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banking institution shall thereafter be relieved of all future obligations to the Corporation, including the obligation to pay future assessments.

"(d) Whenever the liabilities of an insured bank for deposits shall have been assumed by another insured bank or banks, the insured status of the bank whose liabilities are so assumed shall terminate on the date of receipt by the Corporation of satisfactory evidence of such assumption with like effect as if its insured status had been terminated on said date by the Board of Directors after proceedings under subsection (a) of this section : Provided, That if the bank whose liabilities are so assumed gives to its depositors notice of such assumption within thirty days after such assumption takes effect, by publication or by any reasonable means, in accordance with regulations to be prescribed by the Board of Directors, the insurance of its deposits shall terminate at the end of six months from the date such assumption takes effect. Such bank shall be subject to the duties and obligations of an insured bank for the period its deposits are insured : Provided, That if the deposits are assumed by a newly insured bank, the bank whose deposits are assumed shall not be required to pay any assessment upon the deposits which have been so assumed after the semiannual period in which the assumption takes effect.

“Sec. 9. Upon the date of enactment of the Ba ing Act of 1933, the Corporation shall become a body corporate and as such shall have power

"First. To adopt and use a corporate seal.
“Second. To have succession until dissolved by an Act of Congress.
“Third. To make contracts.

"Fourth. To sue, and be sued, complain and defend, in any court of law or equity, State or Federal. All suits of a civil nature at common law or in equity to which the Corporation shall be a party shall be deemed to arise under the laws of the United States : Provided, That any such suit to which the Corporation is a party in its capacity as receiver of a State bank and which involves only the rights or obligations of depositors, creditors, stockholders, and such State bank under State law shall not be deemed to arise under the laws of the United States. Except as provided in section 7 (g), 11 (g), and 12 (e), no suit by or against the Corporation shall be allowed unless it shall have been brought within five years after the right accrued on which suit is brought. No attachment or execution shall be issued against the Corporation or its property before final judgment in any suit, action, or proceeding in any State, county, municipal, or United States court. The Board of Directors shall designate an agent upon whom service of process may be made in any State, Territory, or jurisdiction in which any insured bank is located.

“Fifth. To appoint by its Board of Directors such officers and employees as are not otherwise provided for in this Act, to define their duties, fix their compensation, require bonds of them and fix the penalty thereof, and to dismiss at pleasure such officers or employees. Nothing in this or any other Act shall be construed to prevent the appointment and compensation as an officer or employee of the Corporation of any officer or employee of the United States in any board, commission, independent establishment, or executive department thereof.

"Sixth. To prescribe, by its Board of Directors, bylaws not inconsistent with law, regulating the manner in which its general business may be conducted, and the privileges granted to it by law may be exercised and enjoyed.

"Seventh. To exercise by its Board of Directors, or duly authorized officers or agents, all powers specifically granted by the provisions of this Act, and such incidental powers as shall be necessary to carry out the powers so granted.

“Eighth. To make examinations of and to require information and reports from banks, as provided in this Act.

“Ninth. To act as receiver.

“Tenth. To prescribe by its Board of Directors such rules and regulations as it may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.

“Eleventh. The Corporation is hereby authorized to purchase a building or to acquire a site within the District of Columbia and to construct thereon a building suitable for the use of the Corporation, to be paid for from funds of the Corporation : Provided, That the selection of such site shall be subject to the approval of the National Capital Park and Planning Commission, and that the design for such building shall be subject to the approval of the Commission of Fine Arts : Provided further, That the facilities of the Administrator of General Services shall be utilized in the acquisition of such site, the preparation of all necessary plans, drawings, and specifications, the making of all necessary contracts, and the supervision of the construction of such building and said Administrator shall provide any other available facilites upon request of the Corporation.

“Sec. 10. (a) The Board of Directors shall administer the affairs of the Corporation fairly and impartially and without discrimination. The Board of Directors of the Corporation shall determine and prescribe the manner in which its obligations shall be incurred and its expenses allowed and paid. The Corporation shall be entitled to the free use of the United States mails in the same manner as the executive departments of the Government. The Corporation with the consent of any Federal Reserve bank or of any board, commission, independent establishment, or executive department of the Government, including any field service thereof, may avail itself of the use of information, services, and facilities thereof in carrying out the provisions of this section.

