sly smile, “if you insist upon it; but I and uncertainty concerning those we love don't think the young gentleman who should be a portion of the cross we must carry asked for your address the other day would all through this mortal life. But I believe have been balked of it if I had not known he knows that the woman who so faithfully it, itself.” And that was the only time I loved him will be henceforth the mother of heard Honor Devlin relapse into so broad a his child. It is a stranger question than Hibernianism.

any other in my mind whether her own Winifred was pale and silent as we drove mother, the false wife who betrayed her from Bedford Row to Knightsbridge, and husband and deserted her child, knows I saw a large tear occasionally steal down it also; whether she knows that the her cheek and dropunheeded on her woman, forgotten for her sake, is repairing mourning-dress. The tide of memory and the evil and misery wrought by her.” association was sweeping over the orphan

“ Oh," said Mrs. Devlin, thoughtfully, girl, about to find a new friend where she “ how many things we want to know, not had looked her last upon her dead father's only about the next world, but about this. face. I saw the quiver of her lips and the At all events, I shall never forget this pallor of her cheek increase as we drew time, and the story of my lodger in 1862. near to the house, in which she had passed I used to think nothing stranger than the so many happy, dutiful, mournful hours, and adventures of the lady and the child in when the carriage stopped she was trem- Wilton Place could ever happen in this bling violently. I had been considering on house, but all this has been far more the way whether I should

accompany wonderful.” Winifred to Mrs. Carter's presence, or • Except that you will see this out,” I should suffer their first interview to take said, " and the other ended, as it began, in place without witnesses, and I decided on mystery. We shall never find any clue to the latter course.

the identity of the dead woman." “Go up-stairs with Mrs. Devlin, dear,” “ No, I fancy not, ma'am,” she replied. I said; “I will wait here for a little.” “As for the house in Wilton Place, I have

She obeyed silently, and I went into the quite taken an interest in it since; it small sitting-room occupied by Mrs. Devlin. has been let several times since the people There that good woman joined me almost Mrs. Hungerford was staying with went immediately.

away. I know a new family came in a “ I just showed her in, ma'am," she said, short time ago." 6 and Mrs. Carter came up almost to the “Indeed!” I remarked, rather idly, for door, and she was as white as a sheet, and my mind was straying from the subject. she put her arms round her, and said, · My “ What is the name ?” dear child !' and then I shut the door and “I don't know, ma'am,” said Mrs. Devcame down to you. And I have told them lin, “but I will ask the postman. I always they must go on as well as they can in the like to know who is living in that house." shop and in the work-room without me, At this moment Mrs. Devlin was called for I'm not fit for business, and that's the out of the room by one of the workwomen. truth.”

She remained away about a quarter of an There were tears in the good little wo-hour, and when she returned, her face bore man's voice as she spoke. The next an expression of surprise. moment they made their way to her eyes, “Oh, ma'am !” she exclaimed," what do and Mrs. Devlin enjoyed that favourite you think has happened? The postman feminine luxury, “a good cry.” When came into the shop just now, and I asked she had recovered her composure we fell to him the name of the new people. Fancy talking of the strange train of circumstances my astonishment when he told me it is which had led to the present happy re- Pennifold! I'll be bound they are Miss sult.

Winifred's lover, and his mother and “ If the Captain could only have known,” sister.” said Mrs. Devlin, “that within so short a " And my husband's aunt and cousins !" time his orphaned child would find a home I exclaimed, in astonishment equal to her and friends, and be brought to them in the own. very house in which he left her so desolate, My simple story has reached its conso much more desolate than he thought, clusion now.

All that ensued was so much poor gentleman, he would have died more a matter-of-course that it would not interest peacefully."

you to hear the details. Aunt Anne bad · Yes," I said, “ that is true; and it no reason to regret the precipitancy with seems strange to us that so much sorrow which her intentions with regard to Winifred had been carried out, in consequence of the “ Margaret, I congratulate you upon your accommodating insolence of Mrs. Montague husband.

