be able to save those whom he considers of bulls to gore each other.” The Makinnocent.

ololo race are regarded by Dr. Livingstone The practice of polygamy, the sign of as by far the most intelligent and enterso low a civilization and the source of so prising of the tribes he has met. They are, many 'evils, prevails everywhere. Singu- in his judgment, fine subjects for a Chrislarly enough, it is approved of even by the tian mission. When talked to about their

On hearing that a man in Eng- lawless forays and expeditions for killing land could marry but one wife, several their neighbouts and stealing their cattle, Makololo ladies exclaimed that they would they seemed impressed with the crime of not like to live in such a country. They killing, but not of seizing cattle. They could not imagine how English ladies could confessed that they needed the Book of relish such a custom; for— as they thought, God. If that was guilt which custom led every man of respectability should have a them to do, it lay between the white man number of wives as a proof of his wealth. and Jesus, who had not given them the Along the whole of the Zambesi, no man is Book. They were impressed by the thought respected by his neighbours who has not that there was a Book of God, and that several wives. The reason for this is doubt they did not possess it. They are interless because, having the produce of each ested in hearing that God's Son appeared wife's garden, he is wealthy in proportion among men and died for them, but they do to their number. One of the greatest bat- not feel that He has any interest in them. tles of Christianity will have to be fought On the last occasion of holding Divine seron this ground. Till this notion is dis- vice at Seshake, the English invited them lodged, the position of woman must be de- to speak about the future state. The graded; and what that implies we need not speaker had made some remarks on the say:

resurrection. They said they did not wish The usual vices of a wild and irregular to offend the speaker, but they could not life — the outbursts of sensuality and passion, believe that all the dead would rise again. and the deeds of cruelty which are found in “Can those who have been killed in the all barbarous nations - exist among the Af- field and devoured by vultures, or those ricans, but not to the same extent as in who have been eaten by the hyænas or lions, some other communities. By far the worst or those who have been tossed into the vices that prevail amongst them, Dr. Liv. river and eaten by more than one crocoingstone ascribes, as we shall see presently, dile — can they all be raised again to life ?” to the slave-trade, the most fearful parent of They were told that men could take a vice and deviltry the world has ever seen, leaden bullet, change it into a salt (acetate Some interesting features of character are of lead) which could be dissolved as comoften shown by the natives. They are very pletely in water as our bodies in the stomsusceptible to the iníluence of kindly treat-achs of animals, and then reconvert it into pent, and do not readily forget it. When lead ; or that the bullet could be transCharles Livingstone, the brother of Dr. formed into the red and white paint of our Livingstone, was at Kebrabasa, during the wagons, and again could be reconverted rainy season, he gave some food and a into the original lead ; and that if men, exo small piece of cloth to a hungry, shivering actly like themselves, could do so much, native traveller. Eighteen months after, how much more could He do who had while the party were on their journey into made the eye to see, and the ear to hear ? the interior, a man came into the camp, “ We added, however," continues Dr. Livbringing a liberal present of rice, meal, ingstone, “ that we believed in a resurrecbeer, and a fowl, reminding them of what tion, not because we understood how it had been done for him (which Charles Liv- would be brought about, but because our ingstone had forgot), and saying he did not Heavenly Father assured us of it in His like to see them travelling hungry and book.” thirsty. Ready though they are to quar- The history of endeavours to plant rel, they often try to make peace among Christianity in the countries adjoining the themselves. An illustration of Dr. Waits's Zambesi and its tributaries has hitherto song, “ Let dogs delight to bark and bite,” been a history of failures. Ruins of Roman occurred one day when two men were Catholic mission-stations remain, but no wrangling and cursing each other. A Ma- trace that their teaching took hold on the kololo man rose, and, to prevent mischief, people. An anecdote told by Dr. Livingquietly took their spears from the corner in stone of the Roman Catholic priest at Tette which they stood, and sitting down beside will probably account for this. “ During Dr. Livingstone remarked, " It is the nature the drought of 1858, a neighbouring chief got up a performance, with divers ceremo- swers to the question : but in the opinion nies and incantations, to bring rain, but it of Dr. Livingstone the great obstacle is to would not come. The Goanese padre of be found in that odious curse the slaveTette, to satisfy his compatriots, appointed trade. a procession and prayers in honour of St. The most important feature of Dr. LivAntonio for the same purpose. The first ingstone's present volume is the lurid light attempt did not answer; but on the second it throws on that fearful system. Nothing occasion, arranged to come off after the new has made a deeper impression on him than moon appeared, a grand procession in the the frightfully demoralizing effects of the saint's honour ended in so much rain that traffic. In his view it is the prime agency the roof of the Residence gave way. St. of the devil in this world for turning huAntonio's image was decorated the follow- man beings into monsters of wickedness. ing week with a golden coronal worth 221. The half-caste Portuguese who are concernfor sending the long-delayed and much- ed in it are as revolting specimens of huneeded rain. We never looked with dis- manity as can be found anywhere. The dain on the rites or ceremonies of any atrocities of Mariano are all but incredible. Church; but, on witnessing the acts of One of his favourite modes of creating an worship on this occasion, so great was the inpression in the country and making his irreverence manifested, in the kneeling wor- name dreaded, was to spear his captives shippers laughing and joking between the with his own hands. On one occasion he responses, not even ceasing their grins is reported to have killed in this way forty when muttering Ora pro nobis,' that we poor wretches placed in a row before him. could not help believing that if, like the It might have been thought that slavenatives, they have faith in rain-making, owners, through self-interest, would treat they have faith in nothing else.”

