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A. M. 4031. 14 But John forbade him, saying, || fulfil all righteousness. Then he suf- A. M. 4031. I have need to be baptized of thee, || fered him. and comest thou to me? 16 And Jesus, when he was baptized, 15 And Jesus, answering, said unto him, Suf- || went up straightway out of the water: and fer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to ||lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and

y Mark i. 10.

nım that should come after him, that is, on himself. || the form of a sinner, and stooping to thee, my infeHe, therefore, was baptized, 1st, to testify that he||rior; it becomes us-Me, and my disciples according owned the Baptist as one commissioned by God to to my example, to fulfil all righteousness—To do perform this office; 2d, that by this rite he might|| whatsoever is just, fit, and requisite in our circumprofess his willingness to fulfil all righteousness; || stances. Or, it becometh every messenger of God, and, 3d, that by this he might be initiated into his || and even every follower of mine, to observe every prophetical office, and consecrated to the service of || divine appointment, and to honour every divine orGod. Therefore, though infants can neither be dinance. I therefore offer myself to be baptized, taught, nor believe, nor give the answer of a good that I may show my readiness to obey all God's conscience, at baptism, yet they may be baptized; || righteous precepts, and to justify God and approve 1st, that by this ceremony they may be obliged to || his counsel, Luke vii. 29, 30, and celebrate his wisobserve the laws of that Jesus, into whose name they dom in sending thee to prepare his and my way, are baptized, even as, under the Mosaic dispensa- || by calling men to repentance, and in that way fitting tion, the infant, by virtue of circumcision, became a || them for the blessings of my kingdom. "Our Lord's debtor to observe the whole law of Moses, Acts xv. 5; || baptism tended," says Dr. Macknight, "to promote Gal. v. 3; 2dly, that by this rite they may enter the ends both of his own mission and of his foreinto covenant with God, of which they are declared || runner's, as it established the authority of both. It capable by Moses, Deut. xxix. 11. established John's mission, great honour being done Verse 14. But John forbade him-Out of mo- || him by the Messiah's receiving his baptism. It esdesty he would have declined the service, saying,tablished our Lord's mission also; for after he was I have need to be baptized of thee-To receive a || baptized, the testimonies of the Spirit and voice larger measure of the gifts and graces of the Holy || from heaven were given him in the presence of the Spirit from thee, and comest thou to me—on such multitude assembled at Jordan. That these testian occasion as this? It has been questioned, how || monies should have been given on this occasion, raJohn knew him to be the Christ, before the Spirit || ther than on any other, was fit; because it was an descended on him? But this question will be easily || august manner of opening our Lord's ministry, was resolved, if it be considered that John was a prophet || the most public occasion that could be found, and filled with the Holy Ghost from his mother's womb. || pointed him out as Messiah to the Baptist, who was No doubt he knew by a secret intimation from that Spirit, that he, who then came to him, was the person on whom the Holy Ghost should descend, and on whom he should abide in so large a measure, or, rather, without measure, that he might impart him to others, such matters being frequently imparted || to prophets by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. Thus Simeon, having been told that he should not || die until he had seen the Lord's Christ, had an inti- || mation given him in the temple that the child Jesus was that Christ, Luke ii. 26–32; as had, also, Anna || the prophetess. And Samuel, being told by God || that on the morrow a man should come to him to be captain over his people Israel, 1 Sam. ix. 15, when Saul appeared, he had another intimation given him respecting the person, the Lord saying, verse 17, || Behold the man of whom I spake to thee. Just so the Baptist, being to testify, when he baptized with water, that another should baptize them with the Holy Ghost, God tells him that of this he should see an evidence by the visible descent of the Holy Ghost upon Him who, from his fulness, was to impart this Spirit to all true believers; and when our Saviour came to be baptized, God tells him again, || this was that very person.