Most women

are inclined to Vicars. That amiable lady had not even meanness, not on their own account peran opportunity of annoying Winifred and haps, but to a kind of magnanimous meanher lover by the suppression or detention of ness, full of sharp interested motives for a letter, for within an hour of the discovery the good of those they love. With such a of the near neighbourhood of the Penni- husband as James, I don't think


could folds, our happy party in the drawing-room retain such a weakness; he is the most perwas reinforced by the appearance of a tall, fectly disinterested human being I ever met. handsome young man, remarkably like my Absolute absence of self-interest is so natuhusband, though not at all as good-looking, ral to him that he is not aware that he is whom Winifred blushingly presented to us more disinterested than other people.” as James Pennifold.

I think it possible that Aunt Anne may The marriage of James and Winifred y have felt a little pang of disappointment took place at Woodlee in the early spring

when she found that the future fate of the days of 1863. As the carriage which confair young girl in whom she had found an veyed the bride and bridegroom away from object for the dormant affection and benevo our sight, to an accompaniment of vociferlence of her brave old heart was fixed, ous barking from Corporal Trim, disappearbeyond her control and without her inter- ed beyond the laurel hedges which had ference. But if she felt any such pang, long been familiar to me, before I saw them she hid it, even as she had hidden many elsewhere, in the memorable canvas wateranother, and was satisfied. We found much colour drawing which had played so large to like in Mrs. Pennifold, and there was no a part in this little drama, Mrs. Carter said difficulty in obtaining her consent to to me, very softly, James's marriage with Winifred Dallas. “ I stood here just on this flagstone, MarAunt Anne and her stranger sister-in-law garet, when her father spoke to me for the suited each other remarkably well, and as last time. As she kissed me just now, his the long previous estrangement had arisen spirit looked at me from her eyes through from a feeling of friendship towards Arthur ah those years. I am content, my dear; Dallas, and condemnation of my husband's I have buried my dead.” father, common to both in different degrees, That evening James and I walked in the it made, when it no longer existed, an ad-cool bright moonlight by the side of the ditional tie between them. How Mrs. terrace, where a carefully-kept, sufficiently Pennifold would have received the an- wide walk lay between the stone wall and nouncement of her son's engagement with the smooth flower-decked lawn. We had the penniless daughter of her dead friend, been talking of the wedding and of all that had there been no Mrs. Carter in the case preceded it, and a short silence had ensued, to play the part of fairy godmother, was a which James broke by saying, question unnecessary, and therefore un- “ You have never asked me anything asked. I sometimes speculated upon this about Aunt Anne's arrangements with repoint a little, however, and I confess the gard to Winifred in money matters, Magprevious departure from England, the long gie; do you not care to know ?stay on the continent, and the absence of “ Oh yes !” I said, turning rather red as all communication (owing, of course, en- I spoke. " I would like very much to tirely to the exigencies of foreign travel), know; but the truth is, I did not like to guided me on my way to a conclusion. All ask because I fancied Aunt Anne suspected was, however, under present circumstances, that I do not take the loss of your chance perfectly couleur de rose, and Winifred the of Woodlee quite so cheerfully as you do." happiest of the happy. My part in the My dear Maggie,” said my husband, family proceedings at this time was chiefly gently, but somewhat seriously, "I had inthat of an impartial looker.on, and I saw deed lost my chance of Woodlee; I bal, one thing which gave me unlimited satisfac- however, exchanged it for a certainty. tion. This one thing was the regard, affec- Aunt Anne has settled one half of her tion, and confidence with which my dear property upon Winifred, and the other half, James inspired every one. His cousins de- including Woodlee, which she has moreover clared him the finest fellow in existence; strictly entailed, upon me!” Winifred regarded him as a sort of embodied providence; and Aunt Anne said to I have one more circumstance to relate, me, one day, when he and she had been a circumstance hitherto confined to the closeted for the discussion of business, knowledge of Mrs. Devlin and myself, and

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which is not the least remarkable link in a Captain Dallas would have communicated curious chain.

