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duced by the will on the nervous system posed it only an intellectual observing maand so downwards, a certain slight increase chine, not a free will with knowledge of its of capacity to assimilate food to the failing own that there is a power which is not organic powers of the body. In other caused, and which can effect real modificawords, we conclude, just as the organism is cations in the relation even of physical failing to draw supplies of physical force forces which never vary in amount. But froin the outward world, its power of doing nevertheless it would be wrong, and could so may be slightly prolonged, - the out- never know the truth, namely, that the ward world drained of a small amount of ordering of the succession in these physical force it would otherwise have kept in stock, forces, — the interchanges between one and and the organism compelled to absorb it - the other, the physical influences over by a pure volition. Can there be a clearer the body exerted by the command of the case of action of the supernatural on the appetites and passions, were all of them natural, even granting that the sum really traceable in great part to supertotal of physical force is not altered, but natural power, though to supernatural powonly its application changed ?
er which does not either add to or subtract What more do e want to conceive from the sum total of physical force present clearly the room for Christian miracle, than in the Universe. And we maintain that the application of precisely the same con- the men of pure science, as they are called, ception to God and Christ? The students —the men who study everything but Will, of the Universe appear to us to be in pre- – fall into precisely the same blunder as cisely the same condition with regard to such a rationalizing particle of a human the Universe, as a scientific observing mind body, and for the same reason. They are secreted in some part of a human body quite right in their inferences from their (not the mind moving that body, but some premises, but their premises are radically other) would be in with relation to the defective. structural, chemical, mechanical laws of In truth the room for miracle remains as that body.
Suppose an atom of your wide as ever. Admit all the discoveries blood able to retain its identity constantly of science, and still they only prove a cerin a human body, and to travel about it on tain constancy in the amount of physical a tour of scientific observation. It would force, and a certain invisible law of sucvery soon arrive at the conclusion that cession between the same phenomena. But there were great laws of circulation of the just as a man who puts forth a great effort blood and the fluids which supply it, - to retain his consciousness and reason or such as we see in nature in the astronomi- even life for a short time longer than he cal laws, - great laws of force by which would otherwise do, may succeed, the legs and arms are moved, like the forces ceed, that is, in pumping up the failing of tides or falling waters in the Universe, supply of physical force from the Universe
great structural laws, by which different to his system for a few minutes or hours, tissues, like the hair, the skin, nails, the when without such an effort it would have nervous and muscular tissues, grow up out fled from his body and passed away into of the nourishment supplied them, just as other channels, - 50 miracle only assumes we notice the growth of trees and flowers that a supernatural power infinitely greater out of the earth, and great though some- than man's will might, on sufficient reason, what uncertain laws of alternation between – which every Christian believes to be far activity and repose, like the laws of night more than sufficient, — do the same thing and day; - and such a scientific particle infinitely more effectually, and for a far as we have supposed would undoubtedly longer time. Miracle is in essence only the soon begin to say that the more deeply it directing supernatural influence of free studied these things, the more the reign of mind over natural forces and substances, pure law seemed to be extended in the whatever these may be. In man we do not universe of the body, so that all those un- call this miracle, only because we are accertain and irregular phenomena (which customed to it, -- and in nature scientific we, however, really know to be due to the men refuse to believe that any such directchanges effected by our own free self-gov- ing power exists at all. But nevertheless, erning power), must be ascribed, it would every accurate thinker will see at once, say, not to any supernatural influence, but that free will, Providence, and Miracle do to its own imperfect knowledge of the not differ in principle at all, but are only more complex phenomena at work. And less or more startling results of the same such a scientific particle would be perfectly fact, — which true reason shows to be fact, justified in its inferences; for we have sup
- that above nature exist free wills, pro
bably of all orders of power, which do not, / shall readily understand that the vital quesindeed, ever break the order of nature, but tions for the wealth, progress, and greatness can and do transform, as regards man by of our country are these : - —“ Is our supply very small driblets, -- but as regards higher of coal inexhaustible ? and if not, how than human wills in degrees the extent of long will it last ? ” — Mr. Jevons enables which we cannot measure, - natural forces us to answer both these questions. It is from one phase of activity into another, so very far from being inexhaustible; it is in as greatly to change the moral order and process of exhaustion ; and, if we go on significance of the Universe in which we augmenting our consumption from year to live.
year at our present rate of increase, it will not last a hundred years.
