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unfurls; as also of that ghastly light by which the fiends appear to one another in their place of torments :

The seat of desolation, void of light,
Save what the glimm'ring of those livid flames

Casts pale and dreadfulThe shout of the whole host of fallen angels when drawn up in battle array :

-The universal lost up sent
A shout that tore hell's concave, and beyond

Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night. The review, which the leader makes of his infernal army:

He through the armed files
Darts his experienced eye, and soon traverse
The whole battalion views, their order due,
Their visages and stature as of gods ;
Their number last he sums ; and now his heart
Distends with pride, and hard’ning in his strength

Glories The flash of light which appeared upon the drawing of their swords:

He spake; and, to confirm his words, out flew
Millions of flaming swords, drawn from the thighs
Of mighty cherubim ; the sudden blaze

Far round illumined hell.
The sudden production of the Pandæmonium:

Anon out of the earth a fabric huge
Rose like an exhalation, with the sound

Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet.
The artificial illuminations made in it:

From the arch'd roof
Pendent by subtle magic, many a row
Of starry lamps and blazing cressets, fed
With naphtha and asphaltus, yielded light
As from a sky:-

There are also several noble similes and allusions in the first book of Paradise Lost. And here I must observe, that when Milton alludes either to things or persons, be never quits his simile until it rises to some very great idea, which is often foreign to the occasion that gave birth to it. The resemblance does not, perhaps, last above a line or two, but the poet runs on with the hint until he has raised out of it some glorious image or sentiment, proper to inflame the mind of the reader, and to give it that sublime kind of entertainment which is suitable to the nature of an heroic poem.

If we look into the conduct of Homer, Virgil, and Milton, as the great fable is the soul of each poem, so to give their works an agreeable variety, their episodes are so many short fables, and their similes so many short episodes ; to which you may add, if you please, that their metaphors are so many short similes. If the reader consider the comparisons in the first book of Milton, of the sun in an eclipse, of the sleeping leviathan, of the bees swarming about their hive, of the fairy dance, in the view wherein I have here placed them, he will easily discover the great beauties that are in each of those passages.

ON BOOK THE SECOND.

The persons whom Milton introduces into his poem always discover such sentiments and behavior as are in a peculiar manner conformable to their respective characters. Every circumstance in their speeches and actions is with great justice and delicacy adapted to the persons who speak and act. As the poet very much excels in this consistency of his characters, I shall beg

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leave to consider several passages of the second book in this light. That superior greatness and mock-majesty which is ascribed to the prince of the fallen angels, is admirably preserved in the beginning of this book. His opening and closing the debate; his taking on himself that great enterprise, at the thought of which the whole infernal assembly trembled; his encountering the hideous phantom who guarded the gates of hell, and appeared to him in all bis terrors ; are instances of that proud and daring mind which could not brook submission, even to Omnipotence.

Satan was now at hand, and from his seat
The nionster moving onward came as fast
With horrid strides : hell trembled as he strode;
Th' undaunted fiend what this might be admired,

Admired, not feared The same boldness and intrepidity of behavior discovers itself in the several adventures which he meets with, during his passage through the regions of unformed matter, and particularly in his address to those tremendous powers who are described as presiding over it.

The part of Moloch is likewise, in all its circumstances, full of that fire and fury which distinguish this spirit from the rest of the fallen angels. He is described in the first book as besmeared with the blood of human sacrifices, and delighted with the tears of parents, and the cries of children. In the second book he is marked out as the fiercest spirit that fought in heaven; and if we consider the figure which he makes in the sixth book, where the battle of the angels is described, we find it every way answerable to the same furious, enraged character:

Where the might of Gabriel fought,
And with fierce ensigns pierced the deep array

Of Moloch, furious king, who bim defy'd,
And at his chariot-wheels to drag him bound
Threaten’d, nor from the Holy One of heav'n
Refrain'd his tongue blasphemous : but anon
Down cloven to the waist, with shatter'd arms

And uncouth pain fled bellowing. It may be worth while to observe, that Milton has represented this violent impetuous spirit, who is hurried on by such precipitate passions, as the first that rises in that assembly to give his opinion upon their present posture of affairs. Accordingly, he declares himself abruptly for war, and appears incensed at his companions for losing so much time as even to deliberate upon it. All his sentiments are rash, audacious, and desperate. Such as that of arming themselves with their tortures, and turning their punishments upon him who inflicted them.

No, let us rather choose,
Arm’d with hell fames and fury, all at once,
O’er heaven's high tow'rs to force resistless way,
Turning our tortures into horrid arms
Against the torturer ; when to meet the noise
Of his almighty engine he shall hear
Infernal thunder; and, for lightning, see
Black fire and horror shot with equal rage
Among bis angels; and his throne itself
Mix'd with Tartarian sulphur, and strange fire,

His own invented torments. His preferring annihilation to shame or misery is also highly suitable to his character; as the comfort he draws from their disturbing the peace of heaven, that if it be not victory it is revenge, is a sentiment truly diabolical, and becoming the bitterness of this implacable spirit.

Belial is described in the first book as the idol of the lewd and luxurious. He is in the second book, pursuant to that description, characterized as timorous and slothful; and if we look into the sixth book, we find bim cele

brated in the battle of angels for nothing but that scoffing speech which he makes to Satan, on their supposed advantage over the enemy. As his appearance is uniform, and of a-piece, in these three several views, we find his sentiments in the infernal assembly every way conformable to bis character. Such are his apprehensions of a second battle, his horrors of annihilation, his preferring to be miserable, rather than ‘not to be.' I need not observe, that the contrast of thought in this speech, and that which precedes it, gives an agreeable variety to the debate.

Mammon's character is so fully drawn in the first book, that the poet adds nothing to it in the second. We were before told, that he was the first who taught mankind to ransack the earth for gold and silver, and that he was the architect of Pandæmonium, or the infernal palace, where the evil spirits were to meet in council. His speech in this book is every way suitable to so depraved a character. How proper is that reflection of their being unable to taste the happiness of heaven, were they actually there, in the mouth of one, who, while he was in heaven, is said to have had his mind dazzled with the outward pomps and glories of the place, and to have been more intent on the riches of the pavement than on the beatific vision! I shall also leave the reader to judge how agreeable the following sentiments are to the same character:

- This deep world
Of darkness do we dread? How oft amidst
Thick clouds and dark doth hear'n's all-ruling sire
Choose to reside, his glory unobscured,
And with the majesty of darkness round
Covers his throne ; from whence deep thunders roar,
Mustering their rage, and beaven resembles hell!
As he pur darkness, cannot we bis light

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