tended in signing the Convention of 15th successive Ministries have endured French September to assure the co-existence in interference and French dictation with an Italy of two separate sovereignties -- that appearance of good-will, is lost. There is of the Pope reduced to the proportions it no road to Rome except through force, and possesses to-day, and that of the kingdom of what marvel that the party in Italy which Italy.” He informed him also that the ex- believes in force should increase till rumours pression “ moral means” had been “ abused,” spread that in the last resort the King, and signified for the French Government aware that force is for the hour impossible, only conciliation, and the effects of similar has resolved to meet Parliamentary opinterests and of time, which would position by means other than an appeal to ultimately produce the reconciliation of a the electors ? Those rumours are, we believe, power eminently Catholic with the chief of unfounded, but the Government, which Catholicism. And finally, M. de Sartiges appears to wish to exist in order to carry told the Premier, then in the very throes of out an internal policy, and does exist lest a great Parliamentary conflict, that while the conduct of foreign affairs should be enhe remained in power the Imperial Govern- trusted to other hands, is of necessity ment had certainty, and that even if power weak. passed to men whose ideas were neither It is a terrible crisis for Italy; but in those of the Premier nor of the Emperor, Rome, as in Mexico, Napoleon, will, we France still would not “permit” herself believe, be baffled. It is the weakness of to doubt the strict execution of the treaty! intellects like bis, it is pre-eminently his own

There, then, is the design of the Emperor weakness, never quite to comprehend the at last fully revealed. He does not intend force of a national passion, the solidity of a that Rome should become Italian. If the feeling once engrained in the hearts of a Pope will reconcile himself with Italy, well; separate people. Four of the great miseven if the reconciliation should involve an takes of his life have been due to this break Italian garrison in Rome the Emperor will in the chain of his sympathies. He did not not oppose, will rather point to that consum- comprehend why, if a British Government mation as a proof of his wisdom and fore- was willing to pass a Conspiracy Bill, the sight. But in case is the temporal British people should be so certain to reject power to be overset, or merged in that it, for he had never realized to himself the of the Italian kingdom, in no case is "sacredness," as a Greek would have called Rome to cease to obey her priestly rulers, it, of the English horror of foreign dictaunder penalty of a declaration that a solemntion. He has been but once defeated in treaty with France has been violated by his own Legislature, and it was because he Italy, that is, in undiplomatic language, under forgot that France would not reason even penalty of war. France is to be relieved with him about the creation of majorats. of the expense of this great garrison, but He has wasted millions in Mexico because Italy is to gain nothing save one more he did not perceive that the North would chance of reconciliation with Rome, is never be spent, treasure and men, before it would to be relieved from the danger that an in- resign its dream of the American future. dependent Sovereign, seated in her midst, And now he thinks that with time he can may not summon a Frenchman or Austrian make Italians forget that Rome is theirs. back to help him rule. Italy is to be two, As well might he strive to cancel the Italian not one, and the power which has liberated past. Without that forgetfulness his policy, her assumes to dictate Cabinet combinations wise, and astute, and sure as his courtiers agreeable to herself. The idea of Villa- may declare it to be, is but a policy of the franca is to be realized in Rome, and the hour. A population cannot perish. The Papacy, guaranteed by its only imminent Italian population, persistent beyond all foes, is to commence a new career of separate human precedent, though patient beyond! sovereignty. No wonder that the Red all Red endurance, will not give up its end, party gains ground in Italy. No wonder and the defeat of the Napoleonic idea that Florentine politicians whisper of foreign there, as in Mexico, is as certain as that interference, and that Ministry and Parlia- the Italians will survive the Bonaparts. ment alike seem paralyzed, and that the Either an Italian Pope will weary of deKing fears to dissolve lest the electors pendence upon “ barbarians,” or the supshould return him a Chamber still more port of Austria will make France perceive democratic. The one object which lies close that the temporal power injures her, or to the heart of all Italians, without which Napoleon will need the Italian sword, or Italy must be, as M. Mon wrote to Spain, accident will compel bim once more to court “ Somehow or other a federation,” for which the revolution, and in any one of these events the capital will be free. M. de come from the broader surfaces above, and Sartiges has scarcely finished speaking before the accumulations, held more firmly by conGeneral della Marmora, who bows to him, gelation, choked up the outlet; and when tells the Spanish Court, in language almost the wild waters swept and eddied underof menace, that Italy has not pledged, and neath, the foot of man could pass in safety will not pledge herself