Our geological knowledge is now so great and certain, and what we may term the underground survey of our islands has been so complete that we
know with tolerable accuracy both the exFrom the Economist, 6 Jan. tent, the thickness, and the accessibility THF DURATION OF OUR SUPPLY OF of our coal fields, and the quantity of coal COAL.
annually brought to the surface and used Under the title of “ The Coal Question," in Great Britain, down to a depth of 4,000
up. The entire amount of coal remaining Mr. Jevons * has furnished the public with feet, is estimated to be 80,000 millions of a number of well-arranged and for the most part indisputable facts, and with a about 80 millions. At that rate the avail
tons. Our annual consumption was in 1860 series of suggestive reflections, which every able coal would last for 1,000 years. But one interested in the future progress and greatness of his country will do well to pon- at the rate of 34 per cent. per annum, and
our consumption is now steadily increasing der seriously. Few of us need to be re- will in 1880 be, not 80 millions, but 160 minded how completely cheap coal is at the millions; and, if it continues thus to increase, foundation of our prosperity and our com- will have worked out the whole 80,000 milmercial and manufacturing supremacy. lions before the year 1960. Nay it would Coal and iron make England what she is; reach this climax probably some time earliand her iron depends upon her coal. Other
our calculation includes all the coal countries have as much iron ore as we have, down to 4,000 feet; and no coal mine has and some have better ore; but no country yet been worked at a greater depth than (except America, which is yet unde
2,500 feet ; and we do not believe that mines veloped) has abundant coal and ironstone in the needed proximity. Except in tle reason to think they can be worked at
can be worked profitably, and we have litour supply of coal and iron we have no all, at such a depth as 4,000 feet. natural suitabilities for the attainment
Of course we know that, practically, our of industrial greatness; nearly all the coal-fields will not be worked out within this raw materials of our manufactures come to us from afar; we import much of our wool, period. Of course we are aware that our most of our flax, all our cotton and all our be maintained. Every year we have to go
present rate of annual augmentation cannot silk. Our railroads and our steamboats are made of iron and are worked by coal. Se deeper for our supply ; and going deeper
means incurring greater and greater exare our great factories. So now is much of our war navy. Iron is one of our chief arti- tion, for pumping out the water, for acci
pense for labour, for machinery, for ventilacles of export; all our machinery is made dents, &c. Going deeper, therefore, implies of iron ; it is especially in our machinery an enhanced price for the coal raised, and that we surpass other nations ; it is our ma- that enhancement of price will check conchinery that produces our successful textile sumption. But it is precisely this imminent fabrics; and the iron which constructs this enhancement of price, and not ultimate exmachinery is extracted, smelted, cast, ham- haustion, that we have to dread; for it is this mered, wrought into tools, by coal and the enhancement which will limit our rate of steam which coal generates. It is believed that at least half the coal raised in Great progress and deprive us of our special adBritain is consumed by the various branches Let us see a little in detail the modus ope
vantages and our manufacturing supremacy. of the iron trade. With these facts present to our mind we ing coal increases rapidly as the mine grows
randi. The difficulty of working and rais* The Coal Question. By W. Stanley Jevons, M. deeper, or as inferior mines have to be A. Macmillan, 1805.
