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ous and pure. It satisfies us, in short, that its author was no common man; and it would prove him, without the testimony of his other works, not to have been the fortuitous possessor of that high reputation which he enjoyed.

But the circumstance, which will principally recommend this work of Salmasius's to a numerous party in the present day, is the vivid recollection, which it forcibly awakens, of some of the political writings of the late Mr. Burke. The same dark arsenal of language seems to have supplied the artillery, which in the seventeenth century was aimed at the government of England, and in the elose of the eighteenth at that of France; and many of those doctrines," which disgust us

mDicet fanatica natio, ita in regem à populo transire (potestatem) ut ad populum possit redire, immo et debeat, quandocunque hoc velit, aut si ita expedire judicet bono ac saluti reipublicæ. Atqui salus reipublicæ semper postulat, ut data di populo principi potestas nunquam ad populum revertatur, qui ita eam deponit, ut principem semel illâ donatum non privare, possit in posterum dato imperio. Quippe cum ad salutem populi reperta sint omnia genera gubernationis quibus respublica constituitur et administratur, boni publici maxime interest uť potestas à populo regi semel concessa et donata, nunquam revocetur. Nisi enim hoc esset, et si pro lege id observaretur, ut quotiescunque populo placuisset, imperium regi, quem elegisset, ablatum ad populum rediret, nulla pax unquam firma in republica sperari posset, sed ad singula momenta quies ejus

with their naked deformity in the pages of the Leyden professor, have been withdrawn from our detestation under an embroidered and sparkling veil by the hand of the British politician. When Salmasius calls upon the monarchs, and indeed upon all the well instituted republics, or, in other words, the regular governments of Europe to extirpate the fanatic and the parricide English,—the pests and the monsters of Britain, we must necessarily be reminded of Mr. Burke's crusading zeal against the revolutionists of France; and be persuaded that he only blows the trumpet bequeathed to him by the antagonist of Milton, and sullied with the venal breath which was once purchased by Charles. Unquestionable resemblance is to be discovered in “ the Royal Defence” to those pieces of Mr. Burke's which respect the French revolution; and if the former were to be translated, (but who would submit to so ungrateful a labour?) the English reader would be less struck with the novelty of the latter; and more disposed to assent to what was asserted by the wise man more than three thousand years ago, that “ there is no new thing under the sun.”

turbaretur, omnia seditionibus et factionibus arderent, fomitibus subinde in faces ad totius status conflagrationem suppeditandis.' · Def. Reg. p. 202.

On the causes of this obvious likeness I will not presume to offer an opinion. Similar thoughts might be suggested by similar subjects, and the same passions, however excited, might naturally rush into the same channel of intemperate expression: or the expatiating mind of Mr. Burke might range even the moors of Salmasius to batten on their coarse produce; and, finding them replenished with bitter springs, might be induced to draw from them to feed the luxuriancy of his invective."

* For the amusement of the curious reader, I will transcribe a few passages from Salmasius's work, to prove the resemblance which I have asserted; and at the same time to show that Milton's severity did not exceed the provocation.

P.5. “ Hac ratione quod in Angliâ factum facinus cum horrore accepimus, quia exemplo caret, tanto minus ignoscendum, magisque adeo execrandum, curandumque enixius ne hoc ipso tempore penetret ad plures et ne pro exemplo sit perniciem trahente veniens in ævum. Digni, itaque, omni odio et insectatione qui fecerunt, dignissimique porro quos flammâ, ferroque persequantur non solùm quoquot sunt in Europâ reges et principes jure regio imperantes, sed etiam omnes magistratus omnesque adeo republicæ bene constitutæ et moratæ. Hхс enim fanaticorum factio non sola regum solia appetere gestit, sed omnes potestates quas ipsa non fecerit conatur subvertere, cum nihil aliud nisi mutationem captet et cupiat, non solum in republicâ sed in ecclesiâ cum perpetuâ novandi libidine, quâ sibi imperandi omnibus, nullique parendi licentiam adstruat.--Non solum regnorum eversionem, sed etiam legum eversionem sibi cordi esse satis ostendunt," &c.

P. 6.“ Vocari illi se quidem libertatis publicæ custodes, in

But whatever might be the intrinsic mea

actis publicis postulant. Æquè bono jure latro qui viatorem spoliâsset se crumenæ ejus custodem appellari vellet,” &c.