, to tolerate the per- from the United States to Canada ! manent sacrifice of Rome to the interests But water and ice had not finished their of the Catholic world, or the meddling of work in building this marble bridge. It a power other than France in her internal must be lifted and torn and ridged. It must affairs. Every word of his despatch, which have profound fissures, into which one might is bitter to the last degree, and has been look with awe, wild hummocks, and broad published in the official gazette of Florence, fields of terrific roughness — roughness which is intended to tell Italy and Napoleon that I can equal in memory only by the lava of the Italian Premier only yields to force in ab- Vesuvius, freely poured and cooled from the staining from Rome. As the Premier thinks side of the rent crater, and this was effectso thinks the population of Italy. There are ed by continuous accessions of ice, which, among them those who think Rome would not coming over the cataract, plunged under be the better capital, but there is not from the surface, and by the violence of the wathe Alps to Sicily one who believes that ter, swept onward, lifted the mighty mass Rome can justly have an owner other than bodily on its back. In this way the ice was united Italy. The spring now so sharply perhaps from twenty to fifty feet in thickpressed down must fly back some day; and ness! when it does, in spite of Popes and Em- It was thus that I saw it on the 24th. perors, of the wiles of the Vatican, and the Going at once down, at the inclined plane, deep-laid schemes of the Tuileries, Rome to the ferry — just below the cataract - Í will be Italian once more.

crossed over to the Canada side on foot,

went to Table Rock, passed under the sheet, and came back as I went. Many others were performing the same feat.

It was a glorious morning, clear and bril

liant, and a myriad icicles were pendent From the Evangelist. from every point where precipice projected. NIAGARA IN WINTER.

Just under Table Rock a vast column had

formed, as if to say, “ What is left of this THE 24th of January, 1866, was a white ancient stand-point shall never perish !” day in my calendar. I passed it amongst Beside it was an ice-stalagmite, perhaps the white wonders of the ice of Niagara. two feet and a half in diameter, and just For a score or more of years, as old inhab- high enough to serve as an altar, and crowned itants assured me, there had been nothing with rounded crystals which might well be like it. The marvels of the grandest of the taken for crowded garlands. How Nature, glaciers amongst the Alps did not surpass it. in her most fantastic forms, seems to speak In some aspects they did not equal it. of God! Under the Fall, where the rock

The morning of Saturday, the 20th, was is hollowed from the above like a scallopalmost summer-like in mildness, and rainy. shell, was perhaps the highest concentraBut before night the weather grew intense- tion of beauty. This was one incrustation ly cold, and the wind blew a gale. The of icicles, glittering like diamonds in the morning of the Sabbath saw the waters of sun. Under foot huge banks of ice had the cataract greatly swollen, and huge mass- formed, inclining inward, so that the footes of ice dashing down the abyss. Whole ing was more than safe; the only effort fields of it, cracked and torn in the rapids needed — to a certain distance - was to above, plunged headlong into the awful keep from sliding away from the water cauldron, and were then ground and dashed plump against the rocky wall. into myriads of fragments.

It must have Above, in the vicinity of Table Rock, the been a magnificent sight.

whole surface was one glare of ice to the But what was more marvellous, the ice very edge of the precipice; and I shuddered had become jammed, or was jamming, from at the thought of a careless step plunging one shore to shore; so that on the Sabbath, from downward to an awful death. At this point the very

foot of the Falls almost to the Sus- the icy spray was pouring like rain, making pension Bridge — two miles — there was one thicker and thicker the marble sheet which compact mass of it. The narrow channel hid the ground. could not disgorge the masses which had In going over I had not sighted well my course, and so found myself in a world of Reclimbing the bank, past ice encrusting whiteness and roughness. But in returning I rock and tree and shrub, ice everywhere, marked a path where an eddy, apparently, crossed to Goat Island. The passage to Terhad deposited a semi-circle of finely ground rapin Tower was barred and marked“ Danice, almost from shore to shore; and on this gerous.”. But it was barred more effectively I made the passage homeward with twice by the ice, which so covered the path by the ease that I had gone abroad. Blest is which you descend to it, that it was like letthe path ever that leads us HOME! ting yourself go from the ridge of the roof of

Just under the American Fall, and in a cathedral to start for it. But finding a front of it, I got a view, the memory of place where a descent was possible, I let mywhich a life-time could not efface. The self down by trees and rocks, and was soon spray, freezing as it fell, had built up on the at the Tower. Here, amidst spray and icy foundation a succession of hills, from thir- thunder, I caught the final glory. The Sea ty to fifty feet in height above the surrounding of Ice was before me; the mad, cold waters surface. They were beautifully rounded like rolled and plunged in their awful descent; a sugar loaf, and almost as white. One of terror and sublimity held high carnival; these I climbed, and from it looked down while on either hand, arching one from the into the awful gloom and madness of the American and one from the Canada sideplunging water At my left, half hidden as if to whisper of hope and heaven amidst in the mist, was another, and apparently those symbols of perdition and the pit — still another. It was at this point that the floated a quivering rainbow. J. sense of awe culminated.


