and humor, old Catholic customs still lingering in the men of unreality is furnished in Crashaw's

poem called “The Weeper,” on Mary country stri But these are excep. Magdalene, of which the following is an tions. No doubt the poets of the seven

extract: teenth century seem in many respects to be more gifted than those of the eigh- Hail, sister springs, teenth. They try to get



Parents of silver-footed rills, common life; they show a more curious

Ever-bubbling things !

Thawing crystals ! snowy hills, invention, more ingenious flights of fancy.

Still spending, never spent !

I mean But they have one fatal defect: take them

Thy fair eyes, sweet Magdalene. as a whole, it is impossible to read them. Pope, with his usual piercing insight, Heavens thy fair eyes be, passes just judgment on the seventeenth Heavens of ever-falling stars; century style in the four verses in which 'Tis seed-time still with thee, he sums up the merits of Cowley, a really

And stars thou sowest, whose harvest dares noble and elevated spirit:

Promise the earth to countershine

Whatever makes Heaven's forehead fine. Who now reads Cowley? If he pleases yet, His moral pleases, not his pointed wit.

Upwards thou dost weep ; Forgot his epic, nay, Pindaric art;

Heaven's bosom drinks the gentle stream; But still I love the language of his heart. Where the milky rivers creep

Thine floats above, and is the cream. There is the truth of the matter. The

Waters above the heavens, what they be poetry of the seventeenth century “ wants

We are taught best by thy tears and thee. heart." *

Two thoroughly representative passages, showing the manner in which Mary Magdalene's tears the cream of ihe distinguished poets of the period the Milky Way! In its own age this treated questions of love and religion – contortion of fancy was supposed to give their favorite topics will illustrate what proof of a fine poetical genius; but time is meant. The first is an extract from has taught us that men only write in such Cowley's “Mistress," and is called “ Coun- a style when they have really nothing to sel:”


It is indeed evident that unless poetry Gently, ah! gently, madam, touch The wound which you yourself have made ;

were recruited by new and abundant That pain must needs be very inuch

waters, it was in danger, in the sevenWhich makes me of your hand afraid. teenth century, of perishing in a marsh. Cordials of pity give me now,

The eighteenth century brought the muchFor I too weak for purgings grow.

needed supply. Every one knows that Do but awhile with patience stay

Pope, the most thoroughly representative

poet of the age, aimed at "correctness" (For counsel yet will do no good)

in writing, but what the exact quality was * I am, of course, only speaking of poetry peculiar that is signified by this word, is by no to the age in which it was written. The poetry of means generally understood. The com. Shakespeare and Milton belongs, in the literal sense,

mon belief, that he sought to attain nothing to the seventeenth century, but the interest of each is universal; it is not the product of a particular fashion but a mechanical regularity of versifica. of thought.

tion is, it is almost unnecessary to say,

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of the age.

very wide indeed of the mark. Correct. There is something equally Conserva: ness in metrical composition, as I under- tive in the development of the metrical stand Pope to mean, implies obedience to form in which the new movement clothed the laws of imaginative thought, and, itself. No one, I think, can doubt that therefore, not only precision of poetical the colloquial form of the heroic couplet, expression, but justice of poetical concep. as it is handled first by Chaucer, and after. tion. In this sense, the fashionable met. wards by Dryden and Pope, affords ad. rical writing of the seventeenth century | mirable scope for the expression of those was astonishingly incorrect. The poets thoughts and feelings whieh lie properly of the age sought to invest with fanciful within the sphere of imagination, and yet and romantic forms, thoughts and feelings not far from the sympathies of common which had long ceased to move the imag- social life. Mr. Arnold, it is true, speaks ination of society. Pope perceived this, of the style of eighteenth-century verse and he understood that the quibbles, re. as if it were not poetical at all; but it is finements, and affectations that mark their evident that he has no sympathy with the style, were the product of imaginative ex. writers of the period, or he would scarcely haustion. His criticism on their work is have selected one of the poorest couplets sweeping, but few will deny it to be just. Pope ever wrote as a good specimen of

bis inanner. When we think, however, As for the wits of either Charles's days,

of the distinctness with which writers of The mob of gentlemen who write with ease,

different genius bave stamped their own Sprat, Carew, Sedley, and a hundred more. Like twinkling stars the Miscellanies o'er,

character on the heroic couplet, and the One simile, that solitary shines

varying themes of which it is made the In the dry desert of a thousand lines,

vehicle, it seems to me impossible not to Or lengthened thought that gleams through regard it as a noble and harmonious poet. many a page,

ical instrument. Let us remember how Has sanctified whole poems for an age. social were the aims of the great writers Vividly attracted as his own keen and cies of the English,” says Dryden, the

“The proprieties and delicasensitive nature was to the romantic tra. immediate father of the whole line, "are ditions of English literature, his instinct known to few; 'tis impossible even for a told him that these had, for the time at good wit to understand and practise them least, lost their vitality, and that the true without the help of a liberal education, course of poetical development lay in the long reading and digesting of those few direction which Dryden had given to our good authors we have among us, the poetry in “ Absalom and Achitophel,” and knowledge of men and manners, the freeother satiric and didactic compositions. dom and habitude of conversation with So, though he had set out in his own the best company of both sexes; and, in career on the high romantic road, he takes short, without wearing off the rust he has credit to himself in the full maturity of his acquired while laying in a stock of learn. judgment

ing." This is an excellent description of

that union of traditional metrical language That not in Fancy's maze he wandered long, But stooped to Truth and moralized his

with the forms and idioms of modern song.