with her. I told Mrs. Devlin that I had Winifred had been married nearly a heard from Aunt Anne of the relationship month, and I had returned to our house in subsisting between Captain Dallas and the Bedford Row, and was expecting to hear of original of this portrait, and asked her if the arrival of the young couple in town, she had ever heard him make any

mention when Mrs. Devlin called on me one day of his aunt. and told me she had received a note from " Oh, no! ma'am,” she replied ; "he disMrs. James Pennifold, whom, however, she tinctly told me there was no one living with invariably called “ Miss Winifred.”

whom Miss Winifred could claim kindred." “ She writes from Paris, ma'am,” said As she spoke, Mrs. Devlin was looking Mrs. Devlin,“ and it seems they have found earnestly at the miniature, which she held out a photographer there who makes beau- in her hand, with an air of dawning recog; tiful copies of portraits of any kind, and nition. Suddenly she turned it round, and Miss Winifred desired me to open the small read the name upon the back. box still in my charge, and take out a sealed • Marion Hungerford ! Hungerford!” she parcel, and bring it to you. She says, said, in a puzzled tone. “I seem to know * Tell dear Mrs. Pennifold to send me, at the face indistinctly, as if I had seen it in once, all the portraits on ivory, and the a dream. The name, too; what is it that it two photographs of my father, and ask her reminds me of ?” She paused a moment to keep the others for me.'

and thought deeply, then exclaimed, Mrs. Devlin produced the parcel, and I “Why, yes, ma'am, to be sure; Hungeropened it. It contained some pencil like- ford was the name of the lady in Wilton nesses, evidently sketches taken by Captain Place, the lady who came to the shop and Dallas, three of the number being of Winifred ordered the things for the little girl; herself, and three finely-executed minia- the lady whom our stranger lodger followed. tures on ivory, without cases and unset. At And this picture is her face. I only saw the back of each of the latter a small strip her twice, but I remember the face perfectof paper was pasted, and on them was ly. Yes, indeed, Mrs. Pennifold, that Mrs. written respectively " Archibald Hugh Hungerford and this Eleanor Hungerford Dallas,” “ Isabel Marion Dallas," and are the same.” “ Eleanor Hungerford.”. The miniatures “ And Eleanor Hungerford was Winiwere beautifully painted, and Mrs. Devlin fred's aunt, Mrs. Devlin,” I said, grasping and I scanned them attentively. Two were her arm, in the excitement of a sudden evidently likenesses of Arthur Dallas's fa- idea which had struck me with all the vividther and mother; and Mrs. Devlin told me ness of an irresistible conviction.

“ Did that, but for the difference of dress, the you not me that Winifred said she liked first might have been taken for a portrait to go to St. Paul's because she had been of the Captain himself. The third repre- used to go there as a child when she bad sented a tall, fine-looking woman, who bore stayed for her holidays with her aunt in a strong likeness to the portrait of Mrs. Wilton Place ?Dallas, but whose features were much finer “I did," she replied; and her hesitating and more expressive. This, then, was Mrs. voice and changing colour showed me that Hungerford, Captain Dallas's aunt, the the same idea which had taken possession wife of the rich Calcutta merchant, to of my mind had entered hers. whose care Arthur Dallas had been con- “ Your mysterious lodger was Winifred's fided when he left England, at the crisis of guilty, wretched mother," I exclaimed, “ and his life. This, then, was the only relative, to you she owes her last embrace of her on her father's side, who remained to Wini- child, as her child owes to you all the bapfred. But did she remain ? If she yet piness of her life.” lived, Winifred would have sought her,

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Cities which EMBRACE ALL NATIONALI- New York is the most cosmopolitan of cities.

- London is a world in itself. The last It has not so many Scotchmen as Edinburgh, English census develops the curious fact that but according to the census it has nearly as there are more Scotchmen in London than in many Irish as Dublin, while as a German city, Edinbnrgh, more Irish than in Dublin, more Ro- it is probably the third in the world, ranking man Catholics than in Rome, and more Jews next to Berlin and Vienna. - Evangelist. than in Palestine. Next to London perhaps

[From the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal.] first, predisposition in the inhabitants of the WHETHER CHOLERA IS CONTAGIOUS. place visited ; and, second, the arrival or

presence of an exciting cause.