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thereby qualified for the principal duty of his mission, John i. 31." By this we are taught a holy exactness in the observance even of those institutions which owe their obligations merely to a divine appointment. Surely thus it becometh all his followers to fulfil all righteousness. Jesus had no sin to wash away, and yet he was baptized. And God owned his ordinance so as to make it the season of pouring forth the Holy Spirit upon him. And where can we expect this sacred effusion, but in an humble attendance on divine appointments? Then he suffered him-He that sins through ignorance, will correct his error upon better information.

Verse 16. And Jesus, when he was baptized, &c.— Hereby he was, 1st, installed into his ministerial office, as the priests were by washing, Exod. xxix. 4; Lev. viii. 6; 2d, engaged solemnly in the same military work with us against sin and Satan; 3d, admitted a member of the gospel Church, as he was before of the Jewish, by circumcision; 4th, he was baptized as a public person, the Head of his Church, in whom, and by virtue of whose baptism, all his members are baptized spiritually, Rom. vi. 4; Col. ii. 12. Went up straightway out of the water-Or, as the original, avɛbn año т8 vdaros, rather signifies, Verse 15. Suffer it to be so now-In this my state || ascended from the water, namely, went up from the of humiliation: For thus-By this appearance in || banks of Jordan. The heavens were opened untr

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rent asunder directly over his head. It is probable || vine regard to Christ, and of the glorious dignity of they might resemble that opening of the heavens his person, a voice from heaven, saying, to John, which we often see in a time of great lightning, concerning Christ, This is my beloved Son, and to when the sky seems to divide, to make the fuller | Christ himself, Thou art my beloved Son, Luke and clearer way for the lightning: although, iii. 22. For it is not improbable that both sentences doubtless, this was much more striking and glo- were pronounced; the voice uttering the words, rious. And he saw-Christ himself saw, and also || Thou art my beloved Son, &c. while the Spirit was John the Baptist, as appears by John, ch. i. 33, 34; descending, as if they had been directed to Jesus and by this he was further confirmed that this was alone, in answer to his prayer; and, after the Spirit the very Christ:-the Spirit of God descending like || rested on Jesus, the voice, speaking to the Baptist a dove-Not only in a hovering, dove-like motion, and the multitude, said, This is my beloved Son, but, it seems, with a bright flame, in the shape of a &c. St. Luke informs us, that he was praying when dove, for St. Luke says, ch. iii. 22, owμarik εide, this happened, and it is observable that all the voices woεl teplotepav, in a bodily shape, as a dove. See from heaven, by which the Father bore witness to also John i. 32. The Holy Spirit descended upon Christ, were pronounced while he was praying, or him in this form to signify what Christ is, 1st, in his quickly after. Luke ix. 29, 35; John xii. 28. In own nature to them that come to him, meek and whom I am well pleased-Or, in whom I delight, loving; 2d, in the execution of his office, reconciling That is, whose character I perfectly approve, and in us to the Father, and bringing us good tidings of whom I acquiesce as the great Mediator, through peace and reconciliation, as the dove brought Noah whom will I show myself favourable unto sinful tidings of the deluge being assuaged; 3d, in the ope- creatures. See Isa. xlii. 1. The original word proprations of his Spirit upon his people, whereby they erly signifies an entire acquiescence, or a special are made meek, lowly, and harmless as doves. And and singular complacency and satisfaction. This lighting upon him-As a visible token of a new de- the Father took, in the person and undertaking of gree of the Holy Ghost's operation in Christ, now | Christ; and this, through him, he takes in all true at his entrance upon his public employment, even believers, who, by faith, are united to him, and made of that Spirit by which, according to the intima- members of his body. And O, how poor, in comtions God had given in his word, he was anointed parison of this, are all other kinds of praise, yea, in a peculiar manner, and abundantly fitted for his and all other pleasures! To have the approbation, public work. Psa. xlv. 7; Isa. Ixi. 1. And thus was and be the delight of God; this is praise, this is Christ installed into his ministerial function, both pleasure indeed! This is, at once, true glory and by baptism and the unction of the Holy Ghost, as true happiness, and is the highest and brightest the priests of old were by washing and anointing. light that virtue can appear in.