their slaves with humanity; but the slaveIt is sad to think that nothing has yet trade seems always to engender an unreacome of all the efforts that have been soning ferocity that is often reckless even made, in consequence of Dr. Livingstone's of its own ultimate interests. Dr. Livingformer journey and book, to establish Chris- stone tells' of an old slave-trader, worn out tian missions in the neighbourhood of the with disease and nearly blind, who was not Zambesi. When, a few years ago, a party in other respects without humanity, that of missionaries, headed by the Rev. H. Hel- when his wife died, to dull the edge of his more, tried to plant the Gospel at Linyanti, grief, he made a foray amongst the tribes in the neighbourhood of the Victoria Falls, near the mouth of the Shire, and took several of the missionaries and their native many captives. This man had made sevattendants succumbed to fever almost imme- eral fortunes; but he managed to squander diately on their arrival, and the survivors them all in riotous living, and himself acwere obliged to retire. Bishop Mackenzie knowledged that “the money a man made and the other members of the Universi- in the slave-trade was all bad, and soon ties' Mission, it is well known, got into went to the devil.” The loss of life caused trouble in consequence of their zeal in be- in these slave-capturing forays is fearful. half of captive-slaves, the bishop died of Colonel Rigby, late British consul at Zanfever, and the Universities' Mission ulti- zibar, told Dr. Livingstone that from the mately left the continent of Africa. The Nyassa country, 19,000 slaves passed annuRev. James Stewart, of the Free Church ally through the custom-house of that of Scotland, who came out expressly to se island, exclusive of those sent to Portuguese lect a sphere for a mission in connection slave ports. But “ besides those actually with that body, was obliged to return with captured, thousands are killed or die of out accomplishing his purpose. And even their wounds and famine, driven from their the expedition of Dr. Livingstone described villages by the slave-raid proper. Thouin the volume before us, though conducted sands perish in internecine war waged for with all the authority which the patronage slaves with their own clansmen and neighof the Government of Great Britain could bours, slain by the lust of gain, which is give it, has not been successful, except in stimulated by the slave-purchasers of Cuba so far as it has shown how great need there and elsewhere. The many skeletons we is both for mission and commerce, but how have seen amongst rocks and woods, by the difficult in present circumstances it is to ob- little pools, and along the paths of the wiltain either the one or the other. How derness, attest the awful sacrifice of human comes it that the establishment of Christian life, which must be attributed, directly or missions is so extremely difficult in that indirectly, to this trade of hell. It is our region? There may be a variety of an- deliberate opinion that not one fifth of the rictims of the slave-trade ever become seen in every direction, and it was painfully slaves. Taking the Shire valley as an ave- interesting to observe the different postures rage, we should say not even one-tenth ar- in which the poor wretches had breathed rive at their destination. . . . . . A small their last. A whole heap had been thrown armed steamer on Lake Nyassa could easi- down a slope behind a village, where the ly, by exercising a control and furnishing fugitives often crossed the river from the goods in return for ivory and other products, east. : : . Others lay in their huts, with break the neck of this infamous traffic in closed doors, which when opened disclosed that quarter; for nearly all must cross the the mouldering corpse with the poor rags lake, or the Upper Shire.”

