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Make the lean grave sleek with treasure,

Whilst they, weary, take their rest.

Dead they are not; only sleeping,

Dull although their senses be,
Yet they for the summons listen,

Calling to eternity.
Brothers, sleeping in the Saviour,

Sound their dreamless sleep and blest; But we trust, when this is broken,

There remaineth still a rest !

REST FOR THE WEARY. " There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of

God.''- HEB. iv. 9.
DEAR the storm-won calm of autumn

Brooding o'er the quiet lea;
Sweet the distant harp-like murmur

Trembling from the charmëd sea. Nestling breezes clog the branches;

Leaves lie swooning on the air ; Nature's myriad hands are folding

O'er her gentle heart, for prayer.
New-born on the lap of silence,

Cradled on a hoary tomb,
Lo! babe evening craves a blessing

As the day forsakes the gloom;
As one lingering sunbeam flushes

The grey spire to golden red,
And the niotto“ peace” is blazoned

Glorious o'er the resting dead.
Peace be to the shapeless ashes,

Perfect once in valour's mould ; Once on fire for truth and duty,

Now without a spark, and cold. Smiting was the hero smitten,

Swordless hands now cross his breast;
Share we his mute supplication ;

Weary, may the soldier rest!
Peace to him who braved the tempest,

Polar ice, and tropic wave;
Long the homeless sea who traversed,

Then came home to find a grave !
In this calmest roadstead anchored,

May no more the sailor rove, Till he lose himself for ever

“In the ocean of God's love!"

THE BITTER AND THE SWEET.

Come, darling Effie,

Come, take the cup: Effie must drink it all

Drink it all up.

Darling, I know it is

Bitter and bad; But 'twill make Effie dear

Rosy and glad.

Mother would take it all

For her wee elf But who would suffer then?

Effic herself.

If Effie drinks it,

Then, I can tell, She will go out to play

Merry and well.

Drink, and then, darling,

You shall have this, Sweet after bitter :

Now, first, a kiss.

Peace to him, the tried and saintly;

Wise to counsel, apt to cheer ; With a sober smile for gladness,

With a hope for every tear. Earth lies lightly on his bosom,

Faith bedecks his priestly tomb With the sacred flowers' that symbol

Life, and light, and deathless bloom. Peace to him who bears no legend

Carved above his lowly bed,
Save that he was found, unsheltered

From the storm and winter, dead.
Peace to him, that unknown brother,

Quit of want, and woe, and shame; Trust we that the nameless stranger

Bears in heaven a filial name!

Ah, darling Effie,

God also knows, When caps of bitterness

His hand bestows,

How His poor children need

Urging to take
Merciful draughts of pain,

Mixed for their sake.

From the four winds assembled,

Kindred in the fate to die;
Eld and infant, alien, homebred,

Neighbours now, how calm they lie ! Valour, beauty, learning, goodness,

With the weight of life opprest,

He, too, gives tenderly

Joy after pain, Sweet after bitterness,

After loss gain. Sunday Magazine.

I. C.

From the Spectator. for a moment the faith of a man so calm as WERE WOLVES.*

the Resident, Colonel Sleeman, and induced In this remarkable little book, remarkable wolves might suckle and rear the children

him to give currency to a theory that for a power its external aspect does not of human beings, who thenceforward would promise and an interest its name will not

be wolves. create, Mr. Baring-Gould, an author known abandoned that notion, but not before he

Ultimately, we believe, he hitherto chiefly by his researches in North had puzzled all India with his collection of ern literature, investigates a belief, once general in Europe, and even now’enter- exceptional facts, and riveted the superstitained by the majority of the uneducated

tion of the people of Oude.

