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tion, let me mention that, on his appoint
His Majesty's first Paper.
“I know very well what a great disadvantage it is for me to maintain an argument of divinity with so able and learned a man as yourself, it being your, not my profession; which really was the cause that made me desire to hear some learned man argue my opinion with you, of whose abilities I might be confident, that I should not be led into an error, for want of having all which could be said, layed open unto me: for, indeed, my humour is such, that I am still partial for that side which I imagine suffers for the weakness of those that maintain it, always thinking that equal champions would cast the balance on the other part: yet since that you (thinking that it will save time) desire to go another way, I shall not contest with you in it; but treating you as my physician, give you leave to take your own way of cure; only I thought fit to warn you, lest if you (not I) should be mistaken in this, you would be fain (in a manner) to begin anew.
“ Then know that from my infancy I was blest with the King my father's love, which, I thank God, was an unvaluable happiness to me all his days; and among all his cares for my education his chief was to settle me right in religion; in the true knowledge of which, he made himself so eminent to all the world, that I am sure none can call in question the brightness of his fame in that particular, without showing their own ignorant base malice: he it was, who laid in me the grounds of christianity, which to this day I have been constant in; so that whether the worthiness of my instructor be considered or the not few years that I have been settled in my principles, it ought to be no strange thing, if it be found no casy work to make me alter them; and the rather, that hitherto, I have (according to Saint Paul's rule, Rom. xiv. 22). been happy in 'not condemning myself, in that thing which I allow:' thus
ment to the office of Latin Secretary, Mil
having shewed you how, it remains to tell you what I believe in relation to these present miserable distractions.
“ No one thing made me more reverence the reformation of my mother, the Church of England, than that it was done (according to the Apostle's defence, Acts xxiv. 18) neither with multitude, nor with tumult,' but legally and orderly, and by those whom I conceive to have only the reforming power ; which with many other inducements, made me always confident that the work was very perfect as to essentials, of which number church government being undoubtedly one, I put no question but that would have been likewise altered if there bad been cause; which opinion of mine was soon turned into more than a confidence, when I perceived that in this particular (as I must say of all the rest) we retained nothing but according as it was deduced from the apostles to be the constant universal custom of the primitive church; and that it was of such consequence, as by the alteration of it we should deprive ourselves of a lawful priesthood, and then, how the sacraments can be duly administered, is easy to judge: these are the principal reasons, which make me believe that bishops are necessary for a church, and I think sufficient for me (if i had no more) not to give my consent for their expulsion out of England: but I have another obligation, that to my particular is a no less tie of conscience, which is, my * coronation oath: now if (as S. Paul saith, Rom. xiv. 23.) He that doubteth is damned if he eat, what can I expect, if I ould, not only give way knowingly to my people's sinning, but likewise be perjured my self?'
“ Now consider, ought I not to " keep my self from presumptuous sins?' and you know who says, “What doth it profit a man, though he should gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? Wherefore my constant maintenance of episcopacy in Eng
** This coronation oath, unhappily misunderstood, has since obstructed the accomplishment of some just and beneficial
ton removed in the first instance to a lodging in the house of one Thompson at Charing-Cross, and afterwards to apartments in Scotland-yard. Here his wife produced her third child, a son, who died in his infancy on the 16th of March 1650; and in 1652 our author shifted his residence to Petty France, where he occupied for eight years, till the crisis of the Restoration, a handsome house, opening into St. James's park and adjoining to the mansion of lord Scudamore.
No sooner had Milton finished his masterly reply to the posthumous work, as it was then generally considered, of the late King's, than he was again called upon to enter the lists as the assertor of the Commonwealth of England: but he was now opposed to a more formidable antagorist, and was to contend on a far more ample field.
land, (where there was never any other government since christianity was in this kingdom,) methinks should be rather commended than wondered at; my conscience directing me to maintain the laws of the land; which being only my endeavours at this time, I desire to know of you, what warrant there is in the word of God for subjects to endeavour to force their King's conscience? or to make him alter laws against his will? If this be not my present case, I shall be glad to be mistaken; or, if my judgment in religion hath been misled all this time, I shall be willing to be better directed: till when you must excu be constant to the grounds which the King my father taught me. Newcastle, May 29, 1646.
" C, R."
His refutation of the Icon Basilikè had been confined nearly within the pale of his own country: but the powers of his mind were now to be exhibited to Europe, and the whole circle of the civilized and christian community was to witness his triumph or his defeat. Charles, the son of the deceased monarch, eager to blend his own with the general cause of kings and desirous perhaps of evincing by the same act the fervor of his filial piety, determined on engaging the abilities of some great literary character to urge his appeal to the world against the victorious enemies of his house; and, for the accomplishment of his purpose, the voice of fame immediately directed his attention to Salmasius, at that time an honorary professor in the university of Leyden.
Claudius Salmasius, or · Claude de Saumaise, was of an honourable, or, as it has been termed, a noble family seated near the town of Semur in the old province of La Bourgogne, of the parliament of which his father was a member. From his mother he
& The orthography of this celebrated scholar's name Auctuates between «
Saumaise,” and “ Soumaize." By his friend Sarrau it is written in the former mode; and by Vorstius in his Eloge funèbrè in the latter.
h Now in the Department of Côte d'Or.
contracted a strong bias to the religious principles of the protestants; and an extraordinary proficiency in literature, at an early period of his life, soon advanced him to a foremost place among the eminent scholars of that age, the Casaubons, the Gothofreds, the Gruters and the De Thous. The vast erudition and the superior critical acumen which he displayed in some of his publications, in his treatise “ De linguâ Hellenisticà,” and particularly in his large work, the “ Plinianæ exercitationes in Solinum," so increased and propagated his renown that different powers are said to have contested for the honour of his residence in their states. The Pope, the Venetians, and the two successive governors of his own country, Richlieu and Mazarin, attempted to fix him, as it is affirmed, in their service by the most liberal offers: but, preferring principle to interest and independence to promotion, he declined these inviting prospects, and resigned himself to the unrestrained indulgence of his own literary and religious inclinations. The papacy and the whole fabric of the bierarchy had been made the objects of his vehement attack; and now, in the full pride of his reputation, with the substantial enjoyment of a pension from the government, he