round the loins — the skull fallen off the There is nothing in all this book more touch- pillow - the little skeleton of the child, ing than the engraving opposite page 356, that had perished first, rolled up in a mat which represents a gang of captives on between two large skeletons. The sight of their way to Tette. They form a long line this desert, but eighteen months ago a wellof men, women, and children, manacled and peopled valley, now literally strewn with chained to each other, the men, in addition human bones, forced the conviction upon to their chains, being fastened together in us that the destruction of human life in the pairs by means of beams of wood with middle passage, however great, constitutes forked extremities, the forks being fitted to but a small portion of the waste, and made us their necks, and riveted upon them. The feel that unless the slave-trade — that monwomen are compelled to carry baskets on ster iniquity which has so long brooded over their hearls, in some cases in addition to Africa — is put down, lawful commerce cantheir infants, which are bound round their not be established.” bodies with a cloth. Slave-drivers, armed No wonder though Dr. Livingstone is with guns, staves, and other implements, ac- saddened and almost broken-hearted. The company the gang, and urge them on. The sanguine hopes of his earlier days for Africa gang, which numbered eighty-four, was met are blighted by this atrocious slave-trade. and liberated by Dr. Livingstone, who If anything is to be done for this great terlearned that the day before two of the ritory, effective measures must be taken to women had been shot for attempting to un- sweep away the cause of its misery and fasten the thongs. One woman bad her in- desolation. The suppression of the slavefant's brains knocked out because she could trade is one of those objects for which all not carry her load and it; and a man was classes of British statesmen are proud to despatched with an axe because he had use the power of their country. May they broken down with fatigue.

be guided to wise and effectual measures for The awful desolation of a once-populous this end in the East of Africa, and from all country after a slave-seizing raid, and the our churches may prayer rise with a hunterrible scenes that indicate the sacrifice of dredfold greater earnestness on behalf of life, cannot be read or heard of without a those dark places of the earth that are shudder. Dr. Livingtone describes what he full of the habitations of cruelty. saw in the valley of the Shire after such an The Africans have learned to understand occurrence. * Instead of smiling villages England's hatred to slavery. In this respect, and crowds of people coming with things our country bears an honourable name, and for sale, scarcely a soul was to be seen ; and her prestige is favourable to her missionwhen by chance one lighted on a native, aries. Her national truthfulness is another his frame bore the impress of hunger, and distinction in her favour, contrasting for his countenance the look of a cringing example with the laxity of the Portuguese, broken-spiritedness. A drought had visited whose word cannot be relied on. But other the land after the slave-hunting panic broke characteristics of a less favourable kind over it. . . . Large masses of the people had have come to be attached to the English fled down to the Shire, only anxious to get name. In one place, a man's being intoxithe river between them and their enemies. cated is described by the phrase "he Most of the food had been left behind; and speaks English.” The national failing was famine and starvation bad cut off so many unconsciously confessed by a sailor of Dr. that the remainder were too few to bury Livingstone's, who, on it being remarked their dead. The corpses we saw floating that certain trees were very like the steeples down the river were only a remnant of of England, said, “ the picture would be those that had perished, whom their friends, complete if there was only a grog-shop near from weakness, could not bury, nor over the church. gorged crocodiles devour.