A belief so universal and so lasting suz. class. In widely separated places, and among races the most distinct, a belief has gests some cause more real than a superstibeen traced in the existence of beings who

tious idea, and Mr. Baring-Gould believes

he has discovered one. He holds that in combine the human and the animal character, who are in fact men changed either every human being there is some faint in form or in spirit into beasts of prey. The trace of the wild-beast nature, the love of belief, though strong still

, was strongest in of suffering. Else why do children display

destruction and of witnessing the endurance the Middle Ages, when men were more unrestrained both in their acts and their cre

cruelty so constantly, string flies on knittingdulities. In the extreme North it was so animal? In the majority this disposition is

pins, and delight in the writhings of any powerful that Norwegians and Icelanders eradicated either by circumstances. by had a separate name for the transformation, calling men gifted with the power or afflicted training, or by the awakening of the great with the curse men“ not of one skin.” Mr. the desire remains intact but latent, liable

influence we call sympathy. In a minority Baring-Gould pushes his theory far when he connects the story of the Berserkir with to be called out only by extraordinary incithe theory of were wolves, the Berserkir be- of their minds. In a few it becomes a pas

dents or some upset of the ordinary balance ing extant to this day in Asia, calling them- sion, a sovereign desire, or even a mania selves Ghazis, and keeping up their fury as entitled to be ranked as a form, and an exthe Berserkir probably did, with drugs; but all Scandinavia undoubtedly believed that latter exhibition which gave rise to the be

treme form, of mental disease. It was the men had upon occasion changed into ani

lief in the were-wolves, who were, in Mr. mals, and exhibited animal bloodthirstiness So did the Livonians.

Baring-Goula's opinion, simply raving maniSo

acs, whose wildness took the form either of down to the very end of the sixteenth century did all Southern Europe, where the a desire to murder or of a belief in their own Holy Office made cases of metempsychosis power of becoming beasts of prey. So late subject of inquiry and of punishment. The as 1848 an oflicer of the garrison in Paris very victims often believed in their own

was brought to trial on a charge of rifling guilt. One man in 1598, Jacques Roulet,

graves of their bodies and tearing them to of Angers, stated in his conlession that pieces, and the charge having been proved though he did not take a wolf's form he was included, was sentenced to one year's im

on conclusive evidence, his own confession a wolf

, and as a wolf committed murders, prisonment. He was mad, but had he lived chiefly of children. Even now the peasants before madness was understood he would in Norway believe as firmly in

have been pronounced either a vampire or can change themselves into wolves as the peasants in Italy do in the evil

a loup garou. Madness miscomprehended the eye,

was the cause of the facts which supported Danes think persons with joined eye brows liable to the curse, the people of Schleswig

the monstrous belief, a theory almost deHolstein keep a charm to cure it, the Slo- monstrated by the history of the case of vaks, Greeks, and Russians have popular the story is complete:

Jacques Roulet. The extract is long, but words for the were wolf, and Mr. BaringGould was himself asked at Vienne to as

" In 1598, a rear memorable in the annals of sist in hunting a loup garou, or wolf who lycanthropy, a trial took place in Angers, the ought to have been a human being. In In- details of which are very terrible. In a wild dia the belief is immovable, more particu- and unfrequented spot near Caude, some counlarly in Oude, where the mass of evidence tryinen came one day upon the corpse of a boy collected is so extraordinary that it shook of tifteen, horridly mutilated and bespattered

with blood. As the men approached, two * Were IPolves. By Sabine Baring-Gould, Lon- wolves, which had been rending the body, don : Smith, Elder, and Co.

bounded away into the thicket. The men gave

and power.