worked; the heat grows more insupporta
ble, the shafts and passages longer, the dan- Nor does there seem any escape from ger greater, the ventilation more costly, the these conclusions theoretically, nor any way quantity of water to be kept out or got out of modifying them practically. We may, more unmanageable. A very short period it is said, economise in the use of coal. may raise engine coal and smelting coal But, in the first place, the great economies from 5s to 10s per ton. Now a cotton mill that can be reasonably looked for have been of ordinary size will often use for its steam- already introduced. In smelting iron ore power 80 tons of coal per week. This at 5sis we use two-thirds less coal than formerly, 1,0001 a year; at 10s per ton, it is 2,0001. and in working our steam engines one-half But the cotton mill is full of machinery; less; and, in the second place, it is only a and one great element in the cost of this rise in the price of coal that will goad us machinery is the coal used in smelting and into a more sparing use of it; and this working the iron of which the machinery is very rise of price is the proof and the measmade. The railroads which bring the cot- ure of our danger. "Export no more ton to the mill and take the calico and yarn coal,” it is suggested, and so husband your back to the place of exportation are made stores. But we could not adopt this expeof iron and worked by coal: so are the dient, even if it were wise to do so, or consteamboats which bring the cotton to our sistent with our commercial policy, without shores and export the yarn to Germany; - throwing half our shipping trade into conthe cost of carriage, therefore, which is a fusion by depriving them of their ballast very large item in the contingent expenses trade; and even then the evil would be of our factories, will be greatly increased scarcely more than mitigated ? “Why,” both directly and indirectly by a rise in the ask others, “should we not, when our own price , of coal. An advance in that price stores of coal are exhausted, import coal from 5s to 10s per ton, may be estimated to from other countries which will still be rich be equivalent io 2,0001 a year on the work in mineral fuel, and thus supply our need?" ing cost of a good-sized cotton mill. That Simply because of all articles of trade and is, as compared with the present state of industry coal is the most bulky in proporthings, and as compared with foreign coun- tion to its value; and that it is the fact of tries, every manufacturer would have a having it at hand, of having it in abundance, burden of 2,0001 a year laid upon him, and of having it cheap, of having it without the would have to raise the cost of his goods to cost of carriage, that has given us our manuthat extent. How long could he continue facturing superiority. With coal brought to compete with his rivals under this disad- from America, with coal costing what coal vantage, or (it would be more correct to then would cost, we could neither smelt our say) with his present advantage taken away iron, work our engines, drive our locomofrom him ? And how long would coal con- tives, sail our ships, spin our yarn, nor tinue to be supplied even at 10s a ton ? weave our broad cloths. Long before we
And, be it observed, the check to the had to import our fuel the game would be consumption of coal — the retardation i. e. up. in our progress towards ultimate and abso- Of 136 millions of tons now annually lute exhaustion - can only come from in- raised throughout the world, Great Britain crease of price, and the moment that it does produces 80 millions and the United States come, the decline of our relative manufac- Only 20. But this is only because we have turing pre-eminence has begun. We shall had the first start, and because our populaavoid the extinction of our coal in the short tion is far denser, and because our iron and period of a century ; but we shall do so only our coal lie conveniently for each other and by using less now ; — and using less now conveniently for carriage. As soon as means producing less iron, exporting less America is densely peopled, to America calico and woollens, employing less ship- must both our iron and our coal supremacy ping, supporting a scantier population, - and all involved therein — be transceasing our progress, receding from our rela- ferred; for the United States are in these tive position. We may, it is true, make our respects immeasurably richer than coal last a thousand years instead of a hun- Great Britain. Their coal-fields are estidred, and reduce the inevitable increase in mated at 196,000 square miles in extent, its price to a very inconsiderable rate ; while ours are only 5,400. But this is not but we can do so only by becoming stationary; all: their coal is often better in quality and and to become stationary implies letting incomparably more accessible than ours, esother nations pass us in the race, exporting pecially in the Ohio valley. In some places our whole annual increase of population, the cost at the pit's mouth even now is 2s per growing relatively, if not positively, poorer ton in America, against 6s in England. and feebler.