This cause BY JACOB BIGELOW, M. D.

in some epidemics, such as small pox, is Within the present century, cholera, a dis- contagion. In others it is an occult influease indigenous in hot climates of the East, ence, not yet discovered nor understood, nor has, at various intervals, made its appear- known to be controlled, except in some inance in the temperate latitudes of Europe stances, by hygienic agencies. No country, and America. It is now again exciting in- I believe, has succeeded in keeping out terest from its possible and perhaps proba- cholera by quarantines, and no country, as ble approach to this country.

far as we know, can produce it artificially The experience of the last thirty or forty or retain it after the predisposition has disyears has led a majority of medical men appeared. In its own time it moves on who had observed the disease to believe thoroughfares where men are travelling, that, as a general law, it is not contagious. and spreads into cities where they are staIn this belief I must individually remain, tionary, for no better known reason than until evidence more satisfactory than any that mankind are its necessary food, and which has yet appeared shall justify an op- that where there are no people there can posite conviction.

be no cholera. But why, of two frequentThe great epidemics of 1830 and 1847 ed roads or cities, it selects one and avoids had a remarkable coincidence in the path the other, investigators have not yet been which they pursued, and in the order and able to satisfy us. dates of their arrival in different cities. The credit of having introduced the They seem to have followed certain great present epidemic into Europe is by a sort of routes of travel, and to have avoided others popular acclamation assigned to the hosts of equally frequented. According to Leségue, squalid devotees who perform an annual they both visited consecutively, and in cor- pilgrimage to Mecca. Yet we are told that responding months, Tiflis, Astrachan, Mos- the cholera exists every year among the cow, Petersburg and Berlin. In 1831, caravans of Musselmans arriving at the cholera did not take the most frequented holy cities,” so that their supposed mission route from Berlin to Paris, but passed along of forwarding the cholera to Europe in the shores of the Baltic, crossed over to most years fails to be performed. Sunderland, went down to London, and Cholera, like influenza and some other again crossed the channel and arrived in migratory diseases, has usually but not alParis about six months after its appearance ways advanced from east to west. Of the at Berlin. A disease propagated by con- vehicle in which it travels, or the course it tagion of any kind would hardly have avoi- is next to take, we know about as much as ded the most frequented thoroughfares from mankind knew of the cause of lightning Berlin to Paris, while it occupied half a before the discovery of electricity. Its conyear in going round by England.

veyance and propagation have been ascribThe epidemic now or lately prevailing in ed to air, to water, to material foci, to elecEurope appears to date back at least nine tricity, to ozone or to the want of it. Of late, months, at which time it existed among the in consequence of the vast development caravans of pilgrims visiting or returning by the microscope of the existence everyfrom the city of Mecca. In the middle of where of minute living organisms, it has beMay last it was at Alexandria and Cairo, come more common to ascribe the arrival in June at Constantinople, Ancona and of this and other like epidemics to certain Marseilles, and in November at Paris, unseen “germs” which are called seeds or Havre and other European cities.

ova, cryptogamic or animalcular, according Thus it appears that cholera has now ex- as the fancy of the theorist inclines him to isted in Europe from three to eight months, adopt a vegetable or an animal nomenclature. among cities having constant commercial But in this, as in many other cases, it is intercourse with seaports of the United easier to trace an analogy, or to assume a States, during which time thousands of pas- cause, than it is to prevent an effect. Alsengers and tens of thousands of bales and though inquirers have been indefatigable in packages have been landed in our maritime their attempts to enlighten the world on the cities. If cholera were as contagious or por- means of ridding ourselves of the presence table as many believe it to be, it ought to of the various offensive co-tenants of our have begun and perhaps finished its work in globe, yet no crusade has yet succeeded in miny ot our seaports before this time.

banishing from our fields and houses the unEpidemics require two things for their in- welcome swarms of mosquitoes, worms, troduction and extension. These are grubs and flies, which molest us with their



annual presence; nor in suppressing the certain surfaces in vessels with oil, and had blight of grain, the potato rot, or the peach them " disinfected by chlorine gas,” after tree disease. Happily some if not most of wbich “ no new cases occurred,” is to be these have their periods of abatement or classed with other like results, with which disappearance, and this rather through the the medical press always abounds at the order of Providence than the agency of close of epidemics.

