them. At this day it is an open question similar races, of the most opposite natures, whether Mahometanism, whenever it does are kept from flying at one another only by compete with Christianity in Cestral and a Power three thousand miles away? And even in Western Africa, does not compete that they cannot be so kept apart forever, successfully. Certainly the superior tribes, this Jamaica outbreak shows. the more warlike races - those of whom, Many persons who speak with a personal because they are the more warlike, we see knowledge of the West Indies say that the least in our own colonies — are for the events have long been moving up to this most part Mahometans. These men will catastrophe; that it was long foreseen; die rather than be sold as slaves. Our own that it was a mere question of sooner or lanegroes became Christians after they had ter; that the conflict was simply postponed become slaves. And there was much in the by tact and management; and that it will Christianity popularly taught by the mis- again be repeated at no distant day. We sionaries to the negroes which was likely to have not experience or knowledge sufficient engage the sympathies of the latter. Com- to affirm or deny these allegations. But we passionateness and long-suffering were quali- feel assured of this

. If there is any truth ties calculated to gain the hearts of men in them, two things are clear. First, that living in bondage. Subsequently, after the there can be no public opinion in the West days of bondage, the negro found particular Indies; only heated passion in two hostile attractions in the doctrines which his Bap- camps. Next, that to attempt to govern the tist teachers love to dwell on, without quali- West Indies on the principles of Exeter fication or limitation - namely, the equality Hall would be as unfair to our white brethof all men; the duty of calling no man ren as to govern them on the principles of “master;" in fine, all those doctrines which Colonel Hobbs, Colonel Whitfield, and the are generally known as those of Christian West India ensigns would be cruel to our socialism. Preached to men endowed with black subjects. Who shall discover the no power of reflection, but gifted with an true art of governing the two races ? The amount of self-conceit which no other race French treat their free blacks as aliens, of human beings ever possessed, and with a amenable to police protection and police love of lazy devotion, they naturally inflated supervision. But this cannot now be even their self-importance until it broke down tried in English colonies. Such are the the barriers of ancient customs, manners, fruits of a government founded on a public and feelings. The negro, civilly free and opinion of the narrowest metropolitan prereligiously exalted, began, like all other tensions. The two races are becoming inraces, to dream of a nationality for his own tolerant of each other, and there is no powcolour. He was the equal of the white man. erful dispassionate mediator between them Why should he work for the white man ? possessing the requisite knowledge of local Why should he be governed by the white habits, relations, and prejudices. man? Such, we are informed on good authority, are the questions with which the negroes of our West India colonies season their social gatherings. Neither identity of language nor identity of creed has broken down the barrier between the white race

From the Reader. and the black race. Both have made the negroes fanatical democrats of the socialist

BELGIAN BONE CAVES. type. Though speaking the same tongue anil living under the same laws, they have The explorations of the Belgian bone very few sympathies with white men. The caves, which have been carried on for some black man craves an equality which the time past by MM. Van Beneden and Duwhite man will not concede.' The white pont, have been referred to several times in man avows a superiority which the modern the pages of The READER. We have now negro will not admit. The gulf widens to lay before our readers an account of the deeper between them every day. A strong progress of the work up to the end of No external power keeps the two elements to- vember last, and for this purpose we make gether. It compels them in appearance to use of a report recently presented by M. maintain a genuine harmony. In truth, it Dupont to the Belgian Minister of the Inonly compels them to keep a long truce. terior. We may premise that all the boneBut how long will this truce last ? °And is caves in this locality furnish indisputable this government? Can any sort of recog- evidence of one fact — viz., that the cavenised polity be said to exist where two dis- dwellers were destroyed by a sudden inun

dation, which covered the whole of Belgium jet and a few sharks' teeth were from the and the North of France, the evidences of same locality. “ We cannot therefore which M. Dupont finds in the limon of Hes- deny,” says M. Dupont, " the relations of baye and the yellow clay of the fields, and these men with Champagne, whilst there is in the peculiar arrangement of the débris in no evidence to show their connexion with the caverns. The cave at present under 'Hainaut and the province of Liége, which examination was discovered in May last, could have also furnished them with their and is situated on the banks of the river flint." Lesse, opposite the hamlet of Chaleux, about Amongst other objects brought to light a mile and a half from the well-known Fur- during the excavations was the forearm of fooz cave.

an elephant, which appears to be that of At an epoch long before that of its habi- the mammoth of Siberia, an animal which tation by man, this cavern was traversed by did not exist in Belgium at that epoch. a thermal spring. It is well lighted, is easy " When we reflect that, till within a comof access, and its situation is most pictur- paratively short time, these bones were esque.