society which is the groundwork of the Addison bad prided himself on having poetical diction" of the eighteenth cen“ brought philosophy out of closets and tury; and it may be supplemented by what libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell at Pope tells us of the capacities of the heroic clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and in couplet as the vehicle of expression for coffee-houses,” and so Pope, in the true such a poem as the “ Essay on Man.” spirit of his ancestor, Chaucer, taught poetry to come down from her romantic but I chose verse, and even rhyme, for two

This [says he] I might have done in prose : heights to sympathize with the thoughts

The one will appear obvious that and to elevate the language of men busily principles, maxims, or precepts so written, engaged in establishing for themselves both strike the reader more strongly at first, new traditions of political and social or- and are more easily retained by him afterder. The ancient spring of inspiration wards; the other may seem odd, but it is true : derived from national life and manners I found I could express them more shortly this was renewed, and a long succession of way than in prose itself; and nothing is more poets – Thomson, Collins, Gray, Gold certain, than that much of the force, as well as smith, Johnson, and Crabbe, carried on the

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* To Hounslow Heath I point, and Banstead Down: ethical impulse communicated to poetry Thence comes your mutton, and these chicks my by Pope.




of the grace, of arguments or instructions de- / time to the most ancient sources of na. pends on their conciseness. I was unable to tional tradition; everywhere we are re. treat this part of the subject more in detail minded of Wordswortb's lines : without becoming dry and tedious, or more poetically without sacrificing perspicuity to O joy! that in our embers ornament, without wandering from the preci

Is something that doth live, sion, or breaking the chain, of reasoning. If

That Nature yet remembers any man can unite all these without diminu

What was so fugitive. tion of any of them, I freely confess he will

The work of reconstruction is performed compass a thing above my capacity.

by an intellectual and social aristocracy, It would be impossible to find a passage the features which such authorship would

and it is distinguished accordingly by all indicating better than this the general aims of "correctness,” in poetry, namely,

lead us to expect. Its art, its poetry, its a clear perception in the poet of what it is taste, its criticism, its manners, are strict. just to express in metre; a severe exclu. ly limited in scope and conception, and sion of wiiatever is not subsidiary to the are marked by a consciousness of design end in view; and a determination not to which lets us see plainly that if form be be satisfied with any form of metrical ever mistaken for substance, prodigious language short of that which is exactly opportunities will be offered to artificiality, required for the forcible, concise, and har mannerism, and affectation. But it will monious expression of the thought.

not be denied that the best performances These illustrations will, I hope, sug.

of the eighteenth century, whether of gest in outline the nature of the Conserva. statesmen who had something special to tism of the eighteenth century. So far do, or of poets, essayists, novelists, and from being the destructive period that its painters, who had something special to critics represent it to be, such revolutions say, show, on the whole, in a very extraor. of thought and manners as took place in dinary degree, manliness, robustness, luEngland were accomplished in the six cidity, terseness, penetration, and good teenth and seventeenth centuries, and the task of the eighteenth was to recombine

WILLIAM JOHN COURTHOPE. the shattered forms of the old national life into a system suited to modern cir. cumstances. The Reformation had destroyed the external unity and absolute authority of the Church ; Protestantism generated a multitude of sects, the most extreme of which questioned the founda tions of Revelation itself. Such rebellion BY SARAH TYTLER, AUTHOR OF “CITOYENNE could no longer be put down by interdict

JACQUELINE,” LADY BELL," ETC. and excommunication, but Butler met it by asserting the supremacy of conscience, and the authority of the continuous Christian tradition. The Revolution of 168S LADY FERMOR gave no token of miss. overthrew the last remains of monarchi- ing the girl who had been her companion cal feudalism, but the aristocracy carried for the last twenty years. The old lady on the best traditions of the old into the awoke and breakfasted, read the news. new régime, and, as has been said, Burke papers or got Soames to read them to her, contended with justice that the Revolu- took her stroll on the terrace, ate her tion gave Englishmen no rights which luncheon, had her afternoon drive, her they did not previously possess under the nap, her dinner, her evening game of law of their country. In the sphere of écarté if Major Pollock dropped in, or, thought the decay of mediæval and failing him, condescended to a game at feudal influences had exhausted those cribbage with Soames, retired to bed, and romantic imaginations on which men's slept apparently without a care on her minds had once loved to linger. But to mind or a feather's weight on her con. renew the sunken springs, Dryden, Pope, science. She had alway's boasted that and their followers introduced a generous though she was fond of company in her fountain of fresh inspiration by reviving day, she could suffice for berself; and and developing Chaucer's old satiric now it looked like it. To the few visitors methods of portraying life and character. who made a point of inquiring for her, she Everywhere we see signs of development merely alluded to Iris's absence without with a constant reference at the same stating its cause or term; and when it



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