persons who

was

chase immediately, following their bloody tracks! Jacques Roulet would have been found intill they lost them; when suddenly crouching sane by any modern jury, and there is scarcely among the bushes, his teeth chattering with lin mediæval literature a case of lycanthropy fear, they found a man half naked, with long which cannot be explained upon this simhair and beard, and with his hands dyed in blood. His nails were long as claws, and ple theory, — the one at last adopted, and were clotted with fresh gore and shreds of hu- in our judgment proved, by Colonel Sleeman flesh. This is one of the most puzzling

man in Oude, but a more difficult question and peculiar cases which come under our no- remains behind. Is it quite certain that all tice. The wretched man, whose name

cases of long-continued and outrageous cruel Roulet, of his own accord stated that he had ty presuppose madness ? Is cruelty in fact fallen upon the lad and had killed him by a natural quality, which can be cultivated, smothering him, and that he had been prevent- or an abnormal desire, the result of extreme ed from devouring the body completely by the and gradual depravation of the passions arrival of men on the spot. Roulet proved and the reason ?" Take the well known case on investigation to be a beggar from house to of Gilles de Retz in 1440. If evidence house, in the most abject state of poverty. His companions in mendicity were his brother John can prove anything it is certain that this and his cousin Julien. He had been given man, head of the mighty House of Laval, lodging out of charity in a neighbouring vil- lord of entire counties and of prodigious lage, but before his apprehension he had been wealth, did throw up a great position in the absent for eight days. Before the judges, public service to wander from town to Roulet acknowledged that he was able to trans- town and seat to seat kidnapping children, form himself into a wolf by means of a salve whom he put slowly to death to delight which his parents had given him. When ques- himself with their agonies. He confessed tioned about the two wolves which had been himself to eight hundred such murders, and seen leaving the corpse, he said that he knew his evidence was confirmed by the relics perfectly well who they were, for they were his found. He was betrayed by his own agents, companions, Jean and Julien, who possessed the same secret as himself. He was shown the and in the worst age of a cruel cycle his clothes he had worn on the day of his seizure, crimes excited a burst of horror so profound and he recognized them immediately ; he de- that he, a noble of the class which was bescribed the boy whom he had murdered, gave yond the law, so powerful that he never atthe date correctly, indicated the precise spot tempted to escape, was burnt alive. Was he where the deed had been done, and recognized mad, or only bad beyond all human exthe father of the boy as the man who had first perience ? Mr. Baring-Gould inclines evirun up when the screams of the lad had been dently to the former theory, and it is at all heard. In prison, Roulet behaved like an idiot. events a pleasing one, but it is difficult for When seized, his belly was distended and hard ; in prison he drank one evening a whole pailtul thinking men to forget that power has in othof water, and from that moment refused to eat er instances produced this capacity of cruelty, or drink. His parents, on inquiry, proved to to refuse credence to all stories of the cruelty be respectable and pious people, and they proved of Cæsars, and Shahs, and West Indian slavethat his brother John and his cousin Julien holders. It is possible, and we hope true, had been engaged at a distance on the day of that the genuine enjoyment of pain is rare Roulet's apprehension. What is your name, among the sane, though the Roman popuand what your estate?' asked the judge, Pierre lace felt something like it, and though we Hérault. — My name is Jacques Roulet, my, are ever and anon startled by cases of wilage thirty-five; I am poor, and a mendicant.' ful cruelty to animals, but genuine indifferOf being a thief — of having offended God. ence to it is frequent, and

granted the inMy parents gave me an ointment; I do not difference, any motive may give it an acknow its composition.'—'When rubbed with tive form. The thirst for domination is the this ointment, do you become a wolf?' -'No; most common impulse, but in well known but for all that, I killed and ate the child Cor- instances jealousy, fear, hatred, religious nier : I was a wolf.' — Were you dressed as a bigotry, and even vanity, have been equalwolf?'-'I was dressed as I am now. I had ly efficacious. At all events the passion my hands and my face bloody, because I had differs from madness in that it is restrainabeen eating the flesh of the said child.' –Do ble. Hardly one genuine case on a great your hands and feet become paws of a wolf?'

scale has been recorded in a civilized counYes, they do.' –‘Does your head become like that of a wolf — your mouth become larger?

try for many years, and it seems certain 'I do not know how my head was at the time; I that the restraints of order prevent it from used my teeth ; my head was as it is to-day. I acquiring its full sway, and that therefore it have wounded and eaten many other little is rather the depravation of nature than na children ; I have also been to the sabbath.'» ture itself which is its origin. Gilles de LIVING AGE.