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In this chapter we have, (1,) An account of Christ's fasting forty days, and being afterward assaulted in three different ways by Satan, but overcoming in each assault, 1-11. (2,) Of his beginning to preach in Galilee and parts adjacent, 12-17. (3,) Of his calling disciples to attend him, viz., Peter and Andrew, James and John, 18-22. (4,) Of his miraculously healing multitudes, and being greatly followed by the people for his cures and instructions, 23–25. THEN* was a Jesus led up of the Spirit into || 2 And when he had fasted forty days and the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. forty nights, he was afterward a hungered.

* First Sunday in Lent, gospel, verse 1 to verse 12. a Mark i. 12, &c.; Luke iv. 1, &c.


b1 Kings xviii, 12; Ezek. iii. 14; viii. 3; xi. 1, 24; xl. 2; xliii. 5; Acts viii. 39.

Probably, the wilderness near Jordan, which, as

Verse 1. Then-After the afore-mentioned glo- || Mr. Maundrell, who travelled through it, assures us, rious manifestation of his Father's love, by which is a miserable and horrid place, consisting of high, he was armed for the combat. Was Jesus led by barren mountains, so that it looks as if nature had the Spirit-By a strong impulse of the Spirit of suffered some violent convulsions there. Our Lord, God, of which he was full; into the wilderness—|| probably, was assaulted in the northern part of it, VOL. I.




Christ tempted of the devil

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3 And when the tempter came to || God, command that these stones be A. M.4031. him, he said, If thou be the Son of made bread.