“(b) The Board of Directors shall appoint examiners who shall have power, on behalf of the Corporation, to examine any insured State bank (except a District bank), any State bank making application to become an insured bank, and any closed insured bank, whenever in the judgment of the Board of Directors an examination of the bank is necessary. Such examiners shall have like power to examine, with the written consent of the Comptroller of the Currency, any national bank or District bank. Each such examiner shall have power to make a thorough examination of all the affairs of the bank and in doing so he shall have power to administer oaths and to examine and take and preserve the testimony of any of the officers and agents thereof, and shall make a full and detailed report of the condition of the bank to the Corporation. The Board of Directors in like manner shall appoint claim agents who shall have power to investigate and examine all clainis for insured deposits and transferred deposits. Each claim agent shall have power to administer oaths and to examine under oath and take and preserve the testimony of any persons relating to such claims.

"(c) For the purpose of any hearing, examination or investigation under this Act, any member of the Board of Directors, any examiner, any claim agent or any person designated by the Board of Directors, is empowered to administer oaths and affirmations, subpena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of any books, records, or other papers which are relevant or material to the inquiry. Such attendance of witnesses and the pro duction of any such papers may be required from any place in any State or in any Territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States at any designated place where such a hearing is being held or investigation is being made.

“(d) In case of refusal to obey a subpena issued to, or contumacy by, any person, the Board of Directors may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which such hearing or investigation is carried on, or where such person resides or carries on business, in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, records, or other papers. And such court may issue an order requiring such person to appear before the Board of Directors or member or person designated by the Board of Directors, there to produce records, if so ordered, or to give testimony touching the matter under investigation or in question; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in the judicial district whereof such person is an inhabitant or wherever he may be found. No person shall be excused from attending and testifying or from producing books, records, or other papers in obedience to a subpena issued under the authority of this Act on the ground that the testimony or evidence, documentary or otherwise, required of him may tend to incriminate him or subject him to penalty or forfeiture; but no individual shall be prosecuted or subject to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any transaction, matter, or thing concerning which he is compelled to testify or produce evidence, documentary or otherwise, after having claimed his privilege against self-incrimination, except that such individual so testifying shall not be exempt from prosecution and punishment for perjury committed in so testifying. Any person who without just cause shall fail or refuse to attend and testify or to answer any lawful inquiry or to produce books, records, or other papers in obedience to the subpena of the Board of Directors, if in his or its power so to do, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than one year, or both.

“(e) Each insured State nonmember bank (except a District bank) shall make to the Corporation reports of condition in such form and at such times as the Board of Directors may require. The Board of Directors may require such reports to be published in such manner, not inconsistent with any applicable law, as it may direct. Every such bank which fails to make or publish any such

report within such time, not less than five days, the Board of Directors may require, shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $100 for each day of such failure recoverable by the Corporation for its use.

(f) The Corporation shall have access to reports of examination made by, and reports of condition made to, the Comptroller of the Currency or any Federal Reserve bank, may accept any report made by or to any commission, board, or authority having supervision of a State nonmember bank (except a District bank), and may furnish to the Comptroller of the Currency, to any Federal Reserve bank, and to any such commission, board, or authority, reports of examinations made on behalf of, and reports of condition made to, the Corporation.

“(g) The Corporation may cause any and all records, papers, or documents kept by it or in its possession or custody to be photographed or microphotographed or otherwise reproduced upon film, which photographic film shall comply with the minimum standards of quality approved for permanent photographic records by the National Bureau of Standards. Such photographs, microphotographs, or photographic film or copies thereof shall be deemed to be an original record for all purposes, including introduction in evidence in all State and Federal courts or administrative agencies and shall be proof of any act, transaction, occurrence, or event therein recorded. Such photographs, microphotographs, or reproduction shall be preserved in such manner as the Board of Directors of the Corporation shall prescribe and the original records, papers, or documents may be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the Board shall direct.

“SEC. 11. (a) The Temporary Federal Deposit Insurance Fund and the Fund For Mutuals heretofore created pursuant to the provisions of section 12B of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended, are hereby consolidated into a Permanent Insurance Fund for insuring deposits, and the assets herein shall be held by the Corporation for the uses and purposes of the Corporation: Provided, That the obligations to and rights of the Corporation, depositors, banks, and other persons arising out of any event or transaction prior to the effective date shall remain unimpaired. On and after August 23, 1935, the Corporation shall insure the deposits of all insured banks as provided in this section: Provided further, That the insurance shall apply only to deposits of insured banks which have been made available since March 10, 1933, for withdrawal in the usual course of the banking business: Provided further, That if any insured bank shall, without the consent of the Corporation, release or modify restrictions on or deferments of deposits which had not been made available for withdrawal in the usual course of the banking business on or before August 23, 1935, such deposits shall not be insured. The maximum amount of the insured deposit of any depositor shall be $10,000 : And provided further, That in the case of banks closing prior to the effective date of this Act, the maximum amount of the insured deposit of any depositor shall be $5,000.