1477.

THIRD SERIES.

VOL. XXXII.

Retz is possible, if he were sane, only in a | Now it is a matter worth a little consideraclass which can indulge every impulse with tion bow far men of pure science are trustimpunity, and at a time when law is no worthy on matters of this kind, how far longer to be feared. It may be true that he their evidence is what we should call on belonged to the were-wolf genus, the men other subjects the evidence of experts, or afflicted with homicidal mania, but he may not. On a medical subject, we should nevalso have belonged to a class now almost as er think of adopting absolutely any theory exceptional, the men in whom unrestricted rejected by a very large and, perhaps inpower has developed that thirst for testing creasing, number of the most eminent men it in its highest, its most frequent, and its in the medical profession. On a historical most visible form, the infliction of slow subject, we should think it absurd to take death-agonies upon powerless human beings. up with a view against which every fresh It was, we fear, the madness of a Cæsar historian of learning and eminence began rather than of a were wolf which influenced with clearer and clearer conviction to proGilles de Retz, and Mr. Baring-Gould test. How far, then, even if it be true, as would, we think, have exemplified his theo- it possibly may be, that the tendency of ry more perfectly had he excluded stories the highest and calmest scientific thought is which testify not so much to the instability increasingly anti-supernatural, can we conof human reason as to the depths of evil sider this the tendency of a class entitled lurking in the human heart. He argues in- to special intellectual deference, or the redeed that Gilles de Retz is the link between verse ? Mr. Brooke Foss Westcott, in a the citizen and the were wolf, but then in so very thoughtful volume which he has just doing he assumes one tremendous datum, published on the Gospel of the Resurrecthat madness always shows itself in the ex- tion,* freely admits that “a belief in treme development of the latent heart, and miracles decreases with the increase of not in its radical perversion. One of its civilization,” but maintains, amidst other commonest forms nevertheless is intense weaker and less defensible positions, that hatred of those whom the patient has most the accuracy of comprehensive views of genuinely and fondly loved, and the bal- nature as a whole, is not only not secured, ance of probability is that insanity as often but may be even specially endangered, by perverts as intensifies the secret instincts of too special and constant a study of given its victim. Mr. Baring-Gould has, we parts of nature. “ The requirements,” he think, demonstrated that madness misap- says, “ of exact science bind the attention prehended was the root of the were-wolf of each student to some one small field, delusion, but not that homicidal mania is and this little fragment almost necessarily the ultimate expression of an inherent ten- becomes for him the measure of the whole, dency in universal human nature.

if indeed he has ever leisure to lift his eyes to the whole at all.” And undoubtedly the man who has been studying, say, for the sake of a definite example, the chemical effects of light all his life, and who knows that every different substance when burnt

yields a different spectrum, so that you may From the Spectator.

know by the number and situation of the SCIENCE AND MIRACLE.

dark lines exactly what substance it is that PROFESSOR HUXLEY, in the remarkable is burning, might be inclined to look at the lecture on “improving natural knowledge” possibility of miracle, and at faith in the delivered to the working classes at St. Mar- supernatural will, from a narrow point of tin's Hall, and since published in the Fort- view. He will say to himself, “If one of nighily Review, states with a candour and these spectra were suddenly to change its moderation worthy. of all praise, certain appearance, if such a dark line vanished, notions destructive of all worship, - ex- and such others appeared, should I not cept that very impossible kind of worship know with a certainty to me infallible

, recommended by Professor Huxley, worship certainty on the absoluteness of which I of the Unknown and Unknowable, — which should never hesitate to risk my own life have been gaining more and more hold of or that of my family, - that some other merely scientific men for many generations, element had been introduced into the burnand which, we need not say, are absolutely ing substance ? Could anything persuade inconsistent with admitting the activity of me that the change was due to divine any supernatural will in the Universe, and volition apart from the presence of a new still more the actual occurrence of miracle.