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near the sea of Galilee, because he is said by Luke || saulted with hunger, as any man is at any time for to be returning to Nazareth, from whence he came want of food. Thus he was fitted for the ensuing to be baptized. To be tempted of the devil-That is, || trial of his trust in God. And, as an ancient writer the chief of the devils, Satan, the everlasting ene- || observes, We are then especially to expect temptamy of God and man. The proper meaning of the tions, when we are alone, and when we are in straits original word here, and in other places of the Old and exigencies, from which we see no ordinary way and New Testaments, translated to tempt, is to try. || of deliverance, which was the case with Christ. For Hence we sometimes, as Gen. xxii. 1, read of God's || he was hungry, and in a wild wilderness, where was tempting men, as well as of the devil's tempting || no food, and was at last fed miraculously by angels them. But there is this difference between the ministering unto him. temptations, or trials, that are immediately from Verse 3. And when the tempter came to him—In a God, and those that are from Satan, by God's per- visible shape and appearance, to tempt him outmission. We are tempted, or tried, by God, that wardly, as he had done inwardly before. For it our righteousness, our faith, love, patience, and appears from the account which Mark and Luke every grace and virtue, may be manifested, ap- || have given us of this matter, that our Lord had been proved, and further increased: and therefore, as tempted by the devil invisibly during the whole of James says, Blessed is the man who, in this sense, the above-mentioned forty days-but now, it seems, endureth temptation. But the devil tempts, or tries he came to him in a visible form, probably in the us, in expectation of finding us insincere, or unsta- human, as one that desired to inquire further into ble, and with a view to lead us into sin by his sub- the evidences of his mission. Accordingly he tlety and power; in which sense God, who cannot said, If thou be the Son of God-In such an extrabe tempted with evil, or see any thing desirable in ordinary sense as thou hast been declared to be, it, tempteth no man. Doubtless, it must have been and if thou art indeed the promised Messiah, ex|| for some very great and good ends that the Holy pected under that character, command that these Spirit thus moved our Lord to repair into the wil- stones be made bread-To relieve thy hunger, for derness, to be tempted of the devil. For though, by || in such circumstances it will undoubtedly be done. his repairing thither, he might partly intend to en- Thus Satan took advantage of our Lord's disjoy a devout retirement, that as man he might give tress to tempt him to doubt his being the Son of vent to those sacred passions which the late grand || God in the sense in which he had just been declared occurrences of the descent of the Spirit upon him, to be so; and it seems the object of this first temptand the miraculous attestation of a voice from heaven, ation was, to excite in his mind a distrust of the had such a tendency to inspire; yet no doubt he care and kindness of his heavenly Father, and to foresaw that this season of intercourse with heaven induce him to use unwarranted means to relieve his would be followed by a violent assault from hell, hunger. But it is objected here, If Christ were and he went into the wilderness with a view also || God, why should he be tempted? Was it to show to meet and combat with the grand adversary of || that God was able to overcome the temptations of mankind. Probably, as Theophylact observes, one the devil? Could there be any doubt of this? We grand end might be to teach us that when we have || answer, he was man, very man, as well as God, “of consecrated ourselves to God's service, and have a reasonable soul, and human flesh subsisting," and been favoured with peculiar marks of divine accept- it was only as man that he was tempted. If it be ance, and the consolations of his Spirit, we must replied, that seeing his human nature was personally expect temptations; and to teach us, by our Lord's united to the divine, it must still be superfluous to example, how we may best and most effectually re-show that even his human nature, thus influenced, sist them, even by an unshaken faith, 1 Pet. v. 9; should be able to baffle the assaults of Satan: Ireand by the sword of the Spirit, which is the word|| næus, an eminent father of the second century, of God, Eph. vi. 17. 2d, Our Lord was tempted thus, answering this very objection, then made by the that his perfect holiness might be tried and approved. | Ebionites, (the elder brethren of the Photinians and 3d, That Satan might be conquered, which he never Socinians,) observes that, as he was man, that he had perfectly been by any man before.. 4th, That || might be tempted, so he was the Word, that he might Christ might become a merciful and faithful high || be glorified; the Word, (or Godhead,) being quiespriest, one who can succour his people in time of || cent in his temptation, crucifixion, and death. These need, and pity them when they happen to fall by words being preserved and cited, says Dr. Whitby, temptation. The apostle assigns this reason ex- by Theodoret, show that the latter fathers approved pressly, Heb. ii. 17, 18. And, 5th, That assurance of this solution of this difficulty. Among the reasons might be given to his people of an everlasting vic- assigned of our Lord's temptation, one is, the contory over, and deliverance from, the power of Satan. solation of his members conflicting with the adverVerse 2. And when he had fasted forty days and sary of their souls. For, in that he suffered, being forty nights—As Moses, the giver, and Elias, the tempted, he can sympathize with, and succour those restorer of the law, had done before: he was after- that are tempted; affording them the same Spirit ward a hungered-That is, he was as sharply as- that was in him, that they may resist the devil with



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c Deut. viii. 3.-d Neh. xi. 1, 18; Isa. xlviii. 2; lii. 1; Chap. xxvii. 53; Rev. xi. 2.
lii. 1; Chap. xxvii. 53; Rev. xi. 2. Psa. xci. 11, 12.

the same weapons, and overcome him with the same assistance, by which he, in his human nature, combated and conquered. Now this ground of comfort would be wholly taken from us, if Christ overcame Satan merely by virtue of that nature, by which he was añeɩpaços kakwv, James i. 13, incapable of being overcome by temptation. But if, with Irenæus, we affirm that the divinity was then quiescent in him, and that he overcame Satan by virtue of the Spirit given to him, we, who have the same unction from the Holy One, may also hope to do it by his aid.