The number of objects found in looked upon as those of a race of giants, this cave is enormous, and would appear to and gifted with miraculous powers, we canpoint to an extended period of occupation not be surprised that our inhabitants of the by these primitive people. The grand trou caverns of the Lesse, whose civilization may de Chaleux, as M. Van Beneden has pro- be compared to that of those African naposed to call it, has also been subjected to tions who are sunk in the darkest depths of the inundation, but the contents have been fetichism, attributed similar properties to preserved almost intact, and this circum- those enormous bones which were placed as stance gives a value to the discoveries which a fetich near their hearth.” was to some extent wanting in the Furfooz Judging from the quantity of bones found caves. According to M. Dupont's theory, in the cavern, the principal food of these the former inhabitants of the cave, warned cave-dwellers was the filesh of the horse. by the dangerous cracks in the walls and M. Dupont collected 937 molar teeth be ceiling, suddenly abandoned their dwelling- longing to this animal, a number which place, leaving behind them their tools, orna- corresponds to about forty heads, supposing ments, and the remains of their meals. Soon each set of teeth to be complete. The marafterwards the roof and sides fell in, and the row seems to have been in great request, pieces thus detached covered the floor. In all the long bones having been broken, so this manner the remains have been pre- as to extract it. Most of them retain traserved from the action of the waters, and ces of incisions made by their fint tools. have remained undisturbed until the present The large number of bones of water rats day. The unfortunate inhabitants doubt- would also lead us to suppose that they less saw in this occurrence the manifestation formed a part of the food of these people, of a superior power, since the cavern does as did the badger, hair, and boar. not appear to have been inhabited after The number of objects obtained from this this period, only a few worked flints and cavern is greater than that obtained from bones, probably the result of an occasional the whole of the caves previously explored. visit, having been discovered on the upper Of worked ffints, in various stages of manusurface of the cavern.

facture, 30,000 were collected. Besides An important point seems to be establish these, M. Dupont obtained several cubic ed by M. Dupont's researches — viz., the metres of bones of all kinds, the horses' extended commercial relations of these teeth already mentioned, and a vast quanprimitive peoples. The flint which was tity of miscellaneous articles. used for the manufacture of their im- The facts acquired by the excavations at plements is not that of Belgium, but, ac- Chaleux, combined with those obtained at cording to M. de Mortillet, was brought the Furfooz caves, form a striking picture from Touraine. Several specimens of fossil of the early ages of man in Belgium. shells, most of which had been perforated, “ These ancient people and their customs probably for the purpose of being strung to- re-appear, after having been forgotton for gether, and worn as ornaments, were col-thousands of years, and like the fabulous lected, and were submitted to 31. Nyst, bird in whose ashes are found the germs of the well-known palæontologist. He recog- a new life, antiquity becomes regenerated nized most of them as belonging to the from its own débris. We see them in their calcaire grossier of Courtagnon, near Rhe- dark, subterranean dwellings surrounding ims. Two species belonged to the depart- the hearth, which is protected by the sument of Seine-et-Oise. Some fragments of pernatural power of immense fantasticallyshaped bones, engaged in patiently making ing fifty pounds, or more. This unwieldy their flint tools and utensils of reindeer bird was mounted on stout dumpy legs, and horn, in the midst of pestilential emanations its wings were mere rudiments of those orfrom the animal remains, which their indif- gans, so that it is not likely it ever made any ference allowed them to retain in their attempt at flight. Its head was large, with dwelling. The skins of wild beasts, having a long and very stout beak, curved at the tip the hair removed, were stitched together by like that of the petrel. It is represented as the aid of their sharpened flints and ivory destitute of a tail

, properly speaking, but needles, and served as clothing. We see furnished with a plume of curling feathers, them pursuing wild animals armed with ar- somewhat like those of the ostrich, on the rows and lances tiped with a barb of flint. hinder part of the back. Several good We take part in their feasts, where a horse, paintings of this bird, by Dutch artists, are bear, or reindeer, replaces, on days when in existence: one in the British Museum, their hunting has been successful, the taint- one at the Hague, another at Berlin, and ed flesh of the rat, their only resource another at Vienna. Mention is also made against famine. Their trading extended as of the exhibition of a living specimen in far as the regions now forming part of London, about 1640. But notwithstanding France, from whose inhabitants they ob- all these evidences of the existence of such tained shells, jet, with which they delight to a bird, the fact would have been doubted, ornament themselves, and the flint which is had not some remains of it confirmed its SO valuable to them.