From the Spectator. a man's hair is naturally as long as a woman's HAIRDRESSING IN EXCELSIS.
strikes them with a sense of surprise, and
have almost ceased to dress it. They use It is not easy to understand the differen- pomade still, or at least hairdressers say ces in the popular appreciation of the mi- so, and a few of them, unaware that a nor trades. Why is a tailor considered rath- mixture of cocoa-nut oil and thin spirit is er contemptible, when no idea of ridicule in all ways the absolutely best unguent, attaches to a bootmaker ? Both make waste cash upon costly coloured oils, but clothes, and in trade estimation the tailor, hairdressing for men is out of fashion. The who must always be something of a capital- average hairdresser contemptuously turns ist, is the higher man of the two, but the over the male head to some beginner, who popular verdict is against him. Nobody snips away till hair and tournure are got calls a hosier the eighteenth part of a man, rid of with equal speed. Up to 1860, too, yet strictly speaking his business is only a women wore their hair, even on occasions minor branch of tailoring; No ridicule at- demanding a grand toilette, after a very s taches to a hatter, notwithstanding the ku- simple fashion, one which the majority of natic proverb about his permanent mental them could manage very well for themcondition, but everybody laughs internally selves, and which required only careful as he speaks of a hairdresser. Is it because brushing. This fashion was not perhaps hairdressers were once popularly supposed altogether in perfect taste. Simplicity has " to be all Frenchmen, and therefore share charms, but still a custom which compelled the contempt with which dancing-masters women with Greek profiles and complexare regarded by people who, while they ex- ions of one shade only and girls with cherry press it, would not for the world fail to profit cheeks and turned-up noses equally to wear by their instructions ?. A singing-master is their hair like Madonnas, was open to some allowed to be an artist, often one of the slight attack on artistic grounds. Madonnas first class, but a dancing-master is consider- should not have laughing blue eyes, or pouted a cross between an artist and a monkey. ing lips, or flaxen hair, or that look of esOr are hairdressers despised, like men mil- pièglerie which accompanies a properly turnliners, because their occupation, especially ed-up nose, — not a snub, that is abominain modern Europe, where men have aban- ble, but just the nez retroussé which artists doned wigs, long locks, and the careful ar- detest and other men marry. The Second rangement of the hair, is essentially femi- Empire, however, does not approve simplinine ? That may be the explanation, for city, and gradually the art of dressing bair nobody despises the lady's-maid more or has come again into use. The fashion of less because if she is 66 very superior” she wearing hair à l'Impératrice was the first can dress hair as well as any hairdresser. blow to the Madonna mania, and young Or is the sufficient cause to be sought in women with no foreheads, and with pointed their pretensions, in their constant but un- foreheads, and with hair-covered foreheads, successful claim to be considered artists, all pulled their unruly locks straight back something a little lower than professionals, because an Empress with a magnificent but a great deal higher than mere trades- forehead chose to make the best of it. Anymen, a claim which induces them to indulge thing uglier than this fashion in all women in highflown advertisements and the inven- with unsuitable foreheads and all women tion of preposterous names, usually Greek, whatever with black hair it would be hard but not unfrequently Persian, for totally to conceive, and the mania did not as a useless unguents? The claim is allowed in mania last very long. Then came the day France, but in England, like the similar of invention, the use of false hair, the inone of the cook and the confectioners, sertion of frisettes, the introduction of goldit has always been rejected, a rejection en dyes, the re-entry of the vast combs prized which excites the profession every now and by our great grandmothers, the admiration then to somewhat violent and therefore ri- of pins stolen from the Ionian and Pompediculous self-assertion. They perceive an ian head-gear, and a general attention to opportunity just at present. For a good the head-dress which we can best describe many years past the business of the coiffeur by quoting from the Manners and Customs has been comparatively a very simple affair, of Ancient Greece a paragraph on the hairrising scarcely to the dignity of a trade and dressing of Athenian women :-“ On nothentirely outside the province of art. Men ing was there so much care bestowed as all over Europe have adopted the fashion upon the hair. Auburn, the colour of Aphof the much ridiculed Roundheads, cut their rodite's tresses in Homer, being considerhair habitually close, till the assertion that | ed most beautiful, drugs were invented in
