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look at the culture their middle, and even is a series of waves, coming gradually to a their working class is getting, as compared head and then breaking, and that, as the with the culture ours are getting. The successive waves come up, one nation is trash which circulates by the hundred thou- seen at the top of this wave, and then ansand among our middle class has no readers other of the next, I ask myself, counting all in America ; our rubbish is for home-con- the waves which have come up with Eng. sumption; all our best books, books which land on the top of them: When the great are read here only by the small educated wave which is now mounting has come up, class, are in America the books of the great will she be at the top of it ? Illa nihil, nec reading public. So over there they will ad- me quærentem vana moratur. vance spiritually as well as materially; and if our race at last flowers to modern life there,

Yes, we arraign her; but she, and not here, does it so much matter ?” So

The weary Titan, with deaf says my friend, who is, as I premised, a dev

Ears, and labour-dimm'd eyes, otee of Anglo-Saxonism; I, who share his

Regarding neither to right pious frenzy but imperfectly, do not feel

Nor left, goes passively by, quite satisfied with these plans of vicarious

Staggering on to her goal; greatness, and have a longing for this old

Bearing, on shoulders immense,

Atlantéan, the load, and great country of ours to be always Wellnigh not to be borne, great in herself, not only in her progeny.

Of the too vast orb of her fate. So I keep looking at her, and thinking of her, and as often as I consider how history

MATTHEW ARNOLD.

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From the Spectator, 17 Feb. tended by Napoleon to La Marmora's Gov-
NAPOLEON AND ROME.

ernment had its root in the same design,

that he upheld that combination in fear lest The weary observers who, tired with the the supreme moment should find Ricasoli long supremacy of wrong, declare, like at the helm, and himself compelled to Macaulay, that the Papacy is eternal, have choose between the independence of Italy this week received new aliment. It is no or an invasion of her territory. longer possible to doubt that the Emperor The publication of the Yellow Book of of the French, in spite of all hints and France and the Red Book of Spain has set professions, and even promises, has decided all theories at rest. It appears from the that the temporal power shall continue to despatches of the Spanish Ambassador in exist. When the Convention of September Paris that the Catholic Powers had at once 15 was first announced to the world, it was foreseen the course of the Roman people, believed even in Italy that Rome was in and addressed to the Emperor urgent des September, 1866, to be finally left to itself. mands for explanation. To all they received The French garrison was to be withdrawn substantially the same reply. The French and the Italian army to stand aloof, and the Government, annoyed to savageness with Papacy and the Romans to be left for the the Encyclical — which has embarrassed first time since 1848 face to face. No one them to a degree almost unintelligible to doubted what the result would be. The Protestants — refused to inform its questionRomans, in whom hatred of their priestly ers as to its course in the event of the Pope rulers is scarcely so much an impulse as an making concessions to his people, demandud instinet, who regulate their lives, and their an absolute liberty of action, but declared education, and their occupations with a that it looked to a separate sovereignty in secret reference to an animosity, would Rome as indispensable. It pointed signifiinstantly appeal to force, and either expel cantly to the sacrifices made during sixteen the Pope, or force him to avoid expulsion years to protect the Papal chair as proof by an appeal to Italian arms. The temporal sufficient of the permanent policy of France. power would end, and Italy regain, if not Indeed if M. Mon may be trusted, the absolute possession of her capital, at least a Foreign Minister on one occasion went practical sovereignty which in time would further, and declared that if the temporal harden into a right. From the first, however, power were upset by the Revolution, France observers doubted whether this were would return to Rome; but it is not necesNapoleon's real design, whether he would sary to rely on a perhaps misapprehended so utterly break with the priesthood, so conversation. Late in 1865 the French completely relax his grasp upon the throat Government grew alarmed at the result of of the nation he has set free. He was un- the Italian elections, which seemed to forederstood to remember keenly the vote of shadow a Chamber resolute to obtain Rome. December, 1852, when the peasantry The Emperor accordingly addressed a new marched in bands with the curés at their despatch to Florence, and on the 2nd of head to place him upon the throne. He January of this year M. Sartiges reports was understood to dread, though he does not the result of his interview with the Italian share, the intense dislike of French politi- Premier in the midst of the Cabinet erisis cians to the possible growth of a strong and produced by S. Sella’s fall. The Premier united Italy, able perhaps to enfranchise indignantly repudiated any intention of the Mediterranean, and affect the whole departing from the Convention, but M. de current of European policy in the East. It Sartiges informed him nevertheless that the was known that the idea of federation which Parliamentary history of the previous few produced the treaty of Zurich lies very days - La Marmora had just been turned close to his heart, and Reds, who disbelieve out — had excited in the calmest minds him, pronounced from the first that the fears for the future of Italy, that " “ power Convention was a snare, that its object was seemed about to pass into less conservative to guarantee and not to menace the au- hands,” and that it was “ possible the extonomy of the Papal peculium. As time ecation of the Convention might be entrusted went on this idea was strengthened by the to men who had resisted that international construction of great works at Čivita act.”. It was therefore necessary to repeat Vecchia, by the immense collections per- the inevitable obligations of the Convenmitted in France for Peter's Pence, and by tion, the more as the Italian press the favour shown to Papal projects for the persisted in misrepresenting them. I levy of an international garrison for Rome. stated once more that, contrary to the daily It was whispered even that the favour ex-statements of the Italian press, we had in