prevent people falling off, and somewhere on the edge of this we may suppose that Satan placed Christ, in his attacking him with this temptation. This, in some parts of it, and particularly over the porch, was so exceedingly high that one could hardly bear to look down from it. And saith, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down-Thereby to show to all the people about the temple, that thou art indeed the Son of God; which they will fully believe when they shall see thee fly without falling, or fall without being hurt. As in the former assault, Satan Verse 4. It is written-There is no better way of tempted Christ to distrust the care of divine provianswering the tempter, than by opposing the word dence, so he now tries to persuade him to presume of God to his temptations. This is that sword of || upon it, and to expose himself to danger unnecesthe Spirit that must put him to flight. The Church sarily; nay, in effect, to take the direct course to of Rome, therefore, by taking from the people the destroy himself, and try whether God would preword of God, disarm them as to the spiritual com- serve him as his Son. For it is written, &c.-In bat. Man shall not live by bread alone-These the former temptation the devil did not quote Scripwords are quoted from Deut. viii. 3, and signify that ture, but having been repelled in that assault by the bread, or ordinary sustenance, is not necessary to sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, he support the life of man; that God can feed and sus- here takes up the same weapon. He shall give his tain him by other means: but by every word that || angels charge concerning thee-As if he had said, proceedeth out of the mouth of God shall man live- Since thou trustest so much in providence as to exThat is, by whatsoever he shall appoint for his suste- pect to be sustained by it, even without food, now nance; or even by his bare word. Therefore, it is throw thyself down, to give more undoubted evinot needful that I should work a miracle to procure || dence of thy dependance upon it: and, as the miracle bread, without any intimation of my Father's will. will be a full proof that thou art the Son of God, He can support me without bread, as he fed the Is- and will undeniably convince the people of it, so raelites in the wilderness; and, on the other hand, || thou canst have no room to doubt of thy safety, the even bread itself, if these stones were turned into|| Scripture having declared that his angels shall take it, could not nourish me without his blessing; which care of thee. Jerome, and many after him, have I could not expect, were I to attempt a miracle of well observed here, that though Satan quotes Scrip this kind merely in compliance with thy sugges- ture, he does it falsely. He artfully leaves out the tions. Here we are taught, in imitation of Christ, words, In all thy ways. To throw himself down, always to maintain such an humble dependance on and fly through the air, was none of our Lord's the divine blessing, as never to venture out of the|| ways. He had no call, no warrant, from God, to way of it, be our necessity ever so urgent. decline the stairs by which he might go down from Verses 5-7. Then the devil taketh him up into the || the top of the temple, and precipitate himself from holy city—That is, the city Jerusalem, frequently the battlements thereof. God had never granted, || called the holy city in Scripture, see Neh. xi. 1; Isa. nor even promised to any, the protection of angels lii. 1; Dan. ix. 24; and that with great propriety, as || in sinful and forbidden ways; nor adjudged that his being for ages the place of the special residence of special providence should watch over and preserve Jehovah. It has been supposed by many, that || them, who should voluntarily throw themselves into Satan transported our Lord through the air, but|| dangers which they might lawfully avoid. Add to whether he did or not cannot be determined from this, that Satan seems to mock our Saviour's true this passage, the original word, napaλaubavεi, sig-|| use of Scripture by this abuse of applying it, not to nifying no more than that he took him along with || instruct but to deceive, separating the protection of him. And setteth him on a pinnacle of the tem- || God's providence from man's duty, and extending ple-That is, one of the battlements, for it is not to be supposed that our Lord stood on the point of a spire. The roof of the temple, like that of their houses, was flat, and had a kind of balustrade round it, to||

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the promise of the former to those who neglected the latter; and putting God upon working a miracle, to declare that which he had already made sufficiently evident. We learn from our Lord's ex

Christ is tempted of the


devil in the wuaerness.

A. M. 4031. f Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy || give thee, if thou wilt fall down and A. M. 4031.

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8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; || 9 And saith unto him, All these things will I

worship me.

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10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, & Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

Joshua xxiv. 14; 1 Samuel vii. 3.

