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soon after the misfortune which had befallen , which confimed all that I had conjectured ourselves and the Dallases, as I understood, of the circurmstances of that fatal day. He in consequence of a wish to that effect ex- said that he knew our sparation was inevitapressed by Arthur, who had remained in ble, whether James lived or died; but he France a sufficient period of time to enable solemnly declared that he had never had him to see his sister and Algernon in their any intention of harming him, and that the early-wedded days, and had then sailed for pistol had been discharged accidentally, Invia. Mr. Dallas had not returned to and I implicitly believed him. To the world Woodlee, but had sold the place to General this circumstance told against him, as James's Strickland, from whom I many years after- second - a young gentleman who had been wards bought it. My father and James of the dinner-party- accused Arthur of were alone at the Larches, and even the re- having fired too soon; and in fact he had acsource of Carters Court was cut off from cidentally done so. His letter expressed them. The name of Algernon's bride was undying attachment and constancy to me, a barrier between the houses.

and said something of possible hope in the “ Your eyes are questioning me of Arthur, far future. He was going to India very Margaret. Well, I will tell you of him. soon, and so took leave of me in a few He wrote to me from France, whither he lines of passionate grief and valediction.” had fed, an agonised and agonising letter,'|

A MARKET FOR HIGH ART. the History of England for the last eight hun. MR. PUNCH,

dred years. Suppose the new Richmond Hotel On the memory of a certain wooden painter, Duck, the Goat and Compasses, the White

were named the Cat and Fiddle, the Dog and who should have been West -- a certain joker Hart, the Blue Boar, or the Red Lion, its sign of jokes juked the following joke, to wit :

might exibit a masterpiece of animal painting, “He died and made no sign.” executed by a LANDSEER or an ANSDELL. Sign-painting, Sir, has hitherto been regarded

A great advantage of sion-painting, practised as an interior exercise of the pencil, and no. tiful variety of subject which it would afford

as a branch of genuine art, would be the plen. body but a shallow jester would say that the

the artist. Fruit and flower painters, even, elevation at which signboards are generally wo suspended entitles them to be considered works

thus find scope for their specialty in the of High Art. But circumstances have arisen production of such signs as the Rose and Thisgenius enough might be enabled to paint sign: there is nobody to pay for them, all the money under which any British Artist who has only tle, or the Bunch of Grapes.

Altar-pieces are no longer painted, because boards which would rival the finest pictures of that is given for pious use going in church exMICHAEL ANGELO.

Let me, Sir, direct your attention to those tension, clergy-multiplication, and other means large public-houses, the vast joint-stock hotels.

of suppbying spiritaal destitution with spiritual They are inns whose landlords are lords and would supply their places in the world of art,

necessaries. Sign-boards for splendid hotels dukes and other members of the landed aris; and, generally adopted, would create an ample tocracy. They are kept by the nobility and and remunerative market for British Artists. gentry. In the fine English of these days they If every great joint-stock hotel displayed a sign are called “palatial edifices.” Let these pala- that was a first rate painting, it would do no tial public houses be embellished with signs. As a palace is to an ordinary tavern, so might Rising hotels would encourage rising talent,

more than its proprietary could very well afford. the sign of the palatial public-house be to that

and redeem this country from the reproach of of a common one; larger and more beautiful.

The sign of the huge hotel should of course being a nation of shareholders engrossed in be executed in fresco, to stand the weather. trying to get money, and with eating and drink. The grandest hotels might be adorned with

ing signs of corresponding grandeur. What if

I offer you the foregoing suggestion, Mr. the Langham Place Hotel were to be called Punch, in the hope that you will communicate it the Queen's Head? Why, then, any requisite to the School of Design, and cause the Directalteration having been made in the architec. ors of that institution to begin redncing the ture of the building, its principal entrance

notion of High Art signboards to practice, by might be surmounted, by way of sign, with the offering to the competition of British Artists a best portrait of HER MAJESTY that could be considerable sum of money as a prize for the painted by a distinguished R. A. Or, the sign take mine case in mine inn, Mr. Punch, albeit

best sign of the Marquis of Granby. I love to of the Queen's Head might be a painting commemorative of postage reform. In like man.