a

SO

no

tended in signing the Convention of 15th successive Ministries have endured French September to assure the co-existence in interference and French dictation with an Italy of two separate sovereignties -- that appearance of good-will, is lost. There is of the Pope reduced to the proportions it no road to Rome except through force, and possesses to-day, and that of the kingdom of what marvel that the party in Italy which Italy.” He informed him also that the ex- believes in force should increase till rumours pression “ moral means” had been “ abused,” spread that in the last resort the King, and signified for the French Government aware that force is for the hour impossible, only conciliation, and the effects of similar has resolved to meet Parliamentary opinterests and of time, which would position by means other than an appeal to ultimately produce the reconciliation of a the electors ? Those rumours are, we believe, power eminently Catholic with the chief of unfounded, but the Government, which Catholicism. And finally, M. de Sartiges appears to wish to exist in order to carry told the Premier, then in the very throes of out an internal policy, and does exist lest a great Parliamentary conflict, that while the conduct of foreign affairs should be enhe remained in power the Imperial Govern- trusted to other hands, is of necessity ment had certainty, and that even if power weak. passed to men whose ideas were neither It is a terrible crisis for Italy; but in those of the Premier nor of the Emperor, Rome, as in Mexico, Napoleon, will, we France still would not “permit” herself believe, be baffled. It is the weakness of to doubt the strict execution of the treaty! intellects like bis, it is pre-eminently his own