“(b) For the purposes of this Act an insured bank shall be deemed to have been closed on account of inability to meet the demands of its depositors in any case in which it has been closed for the purpose of liquidation without adequate provision being made for payment of its depositors.

"(c) Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, whenever the Comptroller of the Currency shall appoint a receiver other than a conservator of any insured national bank or insured District bank, he shall appoint the Corporation received for such closed bank.

“(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, it shall be the duty of the Corporation as such receiver to cause notice to be given, by advertisement in such newspapers as it may direct, to all persons having claims against such closed bank pursuant to section 5235 of the Revised Statutes (U. S. C., title 12, sec. 193) ; to realize upon the assets of such closed bank, having due regard to the condition of credit in the locality; to enforce the individual liability of the stockholders and directors thereof; and to wind up the affairs of such closed bank in conformity with the provisions of law relating to the liquidation of closed national banks, except as herein otherwise provided. The Corporation as such receiver shall pay to itself for its own account such portion of the amounts realized from such liquidation as it shall be entitled to receive on account of its subrogation to the claims of depositors, and it shall pay to depositors and other creditors the net amounts available for distribution to them. The Corporation as such receiver, however, may, in its discretion, pay dividends on proved claims at any time after the expiration of the period of advertisment made pursuant to the aforesaid section of the Revised Statutes, and no liability shall attach to the Corporation itself or as such receiver by reason of any such payment for failure to pay dividends to a claimant whose claim is not proved at the time of any such payment. With respect to any such closed bank, the Corporation as such receiver shall have all the rights, powers, and privileges now possessed by or hereafter granted by law to a receiver of a national bank or District bank and notwithstanding any other provision of law in the exercise of such rights, powers, and privileges the Corporation shall not be subject to the direction or supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury or the Comptroller of the Currency.

“(e) Whenever any insured State bank (except a District bank) shall have been closed by action of its board of directors or by the authority having supervision of such bank, as the case may be, on account of inability to meet the demands of its depositors, the Corporation shall accept appointment as receiver thereof, if such appointment is tendered by the authority having supervision of such bank and is authorized or permitted by State law. With respect to any such insured State bank, the Corporation as such receiver shall possess all the rights, powers, and privileges granted by State law to a receiver of a State bank.

“(f) Whenever an insured bank shall have been closed on account of inability to meet the demands of its depositors, payment of the insured deposits in such bank shall be made by the Corporation as soon as possible, subject to the provisions of subsection (g) of this section either (1) by cash or (2) by making available to each depositor a transferred deposit in a new bank in the same community or in another insured bank in an amount equal to the insured deposit of such depositor and subject to withdrawal on demand : Provided, That the Corporation, in its discretion, may require proof of claims to be filed before paying the insured deposits, and that in any case where the Corporation is not satisfied as to the validity of a claim for an insured deposit, it may require the final determination of a court of competent jurisdiction before paying such claim.

“(g) In the case of a closed national bank or District bank, the Corporation, upon the payment to any depositor as provided in subsection (f) of this section, shall be subrogated to all rights of the depositor against the closed bank to the extent of such payment. In the case of any other closed insured bank, the Corporation shall not make any payment to any depositor until the right of the Corporation to be subrogated to the rights of such depositor on the same basis as provided in the case of a closed national bank under this Act shall have been recognized either by express provision of State law, by allowance of claims by the authority having supervision of such bank, by assignment of claims by depositors, or by any other effective method. In the case of any closed insured bank, such subrogation shall include the right on the part of the Corporation to receive the same dividends from the proceeds of the assets of such closed bank and recoveries on account of stockholders' liability as would have been payable to the depositor on a claim for the insured deposit, but such depositor shall retain his claim for any uninsured portion of his deposit: Provided, That, with respect to any bank which closes after May 25, 1938, the Corporation shall waive, in favor only of any person against whom stockholders' individual liability may be asserted, any claim on account of such liability in excess of the liability, if any, to the bank or its creditors, for the amount unpaid upon his stock in such bank; but any such waiver shall be effected in such manner and on such terms and conditions as will not increase recoveries or dividends on account of claims to which the Corporation is not subrogated : Provided further, That the rights of depositors and other creditors of any State bank shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of State law.