f Deuteronomy vi. 16.- - Deuteronomy vi. 13; x. 20; ample here, that it is never right to expose ourselves the more with their splendour, and on a sudden to unnecessary danger in expectation of an extra- prevail upon him, which otherwise they would not ordinary deliverance. And we learn, too, that it is have been so likely to do. And saith unto himnot only necessary that we should take the sword With the most egregious impudence, falsehood, and of the Spirit, the word of God, and make ourselves pride; All these things will I give thee-All this familiarly acquainted with it, that we may be fur- glory and power, and all these possessions, if thou nished for the combat with the prince of darkness,|| wilt fall down and worship me-The devil now but that we should enter into the design and mean- | showed clearly who he was, and therefore Christ, ing of it, in order that, if Satan attempt to draw in answering this suggestion, calls him by his prohis artillery from thence, we may be able to guard per name, Satan, which, though he undoubtedly against that most dangerous stratagem, and to an- knew him, he had not done before. We may learn swer perverted passages of Holy Writ by others from hence not to conclude we are utterly abanmore justly applicable. Jesus said, It is written || doned of God when we are assaulted with horrible again—Viz., Deut. vi. 16, to prevent the ungrateful || temptations; Christ himself, we see, was tempted abuse of such promises as these, Thou shalt not even to worship the devil: but in such cases let us, tempt the Lord thy God-By demanding further like Jesus, resolutely repel the temptation, rather evidence of what is already made sufficiently plain, || than parley with it. Dr. Doddridge observes, that, as my being the Son of God is, by the miraculous if we suppose Satan, in these two last temptations, and glorious testimony he has so lately given me. I to have worn the form of an angel of light, it will shall not, therefore, require any more signs to prove || make them both appear more plausible; "for thus it, nor express any doubt of God's power or good- || he might pretend, in the former, to take charge of ness toward me; nor shall I act as the Israelites || Christ in his fall, as one of his celestial guards; and did, when they said, Ex. xvii. 7, Is the Lord among || in this latter to resign to him a province which God us or not? when he had given them ample proof || had committed to his administration and care.” that he was present with them, and had taken, and || And this, he thinks, may not be inconsistent "with would take care of them, and provide for them. It supposing that he first appeared as a man, (it may is to be observed that the above precept, respecting be as a hungry traveller, who pretended to ask the tempting God, does not forbid too much, but too miracle of turning stones into loaves for his own little confidence in God, and the calling in question || supply,) for angels, under the Old Testament, had his presence with, and care over his people. But often worn a human form." in the general, to make an undue and unwarrantable trial of God, is to tempt him, whether the trial respect his power or goodness. See Num. xiv. 22 ; || Psa. lxxviii. 18; Isa. vii. 12; chap. xvi. 1.

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Verse 10. Then saith Jesus, Get thee hence, Satan -The expression, Yлaуɛ, Zarava, plainly expresses Christ's authority over Satan, as well as his detestation of so vile a suggestion: for it is written, Thou Verses 8, 9. Again the devil taketh him up-In what || shalt worship the Lord thy God, &c.-It would way is not said; into an exceeding high mountain— therefore be unlawful to worship thee, who art no Probably one of the mountains in the wilderness, other than a mere creature, even though thou wast and from that eminence, partly by the advantage of indeed his deputy on earth; and how much more the place, from which he might behold many mag- then must it be so, as thou art, in reality, the great nificent buildings, rich fields, pleasant meadows, hills avowed enemy of God and man! for such, under covered with wood and cattle, rivers rolling through || all thy disguise, I well know thee to be. It appears the fertile valleys, and washing the cities as they from these words, that religious worship, or service, passed along; and partly by an artful visionary re- || is due to God alone, and cannot be lawfully given presentation, showeth him all the kingdoms of the to a creature. From whence we must infer, that world, and the glory of them--Whatsoever was gay, || Christ is not a mere creature: for all men are to splendid, or glorious, either in respect of the hon- || honour him, even as they honour the Father, John ours, riches, or pleasures of the world; their great v. 23. And all the angels of God are commanded and opulent cities, sumptuous edifices, costly attire, to worship him, Heb. i. 6: and it is given as the* equipage, pomp, and splendour; displaying to his character of all Christians, 1 Cor. i. 2, that they call view one of the finest prospects that the most plea- on the name of Jesus Christ our Lord: and Col. surable and triumphant scenes could furnish out; iii. 24, That they serve the Lord Christ. As to the and all this, not one after another, but in a moment answer made by some to this irrefragable argument of time, that so they might amaze and affect him || in favour of our Lord's divinity, it appears from this


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