HABITANS IN Sicco. ner the Alexandra Hotel might have for its

N. B. A good dry skittle ground. Punch. sign a grand historical picture of Her Royal * Mr. Woodside, in Philadelphia, painted some Highness the PrincESS OF Wales landing in signs which might really cultivate a taste for Art. Eigand. For that of the Westminster Palace Dr. Bethune in one of his orations gave deserved Hotel no end of subjects might be taken from praise to this modest artist. (Ed. Living Age.

I am,

says he

PROPOSED CONGRESS AGAINST PRIVA- with Mrs. Hannah More, at Barley Wood, near
TEERING.

Wrington, Somersetshire, England, in which he

was agreeably surprised at the vigor To the Editor of the Living Age. — Although of her intellect and the penetrating brightness believing with you that no “ Maritime Congress of her eye.”. But this has nothing to do with of Nations,” for the prevention of privateering, the subject of this note. as suggested by “The Saturday Review in the

Yours respectfully, article on p. 620 of No. 1126 of “The Living

D. BETHUNE DUFFIELD, Age,” is likely to be held until after the settle- Detroit, February, 1866. ment of your “ Alabama” claims by England, I have thought that the accompanying letter of the late Honorable Wm. Wilberforce touching this subject, and written 46 years ago, might not be without interest to the general reader, both MR. WILBERFORCE TO MR. BETHUNE. at home and abroad. The letter, in the handwriting apparently of the author, and bearing his

NEAR LONDON, 12 July, 1820. own signature and frank, was addressed to my DiviE BETHUNE, Esq. grandfather, the late Divie Bethune, Esq., then My dear Sir, - I assure you with truth, that an extensive merchant and ship-owner of New any suggestion from you would be received by York City, while the latter was on a visit to me with a preposession in its favor. But I can England in 1820. About a year since, I found also assure you that the subject of your letter, it among Mr. Bethune's papers, bearing in his with which I have been recently favoured, is handwriting the following endorsement: “The one in which I have long had an opinion, perenclosed is in reply to a letter wishing a time foctly consonant with your own; and, as you of general peace to be improved for a general are already convinced, it is unnecessary for me Compact of Nations to prohibit Privateering in to state the reasons for my own opinion. Parfuture Wars.” The following extract from liament, however, is now within a few days of its Mr. Bethune's journal dated at Birmingham, Ju- adjournment, and it is therefore impossible to ly 9th, 1820, discloses the origin of this letter. bring forward such a subject with the slightest The entry reads as follows: "In dining with hope of success, or even with any probability Joseph Reynolds, son of Richd. Reynolds, I sug- of its obtaining serious consideration. In gested to him that now would be a good time another session the question would well deserve for the different Governments of the World to attention, and while I assure you, I should feel form a reciprocal agreement to prohibit Priva- myself honored in being the introducer of it teering, this being a time of general Peace. into the House of Commons, I must say that I He caught at the idea, and on our talking it should probably recommend for it a younger over said he would write to Lord Teignmouth and less incumbered advocate. Were I not on the subject. I think I shall venture to much occupied, I should be tempted to fill my write Mr. Wilberforce and Mr. Macaulay on the sheet at least, but circumstanced as I am I will same subject, and I feel persuaded that the only add that I hope I shall have the pleasure horrors committed lately by the Patriot Priva- of seeing you again, on your return southward, teers 'of S. America will prepare the minds of a and that I am, with cordial esteem and regard, majority of the people of the United States to

my

dear sir,
reccommend a similar prohibition to our Gov-

Yours very sincerely,
Oh! may my God grant me grace
and wisdom to write judiciously on this impor-

W. WILBERFORCE.
tant business, and may He incline the hearts of
all Rulers to the prohibition of this accursed [Mr. Divie Bethune was the father of the late
practise.” This entry is succeeded by an in- Rev. George W. Bethune, D.D., of blessed
teresting account of Mr. Bethune's interview | memory.]