Dr. Livingstone cannot doubt that, under we took a walk, human skeletons were God's blessing, Christian missions would be


66 The

as prosperous on the East coast of Africa as clean, and the sun rising shows a drop of they have been on the West. On the West, dew on every blade of grass, and the air sixteen societies are at work : six British, breathes fresh,- that is holiness.” The reseven American, two German, and one semblance to the imagery of the Bible is West Indian. These maintain 104 Eu- very striking - especially to David's picropean or American missionaries, have 110 ture of the Holy One - - He shall be as stations, 13,000 scholars, 236 schools, and the light of the morning, when the sun 19,000 registered communicants — repre- riseth, even a morning without clouds; as senting probably a Christian population of the tender grass springing out of the earth 60,000. “ It is particularly pleasing,” he by clear shining after rain.” (2 Sam. xxiii. adds, " to see the zeal of our American 4.) brethren; they show the natural influences Among the birds of the country, the and effects of our holy religion. With the “ honey-guide” seems almost designed as a genuine and true-hearted it is never a type of the Christian missionary. question of distance but of need. The honey-guide' is an extraordinary bird ; Americans make, capital missionaries; and how is it that every member of its famžy it is only a bare act of justice to say that has learned that all men, whether white or their labours on the West Coast are above black, are fond of honey? The instant the all praise. And not on that shore alone little fellow gets a glimpse of a man, he does their benevolence shine. In China, hastens to greet him with the hearty invitaIndia, South Seas, Syria, South Africa, and tion to come, as M. Cia translated it, to a their own far West, they have proved them- bee's hive, and take some honey. He flies selves worthy children of the old country, on in the proper direction, perches on a the asylum for the oppressed of every na- tree, and looks back to see if you are foltion, the source of light for all lands.” lowing; then on to another and another,

We might prolong our “evening with until he guides you to the spot. If you do Dr. Livingstone” to the small hours of not accept his first invitation, he follows you morning, but the best of friends must part. with pressing importunities, quite as anxious We conclude by noting two or three in- to lure the stranger to the bees' hive as teresting illustrations of Scripture, culled other birds are to draw him away from their from his volume. The shadow of a great own nests. Except when on the march, rock in a weary land (Isa. xxxii. 2), and our men were sure to accept the invitation, the sleep God gives to his beloved (Psalm and manifested the same by a peculiar cxvii. 2), are both illustrated in the following responsive whistle, meaning, as they said, account of an ascent of all but perpendicular · All right, go ahead; we are coming.' The rocks.“ The strain upon the muscles in jump- birds never deceived them, but always guided ing from crag to boulder, and wriggling round them to a hive of bees, though some had projections, took an enormous deal out of the but little honey in store.” We will not go into party, and they were often glad to cower anycurious inquiries as to the motive and purin the shadow formed by one rock overhang- pose of the honey-guide. We would rather ing and resting upon another; the shelter see in its singular proceeding a lesson for induced the peculiarly strong and overpow- ourselves. To us has been given the knowlering inclination to sleep that too much sun edge of a treasure “more to be desired sometimes causes. This sleep is curative of than gold, yea than much fine gold, sweeter what may be incipient sun-stroke; in its also than honey from the honey-comb." first gentle touches it caused the dream to And to us there is committed the function flit over the bolling brain that they had of the honey-guide — by our Christian misbeen sworn in as members of the Alpine sions to lead the starving African to the Club; and then it became so heavy as to Bread of Life; and if he do not accept our make them feel as if a portion of their ex- first invitation, to persevere with pressing istence had been cut from their lives." importunities, until at last he finds the hid.

A native's idea of 6 holiness" is worth den manna, and his soul is filled as with recording. When copious showers have marrow and fatness. descended during 'the night, and all the

W. G. BLAIKIE. earth and leaves and cattle are washed

From the Boston Daily Advertiser, read a report of the operations of the com

mission since its organization. THE FINAL ANNIVERSARY OF THE

After the reports were made, Mr. Stuart CHRISTIAN COMMISSION.

presented letters from Secretary Stanton,

Lieutenant-General Grant, Vice-Admiral WASHINGTON, Feb. 11, 1866.