P. 10. “ Hoc * alicui Cornelio Syllæ, hoc Julio Cæsari licuisse, principibus suæ ætatis viris, generis et virtutis ' merito, fortasse minus intolerandum. At idem Manios aliquos, terræ filios, vix domi nobiles, vix suis notos licere sibi credidisse quis ferat ?"

P. 11. “ At istæ sicariorum viles et impuræ animæ optimatum consessum aboleverunt; locum ei nullum in parte procurandæ reipublicæ esse voluerunt, ad plebem in speciem totum regendi jus transtulerunt, sed reverà sibi vindicârunt, id est paucis è fæce plebis ortis reservârunt, immo vel uni nebuloni, fanatico, homini obscuro, turbarum omnium quæ per tot annos Angliam dilacerârunt, autori, incentori, promotori."

P. 23. “ Non odio regis, non metu, non criminibus ejus adducti de eo tollendo cogitârunt, sed quia reges ipsi esse voluerunt. Nulli parere, et omnibus imperare jam pridem didicerant: hæc eorum disciplina; hæc secta. Multorum annorum. molitionibus, machinationibus, meditationibus ad hoc detęs-, tandum et horrendum facinus patrandum sese compararunt. Ne casu putemus in execrationein omnium incurrisse, hoc vo- ; luerunt," &c.

P. 25. “ Tetræ istæ belluæ et molossis suis ferociores."

P. 35. “ Sæculum certe nostrum hanc notam ex eo sibi inustam nunquam eluet, quod homines tulerit, quibus crudelitate et immanitate pares nulla retro sæcula tulerunt. Natio ipsa Anglicana, quæ talia monstra produxit, maculam hanc sibi eo nomine imprimendam nunquam deleverit."

P. 40. “ Ea est harum pestium doctrina, ut etiam audeant, affirmare se solos sapere et rectè sentire-dum reguin coro., nas pedibus conculcant, sceptra confringunt, thronos destruunt, paludamenta conscindunt sed etiam exitiale hoc dogma im

* The overthrow of the established government: neither Sal. masius nor Mr. Burke seems to object to this measure, provided, that it be accomplished by noble hands.

rit of this defence of Charles, it was elevated

bibet (posteritas,) nisi obviam prompte eatur. Nam vel propter hanc impiam doctrinam, non solum ex omnibus regnis, ubicunque invenientur, exturbandi sunt, sed omnia etiam regna conspirare debent, ut ex eo regno quod intolerandâ tyrannide oppressum nunc occupant ejiciantur.”

P. 85. “ Si credimus novis evangelistis, novitiisque sanctis, doctrinæ parricidalis et Anti-Christianæ autoribus, rex minister est populi et servus. Non bella sua, sed populi gerit. Populi creatura est, ut vas fictile figuli. &c. &c.

Linde sequeretur in democratiâ, quæ populi principatum agnoscit, populum vice versà servire debere. Sed cui serviet? cerivisiä сoctoribus, cerdonibus, ærariis fabris, et aliis ejusmodi furfuraceis tyrannis," &c.

P.97. “ Quam adversis frontibus pugnat hæc veterum doctrina Christiana cum istâ fanaticorum, verè Anti-christiana, quæ sancit populum esse figulum regis, regem autem vas esse a populo fictum ut figulo suo?"

P. 195. “ Hæc est fanaticorum Angliæ de regibus et regendi diversis generibus in republicâ sententia et doctrina quæ omnia ad populum revocat ut ad fontem et originem totius potestatis et autoritatis quæ leges rogat et abrogat, quæ pacem et bellum sancit, quæ fædera firmat, quæ religionem dirigit, ecclesiamque cum republicâ regit.-Sed quicquid illi perditi homines dicunt ac docent de populari administratione, cui omnia vindicant gubernationis genera, ad populum decipiendum pertinent, cui fucum hoc modo faciunt: nihil enim minus reverâ cogitant, quam ut populum ipsum populis imperio regendis destinent, nihil etiain minus præstant. Forma regiminis quam introduxere planè nora est et priscis inaudita,” &c.

P. 323. “ Nunc tanta rerum noniinumque permutatio viget apud illos sectarios, ut servus pro domino exeat, dominus pro servo: tyranni multi pro rege uno legitimo imperent. IIonoagxia cum araşx18 sit mixta.--Respublica consistat sine liber.. tate; religio sine fide; enthusiasmus sine veritate; ecclesia sine disciplina. Omnia in eà inversa ac perversa: omnia monstruosa, capite in pedes dejecto, pedibus in caput erectis. Infirma sum-:

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