- Living Age.

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ernment.

New SPANISH GRASS. – The London En- valuable resource which it seems likely to gineer says:— Esparto, the newly imported prove to our paper manufæeturers. About Spanish grass, is likely to be largely used, with 160,000 tons have already been imported, at an cotton, hemp, and wool, as one of the staples estimated price of eighty-two shillings per ton, of manufacturing industry, in addition to the

From the Examiner.

to agitate for a reciprocal free trade between CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES.

Canada and the United States in agricultural

products. He was prompted to this mainly by CANADA is at this moment expecting the observing that at certain seasons the prices end, but hoping for the renewal in some ac- of provisions were higher in the American ceptable shape, of the Reciprocity of Trade sea-board States than they were in England, Treaty between the United States and the and that for a large class of agricultural proBritish Provinces. As important conse- duce Canada had no other market than that quences may arise from either issue of this of the great continental cities.

For some affair, we give some account of the nature time the Canadian Government of tile day, of the treaty, and will look next week at then under the direction of Mr. Hincks, the political questions arising out of it. now Premier of Demerara, appeared dispo

For a good many years after their sepa- sed to slight this project. Eventually, howration from the mother country, the United ever, they took it up, and having obtained States were almost entirely isolated from the assistance of the British Minister at the British Provinces, and though the vig- Washington, Lord Elgin, succeeded in neour of the fiscal restraints upon intercourse gotiating with the American Government had been gradually though slightly relaxed, that Convention, which is now on the point even as lately as twenty years ago there of expiring. Respecting that negotiation was the very smallest trade between them we may mention two pieces of history which which can be thought possible between two we believe to be authentic — they'at any countries lying in such close proximity. rate come to us from persons who were acThere were duties on each side upon almost tors in the business. While the American every article coming from the other, and in Government was being solicited for its asCanada there was a differential duty discrimi- sent to the proposals, the Southern memnating against the trade of the United States bers of the Senate the body whose action upon every article whatever which came to on treaties were final – was greatly init from thence. The first important step disposed to give what was asked; thinking in the way of more free intercourse was the that the advocates of the plan in the Northpassage by the Americans of the Bonding ern States, while imposing heavy duties in and Transit Law, by which they permitted favour of Northern manufacturers, at the goods coming from sea to the United States same time were attempting to get up a little but destined for Canada, to pass through bit of free trade on their own frontier for their territory in bond. This concession was their own benefit. They had, therefore, in made spontaneously, for their own purposes, caucus,” to use the technical word, deterand, no doubt, at the suggestion of their rail- mined to vote against it, and if they had, it way companies, who saw that with such an would have miscarried. Just then, however, arrangement they would command the Ca- one of them received a letter from a resinadian trade during the months of closed na- dent in Canada, exhorting him to vote vigation. Canada soon after, upon the com- against the treaty, because that would drive pletion of its canals, and with an object simi- the Canadians to ask for annexation in deslar to that of the Americans, passed a Bond- pair of getting by any other means into the ing Bill of its own, with a view of enabling American markets. The letter had an effect its forwarders and shippers to export the the reverse of that which was intended. Western American cereals. It moreover the Southerners did not want the annexaabsolutely removed the duty on wheat; but tion of one or two new free States; and they retained that or flour.

Then came

our at once made up their minds to change their abolition of the Corn Laws, and Canada's intended course. We are told that the ul. loss of favour in home markets, with the timate success of the treaty was owing to consequent abolition of the differential duty that accident. In the meantime it had met against foreigners, which had previously with a good many obstacles.. One was rebeen maintained for the purpose of giving a moved in this way. Mr. Hincks, finding preference to British exporters.