which the hair being dipped, and exposed incident in the annals of modern folly. Some to the noon day sun, it acquired the covet- thirty women had their hair dressed in pubed hue, and fell in golden curls over their lic by the same number of men — not, we shoulders. Others, contented with their are sorry to say, to the accompaniment of own black hair, exhausted their ingenuity slow music,- an improvement we recomin augmenting its rich gloss, steeping it in mend to Mr. Carter's attention — and some oils and essences, till all the fragrance of two hundred men and women looked on and Arabia seemed to breathe around them. applauded the result. There was in the Those waving ringlets which we admire in middle of the room a long table covered their sculpture were often the creation of with a white cloth, as it were for some sort art, being produced by curling-irons heated of experiment, but upon the table could be in ashes; after which, by the aid of jewel- seen nothing but hand-mirrors, which lookled fillets and golden pins, they were ed indigestible. So long were other visitors brought forward over the smooth white in coming that one visitor, who was conborehead, which they sometimes shaded to scious of wanting the scissors and ot' a total the eyebrows, leaving a small ivory space absence of bear's grease, was afraid that one in the centre, while behind they floated in of the many gentlemen who in winning cosshining profusion down the back. When tume, and faultless " 'eads of air,” and undecked in this manner, and dressed for the mistakable hairdressing propensities, hovergunæcitis in their light flowered sandals ed near the door, would insist upon his and semi-transparent robes, they were having his hair cut and dressed forthwith, scarcely farther removed from the state of merely to wile away the time. But fortunature than the Spartan maids themselves.” nately, just as a gentleman with a “ 'ead of
The grand triumph of the Ionic barbers, air” which would have done credit to any the invention of a mode of plaiting which wax figure in any shop window, was apoccupied many hours, and could therefore proaching with sinister looks, visitors, masbe repeated only once a week, and requir- culine and feminine began to pour in. Then ed those who wore it to sleep on their backs there was diffused around the room with their necks resting on wooden trestles, odour of bear's grease, and probably costhollowed out lest the ber should derange lier unguents, and from the look of the the hair, has not indeed been repeated, ladies' hair the writer was under the imthough under the fostering care of Mr. Car- pression that he beheld the victims who ter even that perfection may one day be had been immolated upon the shrine of attained. Still we have the auburn dyes, hairdressing, and who were to exhibit the and the pins, and all the Athenian devices, effects of the sacrifice. But not so. Awhile, and it is not quite certain that the “chig- and then there came in, each leaning upon non," the nasty mass of horsehair and hu- the arm of the cavalier who was to “ dress man hair which women have learnt to stick her,” about thirty-two ladies, from an age to on the back of their heads, and which is ac- which it would be ungallant to allude down tually sold in Regent Street attached to to one can hardly say “ bashtal”) fifteen. bonnets, is not an additional triumph over Their hair was in some instances apparently nature. We have a picture somewhere of just out of curl-papers, but for the most part 'a chignon more than three thousand years hanging unconfined except at the back, where old, but if we are not mistaken there are it was fastened close to the crown, and then feathers on it as well as hair, the very idea hung down like a horse's tail. Among the which the President of the Hairdressers' thirty were one or two magnificent cheve- · Academy on Tuesday reinvented, and for lures, but we did not see one that quite which he was so heartily applauded. Of realized the painter's ideal, one which the course,
with the new rage for artificial ar- wearer could have wrapped round ber as rangement, false bair, dyes, chigaons, hair Titian's model must have done, or one on crêpé, hair frisé, and we know not what, the which the owner could have stood, as on a hairdresser's art is looking up, and the sen- mat, as Hindoo women have been known to sible tradesmen who practise it, sensible in do. Their comic appearance, and the clapin all but their grandiloquence – which is, ping of hands which arose thereat, showed we take it, half-comic, half a genuine effort one at once that they were the victims or at self-assertion are making the most of (if you please) the heroines. They sat at the their opportunity.
white-cloth-covered table, and the cavaliers The soirée, or “ swarry,” as the doorkeep- drew from black bags combs, and putis, and er persisted in calling it, of the Hairdress- hair-pins, and what looked like small rollers' Academy, held in the Hanover Square ing-pins, and tapeworms, and bell-ropes, Rooms on Tuesday, was really a noteworthy and cord off window-curtains, and muslin