"(h) As soon possible after the closing of an insured bank, the Corporation, if it finds that it is advisable and in the interest of the depositors of the closed bank or the public, shall organize a new national bank to assume the insured deposits of such closed bank and otherwise to perform temporarily the functions hereinafter provided for. The new bank shall have its place of business in the same community as the closed bank.

“(i) The articles of association and the organization certificate of the new bank shall be executed by representatives designated by the Corporation. No capital stock need be paid in by the Corporation. The new bank shall not have a board of directors, but shall be managed by an executive officer appointed by the Board of Directors of the Corporation who shall be subject to its directions. In all other respects the new bank shall be organized in accordance with the then existing provisions of law relating to the organization of national banking associations. The new bank may, with the approval of the Corporation, accept new deposits which shall be subject to withdrawal on demand and which, except where the new bank is the only bank in the community, shall not exceed $10,000 from any depositor. The new bank, without application to or approval by the Corporation, shall be an insured bank and shall maintain on deposit with the Federal Reserve bank of its district reserves in the amount required by law for member banks, but it shall not be required to subscribe for stock of the Federal Reserve bank. Funds of the new bank shall be kept on hand in cash, invested in obligations of the United States, or in obligations guar teed as to principal and interest by the United States, or deposited with the Corporation, with a Federal Reserve bank, or, to the extent of the insurance coverage thereon, with an insured bank. The new bank, unless otherwise authorized by the Comptroller of the Currency, shall transact no business except that authorized by this Act and as may be incidental to its organization. Notwithstanding any other provision of law the new bank, its franchise, property, and income shall be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed by the United States, by any Territory, dependency, or possession thereof, or by any State, county, municipality, or local taxing authority.

“(j) Upon the organization of a new bank, the Corporation shall promptly make available to it an amount equal to the estimated insured deposits of such closed bank plus the estimated amount of the expenses of operating the new bank, and shall determine as soon as possible the amount due each depositor for his insured deposit in the closed bank, and the total expenses of operation of the new bank. Upon such determination, the amounts so estimated and made available shall be adjusted to conform to the amounts so determined. Earnings of the new bank shall be paid over or credited to the Corporation in such adjustment. If any new bank, during the period it continues its status as such, sustains any losses with respect to which it is not effectively protected except by reason of being an insured bank, the Corporation shall furnish to it additional funds in the amount of such losses. The new bank shall assume as transferred deposits the payment of the insured deposits of such closed bank to each of its depositors. Of the amounts so made available, the Corporation shall transfer to the new bank, in cash, such sums as may be necessary to enable it to meet its expenses of operation and immediate cash demands on such transferred deposits, and the remainder of such amounts shall be subject to withdrawal by the new bank on demand.

“(k) Whenever in the judgment of the Board of Directors it is desirable to do so, the Corporation shall cause capital stock of the new bank to be offered for sale on such terms and conditions as the Board of Directors shall deem advisable in an amount sufficient, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to make possible the conduct of the business of the new bank on a sound basis, but in no event less than that required by section 5138 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (U. S. C., title 12, sec. 51), for the organization of a national bank in the place where such new bank is located. The stockholders of the closed insured bank shall be given the first opportunity to purchase any shares of common stock so offered. Upon proof that an adequate amount of capital stock in the new bank has been subscribed and paid for in cash, the Comptroller of the Currency shall require the articles of association and the organization certificate to be amended to conform to the requirements for the organization of a national bank, and thereafter, when the requirements of law with respect to the organization of a national bank have been complied with, he shall issue to the bank a certificate of authority to commence business, and thereupon the bank shall cease to have the status of a new bank, shall be managed by directors elected by its own shareholders and may exercise all the powers granted by law, and it shall be subject to all the provisions of law relating to national banks. Such bank shall thereafter be an insured national bank, without certification to or approval by the Corporation.

“(1) If the capital stock of the new bank is not offered for sale, or if an adequate amount of capital for such new bank is not subscribed and paid for, the Board of Directors may offer to transfer its business to any insured bank in the same community which will take over its assets, assume its liabilities, and pay to the Corporation for such business such amount as the Board of Directors may deem adequate; or the Board of Directors in its discretion may change the location of the new bank to the office of the Corporation or to some other place or may at any time wind up its affairs as herein provided. Unless the capital stock of the new bank is sold or its assets are taken over and its liabilities are assumed by an insured bank as above provided within two years from the date of its organization, the Corporation shall wind up the affairs of such bank, after giving such notice, if any, as the Comptroller of the Currency may require, and shall certify to the Comptroller of the Currency the termination of the new

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