that the thing did not go so fast as he desi

red at Washington, thought he could put a Under these new forms of fiscal legisla- pressure on the U. S. Government, and with tion the trade between the two countries that view made it a part of his policy to began slowly to augment. About 1849, how- close Canadian canals against American vesever, the late Mr. W. H. Merritt, to whom sels, and otherwise to legislate against AmerCanada is indebted for the project of the ican trade. This policy, however, he very Welland Canal, and more recently for that suddenly abandoned, as it was thought at the of the suspension bridge at Niagara, began time, because it had succeeded in driving

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from office one of his colleagues, the Hon. Canada's shipping trade rather than stimuJohn Young, who regarded it as suicidal. It lated their production, whereas the free adis now, however, stated that the British Min- mission of its own produce opened to Canister at Washington received a hint that all ada in the United States a market wliich chance of success would be destroyed unless it had not before ; though of course while these menaces were promptly discontinued, the United States were shipping cereals to and that it was at his instance they were England, their importations of Canadian hastily abandoned. It may be added that cereals were truly as much a transit trade very considerable sums of money were as Canada's importations of the same kind spent, or alleged to have been spent, by the of goods from them. "officious Canadian negotiators, some We may add here that while almost all portions of which were not repaid by their Canada's exports to the United States were Government, though the outlay was plainly relieved from duty, as it sent them little authorized, till a few months ago. The des- but raw produce, only about fifty per cent. tination of this money is still involved in of its imports from them were affected by mystery —whether used to influence con- the treaty; the official figures for the halfgressional consciences or pot.

year ending 30th June, 1864, taking that The treaty may be shortly described :- period as an example, showing that the It admitted all kinds of raw produce, agri- free goods from the States were the whole cultural and mineral, except hay, salt, and trade from thence in the proportion of 48 sugar, into each of the two countries from to 104. It is also worthy of notice, that if the other free of duty, provided for the the operations of commerce could ever be free navigation of the St. Lawrence and estimated in anything but money, the imLake Micitigan to the citizens of both coun- portance of the free trade of Canada with tries, and permitted American fishermen to the States might be said to consist even fish on the British North American coasts more in its convenience than in its profit. as freely as the provincials, but admitted Since 1854 Canadian farmers, instead of the provincial exports of fish free of duty having to send, with much trouble, small into the American markets.

parcels of produce to a distant market at

great loss of time and with expense in the The following table is sufficient to show, payment of commissions to merchants, ofin the shortest and most comprehensive ten, moreover, receiving the return in what manner, the results which followed the is called “store pay," have had the Ameriachievement of this wise convention : can buyers going all through the country

buying whatever they had to sell at their

own doors, and paying in cash. No doubt 1850, 5,390,821, 4,285,470 some of these advantages are due to other Before Treaty. 1851, 7,929,140, 4,956,471 causes than the treaty, especially to the ex

1853, 7,829,090, 5,278,116 tension of the railway system, which had its 1855, 20,882,241, 17,448,197 great development about the time that con1856, 16,574,895, 18,291,834 vention was made. But much of Canada's

1861, 14,361,858, 18,645,457 Since Treaty.

recent prosperity is certainly due to the re1862, 12,842,504, 15,253,152

moval of ancient fiscal restrictions between 1863, 19,898,718, 18,816,999 1864, 16,658,429, 30,974,118

its rural population and the great consum1865, 18,306,497, 30,547,267 ing cities of the Atlantic coast. These are the American figures, and there is some discrepancy between them and the Canadian; but none that affects the present purpose of showing the effect of the treaty on the trade of the two countries.

From the Examiner, 24 Feb. To understand their full significance, it must be borne in mind that under the

IRISH HATRED OF ENGLAND. treaty Canadian imports from the United The reason why Dr. Fell was hated could States were almost all required for ship- not be fathomed, but hated Dr. Fell was, not ment to England, comparatively little being a jot the less thoroughly and bitterly. And taken into consumption, whereas in some Dr. Fell's case is the case of England in the years all, and on an average of years the feelings of the lower and not a few of the major part of the exports to the States upper Irish. Now a hatred without reason went into consumption there. Thus the free is a hatred the most stubborn and lasting, admission of American produce nourished for nothing that can be done can operate

Ex. to Canada.

Dollars.

Impts. from Can.