THE LATE RICHARD F. BOND, of the well- | late lamented Directors of the Cambridge Obknown firm of William Bond & Son, chronom- servatory, it was to his inventive genius that eter makers, Congress Street, whose death oc- they were indebted for the means of attaining curred in Cambridge on the 6th of February to such accuracy in their observations through last, has left behind him a monument, which, the telescope, as to have established, beyond & although constructed of brass, may well be question, the truth of their discoveries, in optermed, in the words of the Latin poet, "Ære position to some of the predetermined dicta of perennius.This work is a simple, yet wonder- the Old World. The Chronograph, or Spring fully perfect, clock escapement. His leisure Governor, to which was accorded the bronze moments had been devoted to its accomplish- medal of the World's Fair in 1851, was Richment for some months, but the finishing touch ard Bond's individual invention, though, with was given to it only three days before his death. the retiring modesty which was part of his A working model had been constructed under character, he was anxious only to attach to it his direction, which was set up by his bed side; the well-known name of William Bond and Son; at intervals he was enabled to give instruction and he was happy in the conviction of the to one of his workmen, - an intelligent man who world-wide appreciation of the instrument itentered fully into the interest of the work, self, — Europe, Africa, America, and Australia and by frequently-interrupted efforts, it grew bearing testimony to its perfection. His dying steadily and surely to its completion; and at legacy to the scientific world is as perfect as length — for it seemed as though he could not the Chronograph, and worthy of being attached die until this consummation was reached — he to it as a companion, a clock escapement could whisper, almost with his dying breath, which seems almost to have controlled the laws “it is perfect." And when his eyes were of matter, being wholly divested of friction, closed in death, the attention of the sorrowing hitherto deemed inseparable from mechanical friends who stood or knelt around his bed, was agency. turned from the motionless form beside them to This escapement is to be immediately atthe regular pulsations of the almost living in- tached to an astronomical clock which the firm strument which he had called into action, re- are now manufacturing for the Observatory in cording the passing away of moments, which, Liverpool, England. for him, were no more to be numbered on earth. - Transcript.

J. H. c. Equally gifted with his father and brother, the

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE. – NO. 1138.-24 MARCH, 1866.

From the Fortnightly Revie'. nerves of his body those tremors which, ON THE RELATIONS OF RADIANT HEAT when imparted to the nerves of healthy TO CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION, COLOUR,

ears, are translated into sound. There are AND TEXTURE.

various ways of rendering those sonorous

vibrations not only tangible but visible; A LECTURE, DELIVERED IN THE ROYAL and it was not until numberless experiments

INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN, ON of this kind had been executed, that the FRIDAY EVENING, 19th JANUARY, 1866. scientific investigator abandoned himself

wholly, and without a shadow of uncertainONE of the most important functions of ty, to the conviction that what is sound in physical science, considered as a discipline us is, outside of us, a motion of the air. of the mind, is to enable us by means of the But once having established this fact – tangible processes of nature to apprehead once having proved beyond all doubt that the intangible. The tangible processes give the sensation of sound is produced by an direction to the line of thought; but this agitation of the nerve of the car, the thought once given, the length of the line is not soon suggested itself that light might be limited by the boundaries of the senses. due to an agitation of the nerve of the eye. Indeed, the domain of the senses in Nature This was a great step in advance of that is almost infinitely small in comparison with ancient notion which regarded light as somethe vast region accessible to thought which thing emitted by the eye, and not as anylies beyond them. From a few observations thing imparted to it. But if light be proof a comet, when it comes within the range duced by an agitation of the optic nerve or of his telescope, an astronomer can calcu- retina, what is it that produces the agitalate its path in regions which no telescope tion ? Newton, you know, supposed minute can reach; and in like manner, by means particles to be shot through the humours of of data furnished in the narrow world of the eye against the retina, which hangs like the senses, we make ourselves at home in a target at the back of the eye. The imother and wider worlds, which can be trav- pact of these particles against the tarvet, ersed by the intellect alone.