There, then, is the design of the Emperor weakness, never quite to comprehend the at last fully revealed. He does not intend force of a national passion, the solidity of a that Rome should become Italian. If the feeling once engrained in the hearts of a Pope will reconcile himself with Italy, well; separate people. Four of the great miseven if the reconciliation should involve an takes of his life have been due to this break Italian garrison in Rome the Emperor will in the chain of his sympathies. He did not not oppose, will rather point to that consum- comprehend why, if a British Government mation as a proof of his wisdom and fore- was willing to pass a Conspiracy Bill, the sight. But in case is the temporal British people should be so certain to reject power to be overset, or merged in that it, for he had never realized to himself the of the Italian kingdom, in no case is "sacredness," as a Greek would have called Rome to cease to obey her priestly rulers, it, of the English horror of foreign dictaunder penalty of a declaration that a solemntion. He has been but once defeated in treaty with France has been violated by his own Legislature, and it was because he Italy, that is, in undiplomatic language, under forgot that France would not reason even penalty of war. France is to be relieved with him about the creation of majorats. of the expense of this great garrison, but He has wasted millions in Mexico because Italy is to gain nothing save one more he did not perceive that the North would chance of reconciliation with Rome, is never be spent, treasure and men, before it would to be relieved from the danger that an in- resign its dream of the American future. dependent Sovereign, seated in her midst, And now he thinks that with time he can may not summon a Frenchman or Austrian make Italians forget that Rome is theirs. back to help him rule. Italy is to be two, As well might he strive to cancel the Italian not one, and the power which has liberated past. Without that forgetfulness his policy, her assumes to dictate Cabinet combinations wise, and astute, and sure as his courtiers agreeable to herself. The idea of Villa- may declare it to be, is but a policy of the franca is to be realized in Rome, and the hour. A population cannot perish. The Papacy, guaranteed by its only imminent Italian population, persistent beyond all foes, is to commence a new career of separate human precedent, though patient beyond! sovereignty. No wonder that the Red all Red endurance, will not give up its end, party gains ground in Italy. No wonder and the defeat of the Napoleonic idea that Florentine politicians whisper of foreign there, as in Mexico, is as certain as that interference, and that Ministry and Parlia- the Italians will survive the Bonaparts. ment alike seem paralyzed, and that the Either an Italian Pope will weary of deKing fears to dissolve lest the electors pendence upon “ barbarians,” or the supshould return him a Chamber still more port of Austria will make France perceive democratic. The one object which lies close that the temporal power injures her, or to the heart of all Italians, without which Napoleon will need the Italian sword, or Italy must be, as M. Mon wrote to Spain, accident will compel bim once more to court “ Somehow or other a federation,” for which the revolution, and in any one of these events the capital will be free. M. de come from the broader surfaces above, and Sartiges has scarcely finished speaking before the accumulations, held more firmly by conGeneral della Marmora, who bows to him, gelation, choked up the outlet ; and when tells the Spanish Court, in language almost the wild waters swept and eddied underof menace, that Italy has not pledged, and neath, the foot of man could pass in safety will not pledge herself, to tolerate the per- from the United States to Canada ! manent sacrifice of Rome to the interests But water and ice had not finished their of the Catholic world, or the meddling of work in building this marble bridge. It a power other than France in her internal must be lifted and torn and ridged. It must affairs. Every word of his despatch, which have profound fissures, into which one might is bitter to the last degree, and has been look with awe, wild hummocks, and broad published in the official gazette of Florence, fields of terrific roughness - roughness which is intended to tell Italy and Napoleon that I can equal in memory only by the lava of the Italian Premier only yields to force in ab- Vesuvius, freely poured and cooled from the staining from Rome. As the Premier thinks side of the rent crater, and this was effectso thinks the population of Italy. There are ed by continuous accessions of ice, which, among them those who think Rome would not coming over the cataract, plunged under be the better capital, but there is not from the surface, and by the violence of the wathe Alps to Sicily one who believes that ter, swept onward, lifted the mighty mass Rome can justly have an owner other than bodily on its back. In this way the ice was united Italy. The spring now so sharply perhaps from twenty to fifty feet in thickpressed down must fly back some day; and ness! when it does, in spite of Popes and Em- It was thus that I saw it on the 24th. perors, of the wiles of the Vatican, and the Going at once down, at the inclined plane, deep-laid schemes of the Tuileries, Rome to the ferry — just below the cataract — Í will be Italian once more.

crossed over to the Canada side on foot, went to Table Rock, passed under the sheet, and came back as I went. Many others were performing the same feat.

It was a glorious morning, clear and bril

liant, and a myriad icicles were pendent From the Evangelist. from every point where precipice projected. NIAGARA IN WINTER.

Just under Table Rock a vast column had

formed, as if to say, “ What is left of this THE 24th of January, 1866, was a white ancient stand-point shall never perish !” day in my calendar. I passed it amongst Beside it was an ice-stalagmite, perhaps the white wonders of the ice of Niagara. two feet and a half in diameter, and just For a score or more of years, as old inhab- high enough to serve as an altar, and crowned itants assured me, there had been nothing with rounded crystals which might well be like it. The marvels of the grandest of the taken for crowded garlands. How Nature, glaciers amongst the Alps did not surpass it. in her most fantastic forms, seems to speak In some aspects they did not equal it. of God! Under the Fall, where the rock

The morning of Saturday, the 20th, was is hollowed from the above like a scallopalmost summer-like in mildness, and rainy. shell, was perhaps the highest concentraBut before night the weather grew intense- tion of beauty. This was one incrustation ly cold, and the wind blew a gale. The of icicles, glittering like diamonds in the morning of the Sabbath saw the waters of sun. Under foot huge banks of ice had the cataract greatly swollen, and huge mass- formed, inclining inward, so that the footes of ice dashing down the abyss. Whole ing was more than safe; the only effort fields of it, cracked and torn in the rapids needed — to a certain distance — was to above, plunged headlong into the awful keep from sliding away from the water cauldron, and were then ground and dashed plump against the rocky wall. into myriads of fragments. It must have Above, in the vicinity of Table Rock, the been a magnificent sight.