But a falling-in of truth. These remains were but very few. the roof drives them from their principal A head in the Museum at Copenhagen, a dwelling, in which lie buried the objects of head and a foot in the Ashmolean Museum at their faith and their domestic utensils, and Oxford, and a foot in the British Museum, they are forced to seek another habitation. attested that a bird unlike any known ex

We know nothing certain of the isting species, and resembling, in some derelation of these people with those of earlier gree, the paintings mentioned, had actually times. Had they ancestors in this country? furnished those remains, and been the subThe great discoveries of our illustrious com- ject from which the portraits were taken. patriot Schmerling, and those which Pro-Several of the early voyagers who visited fessor Malaise has made at Engihoul, seem the island now called Mauritius spoke of to prove that the men whose traces I have these birds, and not only feasted on their brought to light on the Lesse did not be- Aesh during their sojourn there, but salted long to the indigenous races of Belgium, them in numbers for their sea-stock. It is but were the only successors of the more stated that they sometimes took as many as ancient population. I have even met with forty of them at a single hunt. Neither certain evidences of our primordial ances- tradition nor history records their existtors at Chaleux, but the trail was lost as ence in this island after it had received soon as found. Our knowledge of these the name of l'Isle de France. If the Dutch, ancestors stops short at this point.” on abandoning the island, left any there,

We have given in the above abstract an they were probably, exterminated by the account of the most important features in Maroons, who were its only inhabitants till M. Dupont's report, which is of great in the French settled there. No naturalist terest. We trust that these explorations, formed part of the crews of the various which have been carried on at the expense ships which touched here during the existof the Government, will be continued. ence of the Dodo, and the accounts given

of it are vague and unsatisfactory. Tastes must not be disputed; and we may therefore receive as of equal value the accounts of those who extol and those who decry the

flesh of the Dodo. The difference beFrom the Commercial Gazette, St. Louis, Mauritius, tween an old gander and a Michaelmas gos21 Nov., 1865.

ling is sufficient to prove that both may THE DODO.

have been right in their statements. We presume that most of our readers After the island had resumed its name, have seen the picture of an odd-looking Mauritius, diligent inquiry was made both bird, bearing a very odd name — the Dodo. as to the traditional existence of the Dodo, Old travellers state that this curious crea- or of the actual existence of any remains ture once existed in great numbers in Mau- of it; but both were alike fruitless, though ritius. It was about the height of a large distinguished naturalists, both Creole and turkey, but very much more bulky, weigh- European, undertook the search.

So great

was the interest in the history of this non- men to enter the dark-colored water, about descript bird, that about twenty years ago, three feet deep, and feel in the soft mud at a large volume, compiled with vast labor, the bottom with their feet. In a short and illustrated with elaborately-executed time he had the inexpressible satisfaction of engravings, was published on it by Mr. finding a broken tarsus, an entire tibia and Strickland; and this volume was the means part of another. He at once commenced of assuring Mr. Clark that the bones he has operations in earnest, and has been fortunate lately discovered were really and truly enough to find every important bone of those of the Mauritian Dodo, Didus ineptus. that remarkable bird, including cranium,

Mr. Clark, during a very long residence upper and lower mandibles of bill, cervical here, had made many inquiries and re- and dorsal vertebræ, ribs, coracoid bones, searches, in order to learn something more scapulæ and clavicle, sternum, humerus, about the Dodo than was already known ulna, pelvis, femur, tibia and tarsometatargenerally, or to find some remnants of it, sus, so that an experienced person can well but without success.

build a Dodo from these remains, the toes On Dr. Ayres's last visit to Mahébourg being the only part wanting. he conversed with Mr. Clark about the The skull of this bird is of amazing thickDodo, and asked whether by digging round ness, and the cerebral cavity very small. the ruins of the old Dutch settlement, there The beak of great strength and solidity, might not be a chance of meeting with as are the condyles of the lower mandible. some remains ? Mr. Clark did not see any Some of the cervical vertebræ are more probability of suocess in that quarter, as than two inches in diameter, and of very these dwellings were situated on a spot elaborate structure. The sternum, of which where nothing would be likely to bury itself the form shows a strong resemblance to that in the earth, of which the surface is every of the pigeon tribe, in some specimens is year swept completely by the water which more than five inches wide and seven long. flows from the mountains; but he said he The keel is a quarter of an inch thick, and thought a likely spot to contain such re- about an inch deep in the deepest part, mains would be alluvial deposits. A few which is at the centre; and the sternum is days after, Mr. Clark remarked that some there three-quarters of an inch in thickness, marshes in the vicinity of Mahébourg were but it thins off to a sharp edge at the marlikely to furnish these coveted remains ; gin. The humerus is less than four inches but having neither time nor means at his in length, and the shaft only about threedisposal, he did not undertake the search, eighths of an inch in diameter, and the ulna though bearing in mind his impression on under three inches, and less than a quarter the subject. The commencement of the of an inch in thickness. Some femurs are railway works, with their numerous cuttings nearly seven inches long and more than an at yarious heights, gave hopes to Mr. Clark inch in diameter, the tibiæ nine inches long, that some remains might be discovered; but and the upper condyles two inches in diambis inquiries from those employed there on eter. The tarsometatarsi are of very solid this subject failed to elicit any information. bone, and have been found in greater num