Dollarg.

upon it. Not that the Irish hatred of Eng- dice on the wane ? and are we not seeing land was originally without cause, as for the fag end of it? Is it not, as it were, gomany years the English yoke was a beavy, ing downhill

, or, as Sydney Smith said of galling yoke to Ireland; but the juster ghosts, descending from the drawing-room rule of the last forty years, which has left few to the kitchen ? Hatred of England moved grievances unredressed, has not eradicated to rebellion in 1798 men of all classes, the animosity which was provoked by pre- gentlemen, priests, lawyers, scholars, as vious misgovernment. The effect survives well as ignorant peasants. But there is the peccant cause. But this is not all. none of this leaven in Fenianism, and the There is a want of affinity between Irish impluse of hatred does not operate above a and English, and generally they do not very low level. And so rebellion seems in like each other. The Irish is a warmer, process of wearing out, sinking lower and more genial, more impulsive temperament, lower, though with an extensive surface. and antipathetic to it is the English cold- Probably numerically there has never been ness and phlegm. And the Irish are not more disaffection in Ireland, but the stra.' singular, it must be confessed, in their dis- tum is of sand, whose many grains have no like of us. Most people have the same cohesion. There are none of the leaders of prejudice, and call us sullen, proud, and ar- 1844, much less of '98. The Thanes fly rogant. If they knew us better they might from it. judge us less unfavourably; but this reminds We are not without hopes, therefore, us of the argument of Charles Lamh, who, that the present may be the last occasion when asked how he could hate a people he for coercion, and it should be followed, as did not know, answered, “ And pray, how soon as circumstances will allow, by meascould “I hate them if I did know them?” ures for the removal of the few remaining Ill will is best nursed in ignorance. Sixty causes of complaint. First and foremost of years ago how we hated the French ; it was these stands the Church not of Ireland, and a point of patriotism, and the greatest war- though it is not a practical grievance, nor rior of the time, Nelson, held the then com- one much taken to heart by the Catholic mon opinion that we were natural enemies. peasantry, it is a sign of subjection that Wellington, of a later date, and who had ought to be pulled down. Every intellimore knowledge of the people with whom gent Irish Catholic sees written on the he had battled in Spain, had none of the Protestant Church Establishment, Sic vos national prejudice; and with the improved non vobis. It is a standing affront, a meintercourse between the two people, it inay morial of conquest in the shape of the gross be said to have passed away from us, what injustice that the strong can do the weak. lingers yet being on the French side, where The land question, however, is the main it is a tradition kept up by several causes. trouble of Ireland, and it comes not from Our prosperity is resented, and the English any fault of the State, but from long babits demeanour which is supposed to be encour- and usages between owners and occupiers. aged by it is exceedingly obnoxious to peo- It lies, therefore, more in the domain of ple whose pride takes another turn, and who equitable private management than of leg. revolt against what they call our insular ar-islation. Parliament may, nevertheless, rogance. That there is some fault of this with great advantage investigate the relakind is not to be denied, but for the most tions of landlord and tenant in Ireland, and part we believe there is more awkwardness the diverse holdings of land. To bring the than arrogance in the case. As for the facts prominently forward would be a step highly-bred people, they are much the same towards some better arrangements. of all nationalities.

Ireland wants industry in two shapes, If in France traditions of hate are kept capital which is hoarded labour, and the up by dislike to manners and deportment, regular daily labour which constitutes the the case is different in America, where profitable industry of a people. She has a there is prejudice against the nation, but great multitude of labourers whose amount none against individuals, sure of a warm of labour is little, partly from the small hospitable reception if they deserve it. holdings in parts of the country, and Also in Ireland the Englishman who partly from the religion with its many days conduct himself well, and gives him- of fast and festival withdrawn from secular self no airs of superiority, is respected, and employments. We should like to know perhaps something more, though his country how many days are given to labour by the is charged with every ungenial, ungenerous, occupier of a small plot of land. How and unjust habit. But is not all this preju- many days his cultivation requires, bow

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