* Maomillan.

element or new elements in the burning be equivalent to the positive alteration in substance ? Must not the Almighty bim- the essence of a mighty whole, as really self, if He chose to make the change, make astounding in itself as the change which it by providing the characteristic element could made oxygen burn (that is, oxidize) for the purpose, - just as if He chose to or two and two equal to five. alter the moral traits of a human character, Now this is, we take it, something less He could only do it by a process that would than conjecture, - indeed demonstrable alter the character itself, and not by mak- scientific error, if science be taken to ining a stupid and ignorant man give out all clude anything more than the laws of physithe characteristic signs of wisdom and cal phenomena. It is probably true indeed learning, or a malignant and cruel man put that in some sense the physical forces of the forth all the moral symptoms of warm be- Universe are an invariable quantity, which nevolence and charity.' So the scientific only alter their forms, and not their sum man would argue, and we are disposed to total. If I move my arm, the motion, says think would argue rightly. For, admitting the physiologist, is only the exact equivathat the physical qualities of things are lent of a certain amount of heat which has realities at all, we should say that to make disappeared and taken the form of that the physical qualities of one thing inter- motion. If I do not move it, the heat rechange with the physical qualities of an- mains for use in some other way. In either other, without interchanging the things, is, case the stock of force is unchanged. This if it be logically and morally possible, as is the conviction of almost all scientific the Transubstantiationists believe and most men, and is probably true. But whether other men disbelieve, a piece of divine the stock of physical force is constant or magic or conjuring, and not a miracle. But not, the certainty that human will can then, do not many great scientific men like change its direction and application - can Professor Huxley really infer from such transfer it from one channel to another trains of reasoning far more than they will is just the same. And what that really warrant? All that such reasonings do tend means, if Will be ever free and uncaused, to show, is, that if you truly conceive the though of course not unconditioned, natural constitutions of things, there are which is, we take it, as ultimate and scientichanges which you cannot make without fic a certainty as any in the Universe, - is destroying those very things altogether, no less than this, — that a strictly superand substituting new ones. As a miracle natural power alters the order and constituwhich should make two and two five is tion of nature, — takes a stock of physical intrinsically impossible (Mr. Mill and the force lying in a reservoir here and transfers Saturday Review in anywise notwithstand- it to a stream of effort there, -in short, ing), so also (though less certainly) a mira- that the supernatural can change the order cle which should make oxygen a combusti- and constitution of the natural, - in its ble gas instead of a supporter of combus- essence pure miracle, though miracle of hution, and quite certainly a miracle which man, and not of divine origin. For exshould make it right to do what is known ample, almost every physiologist will admit to be wrong, or wrong to do what is known the enormous power that pure Will has to be right, is intrinsically impossible. But over the nervous system, – that it can prothe modern scientific inference goes much long consciousness and even life itself" for further than this, and immediately extends certain short spaces, by the mere exertion the conception of these inherent constitu- of vehement purpose. Physicians tell you tions of certain things and qualities to the constantly that such and such a patient whole Universe, - assuming, for instance, may no doubt, if it be sufficiently importhat it is just as impossible, just as much tant, by a great effort command his mind a breach in the inherent constitution of sufficiently to settle his affairs, but that it some one or more things, for one who has will be at the expense of his animal force, been dead to live again, for the phenomena in short, that it will be a free transfer of of decomposition to be arrested, the heart force from the digestive and so to say vegeonce silent to begin to beat, as for oxygen tating part of bis system, to that part of itself to burn without ceasing to be oxygen. his physical constitution, his nervous system, The way in which this view would be de- which lies closest, as it were, to the will

. fended would be that all matter and all its Nay, we have heard physicians say that qualities are now almost proved to be modes patients, by a great effort of pure will, of force, and all force indestructible, so have, as they believe, prolonged their own that any kind of supernatural change in life for a short space, that is, have imparted, the phenomena of matter would appear to we suppose, through the excitement pro

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