Cholera seems to abide in the same In clean and well-regulated cities of temcategory. We know little of its exciting perate climates, cholera is far from being cause, and not much of its prevention, ex: the most formidable of epidemics. A cept, that by following in our personal greater part of its victims are the miserahabits the dictates of reason and experi- bly poor, the worn out, the ill provided, ence, we diminish both the frequency and and the intemperate, in whom this disease danger of its occurrence.

only anticipates the date, but does not Whatever may be the cause or vehicle of greatly increase the annual or biennial cholera, credulous and excitable personal number of deaths. Its mortality in our are impatient of suspense, and are prone to northern Atlantic cities rarely amounts to cut a knot which they fail to untie. When one per cent. of the population in a given an epidemic disease first appears, some place or year, so that a man may reside coincidence is always brought to light through an epidemic in one of these cities which is supposed capable of accounting with less risk than he can take a pleasure for it. The arrival of a ship, the opening voyage to Europe. After having witnessed of a trunk, or the washing of a garment, many cases of cholera in this and other are among the most frequently accepted cities, I am farther satisfied that it affords one

But as these events have happened of the easiest modes of exit from the world. a thousand times before, and apparently People who would avoid or prevent cholunder like circumstances, without any era should cutivate equanimity, regularity known results, it has been thought neces- of life and habits, cleanliness, salubrious sary by some of our later writers to narrow exercise, temperance, and avoidance of all the compass of actual exposure down to excesses. When they have done their duty the reception of the morbid excretions of in providing for the care of the sick, allayone individual into the digestive canal of ing public panics, and abating public nuianother. The first impression made by sances, they may safely dismiss their apprethis announcement must, if true, be one of hensions. Little good and some harm is alrelief, the danger not seeming likely to ways done by the indiscreet agitation of a bappen very often. But to the possibility subject which is to a great extent beyond of such danger we can never oppose an ab- our control. A single or sporadic case of solute negative, so long as we persist in cholera occurring in a village of a thousand eating smelts and founders caught about inhabitants may attract little notice, and the mouths of our drains, or even turnips, perhaps pass without record; but a hunsalads, and strawberries raised at Brighton. dred cases in a city of a hundred thousand The risk, however, is so small, that most inhabitants make an aggregate which genpersons will prefer to take it rather than erally causes some panic, though the proto deprive themselves of food or luxuries. portion is exactly the same, and the panic Of the many sensation tales printed and equally unnecessary. It is possible that reprinted about cholera, and the supposed the supposed immunity of country districts instances of remarkable communications or in comparison with cities may be accounted arrestation, it is sufficient to say that they for by the fact, that in the sparse population are frequently interesting, being fully as of country towns cases are less liable to be dramatic as they are probable.

detected and published. In the same regard we cannot help notic- I may be excused for repeating the following that credulity, and perhaps private cu- ing remark from among some “ Aphorisms pidity, have caused much stress to be laid published by me about thirty years ago, when on the supposed preventive efficacy of what the disease was new and little known among are called “ disinfectants," a mysterious us. “ Should the cholera continue to preword which implies a thing assumed but vail for three years throughout this continot proved to exist. We have deodorizers, nent, it would cease to interrupt either such as chlorine, charcoal, &c., which by business or recreation. Mankind cannot their combinations render certain effluvia always stand aghast, and the wheels of imperceptible to our But that society at length would be no more impedthese are not disinfectants, there is most ed by its presence than they now are by abundant evidence. The narrative, then, the existence of consumption, of old age, or of the physician at Malta, who covered of drunkenness.”


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