whole surface was one glare of ice to the But what was more marvellous, the ice very edge of the precipice; and I shuddered had become jammed, or was jamming, from at the thought of a careless step plunging one shore to shore; so that on the Sabbath, from downward to an awful death. At this point the very foot of the Falls almost to the Sus- the icy spray was pouring like rain, making pension Bridge two miles—there was one thicker and thicker the marble sheet which compact mass of it. The narrow channel hid the ground. could not disgorge the masses which had In going over I had not sighted well my

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course, and so found myself in a world of Reclimbing the bank, past ice encrusting whiteness and roughness. But in returning I rock and tree and shrub, ice everywhere, marked a path where an eddy, apparently, crossed to Goat Island. The passage to Terhad deposited a semi-circle of finely ground rapin Tower was barred and marked“ Danice, almost from shore to shore; and on this gerous.”. But it was barred more effectively I made the passage homeward with twice by the ice, which so covered the path by the ease that I had gone abroad. Blest is which you descend to it, that it was like letthe path ever that leads us HOME! ting yourself go from the ridge

of the roof of Just under the American Fall, and in a cathedral to start for it. But finding a front of it, I got a view, the memory of place where a descent was possible, I let mywhich a life-time could not efface. The self down by trees and rocks, and was soon spray, freezing as it fell, had built up on the at the Tower. Here, amidst spray and icy foundation a succession of hills, from thir- thunder, I caught the final glory. The Sea ty to fifty feet in height above the surrounding of Ice was before me; the mad, cold waters surface. They were beautifully rounded like rolled and plunged in their awful descent; a sugar loaf, and almost as white. One of terror and sublimity held high carnival; these I climbed, and from it looked down while on either hand, arching one from the into the awful gloom and madness of the American and one from the Canada side plunging water. At my left, half hidden as if to whisper of hope and heaven amidst in the mist, was another, and apparently those symbols of perdition and the pit – still another. It was at this point that the floated a quivering rainbow, J. A. P. sense of awe culminated.

THE LATE RICHARD F. BOND, of the well- | late lamented Directors of the Cambridge Obknown firm of William Bond & Son, chronom- servatory, it was to his inventive genius that eter makers, Congress Street, whose death oc- they were indebted for the means of attaining curred in Cambridge on the 6th of February to such accuracy in their observations through last, has left behind him a monument, which, the telescope, as to have established, beyond a although constructed of brass, may well be question, the truth of their discoveries, in optermed, in the words of the Latin poet, "Ære position to some of the predetermined dicta of perennius.This work is a simple, yet wonder- the Old World, The Chronograph, or Spring fully perfect, clock escapement. His leisure Governor, to which was accorded the bronze moments had been devoted to its accomplish- medal of the World's Fair in 1851, was Richment for some months, but the finishing touch ard Bond's individual invention, though, with was given to it only three days before his death. the retiring modesty which was part of his A.working model had been constructed under character, he was anxious only to attach to it his direction, which was set up by his bed side; the well-known name of William Bond and Son; at intervals he was enabled to give instruction and he was happy in the conviction of the to one of his workmen,- an intelligent man who world-wide appreciation of the instrument itentered fully into the interest of the work, self, — Europe, Africa, America, and Australia and by frequently-interrupted efforts, it grew bearing testimony to its perfection. His dying steadily and surely to its completion; and at legacy to the scientific world is as perfect as length for it seemed as though he could not the Chronograph, and worthy of being attached die until this consummation was reached — he to it as a companion, - a clock escapement could whisper, almost with his dying breath, which seems almost to have controlled the laws it is perfect.”. And when his eyes were of matter, being wholly divested of friction, closed in death, the attention of the sorrowing hitherto deemed inseparable from mechanical friends who stood or knelt around his bed, was agency. turned from the motionless form beside them to This escapement is to be immediately atthe regular pulsations of the almost living in- tached to an astronomical clock which the firm strument which he had called into action, re- are now manufacturing for the Observatory in cording the passing away of moments, which, Liverpool, England. for him, were no more to be numbered on earth. - Transcript.

J. H. C. Equally gifted with his father and brother, the

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