About two months ago, Mr. Gaston de bers than any others. They are about the Bissy caused to be dug from a marsh on length of those of a good-sized turkey, but his property, known as “La Mare aux more than twice the thickness. Only two Songes," the alluvium contained in it, to or three craniums have been found, with a

After digging two or three few fragments. The paucity of these refeet, the men came in contact with bones of mains, as compared with other parts of the tortoises and deer, the former in vast num- frame, may very possibly arise from the nubers. As soon as Mr. Clark heard of this, merous apertures in the head, into which he went to Mr. de Bissy and stated to him roots insinuate themselves, thus disintegrating what had long been his opinion as to the the structure. The upper mandible of the position in which Dodos' bones might be bill has suffered from the same cause, and found, requesting him to give orders to the only two tolerably perfect specimens of that diggers to lay by carefully whatever bones organ have been obtained, while the under they might turn up. Mr. de Bissy was mandibles are numerous; but only three or much pleased with the chance of making four bave been found in which both rami 80 interesting a discovery, and at once or remained attached. The tip of one upper dered that Mr. Clark's request should be mandible is two inches in depth, and an fulfilled. Mr. Clark visited the estate many inch in thickness. The vertebræ are very times, but without obtaining any satisfactory strong, and show that the spinal cord was intelligence. He at length engaged two fully double the size of that of the turkey.

use as manure.

In only one instance has the presence of paratively compact peaty soil, overlying the a fragment of the furcula been found at- soft mud which contains the bones of the tached to the coracoid bone, but several dodo, of which none are found in the upper have the scapula united to them.

stratum. This accounts for none of the These bones present a great diversity of latter having been discovered by those who colours. Those which were found near the were digging for manure. springs in the marsh are nearly of their Mr. Clark deposited the first specimens original hue. Some found alongside of a of dodo's bones he obtained in the Museum large bois-denatte tree were nearly of the at the Royal College, as well as those of the colour of that wood, and many others are flamingo, the existence of which in Maunearly as black as ebony.

ritius was remembered by the parents of The quantity of tortoise bones found here persons now living. He has also sent a is truly astonishing; they would more than complete set of dodo's bones to Professor fill a large cart. Some of the femurs are Owen, for the British Museum. more than three inches in diameter. Mr. It is probable that a search in marshes of Clark believes that these bones belong to this nature in Reunion and Rodrigues, two species of tortoise.

might lead to the discovery of remains Several flamingo bones, including humer- of the large extinct birds believed to have us, ulna, radius, tibia and tarsometatarsus, been indigenous in and peculiar to those have been found, but not a single femur. islands. Two upper mandibles and one lower of that “ La Mare aux Sonehs” is a spot singusingularly formed bird prove the identity larly propitious for the haunt of the aniof other bones found in juxtaposition with mals of which the bones have been found them.

there. A sheltered glen, clothed with Bones of the egret curlew, moor-hen and thick wood in the memory of persons still sand-lark have been found in great num- living, with two springs in it, and so near bers, and many deer's bones, including a the sea as to be a convenient refuge in skull with horns attached, and the jaw of stormy weather for flamingoes and curlews. an old sow, of great strength but very Several other marshes have been tried small size, have also been turned up. for such remains as those contained in it,

It is remarkable that the bones of the but thus far without any success. tortoises and deer were found in the com




It is but in relation that you've grown YE good bivalves, ye savoury molluscs,

Less numerous, not absolutely few; Ye living titbits, born of Ocean's mud,

There are more mouths that gape — alas ! my Still toothsome when Time's hand hath drawn

But waters — now than once there were for our tusks, Regenerators bland of aged blood :

you. I gaze on ye in fish-shops with such eye As might poor swain view lofty maiden's For you, but not for you alone; for meat, brow.

And all besides that smokes upon the board; O lovely, but alas for me too high!

Fish, fowl, eggs, butter too; things good to Three halfpence each - so much are natives now!

Exceed what moderate incomes can afford.

Increase of population must be fed ; Ye oysters, how is it you've grown so dear,

Our numbers with prosperity extend : In price ascending ever more and more,

Where, if we keep on going thus ahead,
Up up aloft as year rolls after year?

Will this prosperity, ye oysters, end?
Scarce are ye now, so plentiful of yore?
An oyster famine! What's the cause of that? Will ye become as costly as the pearls
of ocean foes some sages talk to me

Torn by the diver from your kind, a prey That prey upon you and devour your spat,

To decorate the brows of splendid girls? Of stormy waves that wash it out to sea.

And girls, oh how expensive, too, are they!

Ah, no more natives for the frugal swain, They tell me how you perish, left to freeze

No possibility of married life! In rigorous winter by an ebbing tide,

Oysters are for the rich - and he's insane But you had always chances such as these,

Who, rolling not in riches, takes a wife. When ye were cheap and common, to abide.

- Punch.

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