Farragut, Chief Justice Chase, Generals All the people who could by any possibil. Sherman, Howard, Meigs, Butler, Ord, ity of energy and interest be crowded and Thomas, Barnes and others. Mr. Stanton packed within the four walls of the great thanks the chairman for his invitation, but Representatives' Chamber were present at declines to deliver an address at the meetthe fourth and final anniversary of the ing, though he cannot refrain from putting Christian Commission, this evening. Be- on record his high appreciation of the sersides these thousands, there were as many vices of the commission, and his thanks for more who surged up and down through the the intelligent and efficient manner in halls and rotunda, for two or three hours, which it has done its work. hoping against hope for a chance to look in- “Lieutenant-General Grant," said Mr. to the chamber, and still a great crowd Stuart, “ we had hoped to press into service more which went found every available for this evening, but he never speaks except square foot occupied, and returned home on the battle-field, and the world knows of before the exercises began. The following what effect his words are there. We bave, was the order of exercises for the evening: however, a letter from him written by his

Hon. Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the own hand, which I will read. General House of Representatives, in the chair; Grant says, on the eve of the closing of singing, under direction of Mr. Phillip a work which he hopes there will never be Phillips of Cincinnati. 1. Singing, “ Jesus an occasion for doing again, he takes pleasshall reign where'er the sun,” &c. 2. Pray- ure in acknowledging the great services of er, by Rev. C. B. Boynton, D. D., Chaplain the Christian Commission. He personally of the House. 3. Reading the Scriptures, knows that their labors saved much sufferby Rev. W. J. R. Taylor, D. D., secretary ing, and does not doubt that it saved thouof the American Bible Society. 4. Intro- sands of soldiers' lives. The army feels the ductory remarks by the chairman. 5. Ab- same gratitude to the Christian and Sanitastract of the annual report, by Rev. Edward ry Commissions that the American people P. Smith, secretary of the American Mis- feel to the army." sionary Association. 6. Statement of the Chief Justice Chase says it was not his work by George H. Stuart, chairman of the privilege to aid or see much of the work of Christian Commission. 7. Address by Hon. the Christian Commission, but he knows by Charles Demond of Boston. 8. Address most unquestionable testimony that no such by Hon. James Harlan, Secretary of the humane and loving beneficence was ever beInterior. 9. Singing, “Your Mission,” by fore organized and executed. He is certain Mrs. Phillips. 10. Address by Rear-Ad- that it could have existed in none but a miral Chas. H. Davis, U. S. N. 11. Ad-Christian land, and he doubts if it could dress by Rev. Herrick Johnson of Pitts- have been successful in any land but our burg. 12. Singing, “We are rising as a people,” by Mr. Phillips, the audience join- Vice-Admiral Farragut, writing from ing

in the chorus. 13. Address by Senator New York, said the navy never had so Doolittle. 14. Address by Major-General much occasion as the army to need or know George G. Meade. 15. Singing, “ Amer- the services of the Christian and Sanitary ica,” by the audience. 16. Address by Commissions; but they always knew they Rev. Bishop Matthew Simpson, D. D., of could have the latter had they felt the need, Philadelphia. 17. Singing,“ Home of the and they rejoiced that the boys of the army Soul,” by Mr. Phillips. 18. Prayer, by were so well cared for. Wherever he went Rev. Prof. Lemuel Moss, of the University he heard the organization much extolled, at Lewisburg, Penn. 19. Doxology. and could bear his testimony to the patient

In presenting the final report of the com- industry with which it had done its labor. mission, Mr. Stuart happily alluded to the General Sherman says that the people of fact that when the last annual report was this country should have added contributions made, General Grant, now on the platform, to the value of more than six millions of was in front of Petersburg, but soon there- dollars to all their efforts and sacrifices after found a way to relieve the commission of the war, he counts as one of the wonders from further service by compelling the sur- of the world. render of one Robert E. Lee. He then Mr. Demond was the first speaker, and


« VorigeDoorgaan »