Newton believed to be the cause of light. From the earliest ages the questions, But Newton's notion has not held its groun'l, “ What is light ? ” and “ What is heat ? ” being entirely driven from the field by the have occurred to the minds of men; but more wonderful and far more philosophical these questions never would have been an- notion that light, like sound, is a product of swered had they not been preceded by the wave-motion. question, “ Wbat is sound?” Amid the The domain in which this motion of light grosser phenomena of acoustics the mind is carried on lies entirely beyond the reach was first disciplined, conceptions being of our senses. The waves of light require there obtained from direct observation, a medium for their formation and propagawhich were afterwards applied to phenome- tion, but we cannot see, or feel, or taste, or na of a character far too subtle to be ob- smell this medium. Still, though thus apserved directly. Sound we know to be due parently cut off from all investigation, its to vibratory motion. A vibrating tuning- exsitence has been established. How has fork, for example, moulds the air around it this been done ? By showing that all the into undulations or waves, which speed phenomena of optics are accounted for with away on all sides with a certain measured a fullness and clearness and conclusiveness velocity, impinge upon the drum of the ear, which leave no desire of the intellect unfulshake the auditory nerve, and awake in the filled, by the assumption of this wonderful brain the sensation of sound. When suffi- intangible ether. When the law of graviciently near a sounding body we can feel tation first suggested itself to the mind of the vibrations of the air. A deaf man, for Newton, what did he do? He set himself example, plunging his hand into a bell when to examine whether it accounted for all the it is sounded, feels through the common facts. He determined the courses of the






planets; he calculated the rapidity of the spaces, bathing the sides of suns and planmoon's fall towards the earth; he consid- ets, but it also encircles the atoms of which ered the procession of the equinoxes, the these suns and planets are composed. It is ebb and flow of the tides, and found all ex- the motion of these atoms, and not of any plained by the law of gravitation. He there- sensible parts of either planets or stars, that fore regarded this law as established, and the ether conveys; it is this motion that the verdict of science subsequently confirm- constitutes the objective cause of what in ed his conclusion. On similar, and, if pos- our sensations are light and heat. sible on stronger grounds, we'found our belief atom, then, sending its pulses through the in the existence of the universal ether. It infinite ether, resembles a tuning-fork sendexplains facts far more various and compli- ing its pulses through the air. Let us look cated than those on which Newton based for a moment at this thrilling ether, and his law. If a single phenomenon could be briefly consider its relation to the bodies pointed out which the etheris proved incom- whose vibrations it conveys. Different petent to explain, we should have to give it bodies, when heated to the same temperaup; but no such phenomenon has ever been ture, possess very different powers of agipointed out. It is, therefore, at least as tating the ether: some are good radiators, certain that space is filled with a medium others are bad radiators; which means that by means of which suns and stars diffuse some are so constituted as to communicate their radiant power, as that it is traversed their motion freely to the ether, producing by that force which holds not only our plan- therein powful undulations; while others etary system, but the immeasurable heavens are unable thụs to communicate their mothemselves, in its unconquerable grasp. tion, but glide through the ether without

There is no more wonderful instance than materially affecting its repose. Experithis of the production of a line of thought ment has proved that elementary bodies, from the world of the senses into the region except under certain anomalous conditions, of pure imagination. I mean by imagina- belong to the class of bad radiators. An tion here, not that play of fancy which can atom vibrating in the ether resembles this give to airy nothing a local habitation and naked tuning-fork vibrating in the air. The a name, but that power which enables the amount of motion communicated to the air mind to conceive realities which lie beyond by these thin prongs is too small to evoke at the range of the senses — to present to it any distance the sensation of sound. But self distinct physical images of processes if we permit the atoms to combine chemiwhich, though mighty in the aggregate be-cally and form molecules, the result in yond all conception, are so minute individu- many cases is an enormous change in the ally, as to elude all observation. It is the power of radiation. The amount of ethe waves of air excited by this tuning-fork real disturbance produced by a compound which renders its vibrations audible. It is molecule may be many thousand times that the waves of ether sent forth from those produced by its constituent atoms when lamps overhead which render them lumin- uncombined. The effect is roughly typified ous to us; but so minute are these waves, by this tuning-fork when connected with that it would take from 30,000 to 60,000 of its resonant case. The fork and its case them placed end to end to cover a single now swing as a compound system, and the inch. Their number, however, compensates vibrations which were before inaudible, are for their minuteness. Trillions of them now the source of a musical sound so powhave entered your eyes and hit the retina erful that it might be plainly heard by at the back of the eye in the time consumed thousands at once. The fork and its .case in the utterance of the shortest sentence of combined may be regarded as a good radiathis discourse. This is the steadfast result tor of sound. of modern research; but we never could A single example will suffice to illustrate have reached it without previous discipline. the vast influence of the coalescence of We never could have measured the waves atoms to oscillating systems upon the radiaof light, nor even imagined them to exist, tion of heat. Supposing a pound of dry had we not previously exercised ourselves oxygen, and also a pound of the transpaamong the waves of sound. Sound and rent vapour of water, to be taken to the light are now mutually helpful, the concep- top of a high mountain where the air is too tions of each being expanded, strength- attenuated to offer any sensible resistance ened, and defined by the conceptions of the to the passage of radiant heat towards stelother.

lar space; suppose the gas and the vapour The ether which conveys the pulses of to be there heated to the temperature of light and heat not only fills the celestial boiling water, and afterwards exposed be

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