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were, for the wandering Cockney, on his ter of the gentleman. As a delineator of peregrinations between East and West; and figures, we cannot esteem him very successwith this Mr. Wright bas accordingly fur- ful. They run too much into the long and nished us. Perhaps the most celebrated lanky; portions of the outline, the extremities were Humphreys, of New Bond-street and in particular, are often almost effeminate in Piccadilly (whom, however, Mr. Wright their refinement: when he attempts a really does not mention), and Fores.
personage, he is apt to produce
the effect of a fine gentleman masquerading 'S. W. Fores dwelt first at No 3, Piccadilly, as a Falstaff. But it was in the likeness of but afterwards establishe I himself at No. 50, the his portraits, and their expression, that his corner of Sackville Street, where the name still chief and singular merit consisted. And in remains. Fores seems to have been most fertile these, again, his success was extremely vain ingenious expedients for the extension of his rious. His fortune, in a professional sense, business. He formed a sort of library of caricatures, and other prints, and charged for ad may be said to have been mule by three mission to look at them; and he afterwards adopt
faces - those of the Duke of Wellington, ed a system of lending them out in portfolios for King William IV., and Lord Brougham. evening parties, at which these portfolios of car. The provoking, sly no-meaning, establishing icatures became a very fashionable amusement itself on the iron mask of the first; the goodin the latter part of the last century. At times humoured, embarrassed expression of the some remarkable curiosity was employed to add second ; the infinite variety of grotesque to the attractions of his shop. Thus, on carica- fancies conveyed in the contorted features tures published in 1790, we find the statement of the third ; these were reproduced, week that In Fores Caricature Museum is the com- after week, 'for years, with a variety and pletest collection in the kingdom.
In other Head and Hand of Count Struenzee. Adinit- fertility perfectly astonishing. tance, one shilling Caricatures against the cases he never could succeed in bitting off French revolutionists, published in 1793, bear even a tolerable likeness : of his hundred or imprints stating that they were "published by so representations of the late Sir Robert S. W. Fores, No. 3,Piccadilly, wliere may be Peel, we do not recollect one which conveys seen a Complete Model of the Guillotine. Ad- to us any real remembrance of the original. mittance, one shilling;”. In some this model is The Peel of caricaturists in general, not said to be six feet high.'
only of H.B., was a conventional person
age; as is, though in a less marked degree, Mr. Wright closes his list with George the Gladstone of our present popular artists. Cruikshank, as the last representative of Still more remarkable was the failure of the great school of caricaturists formed in H.B., in common with his predecessors, in the reign of George III. But there is anoth-catching the likeness of George IV. In all er, still living among us, whose experience the countless burlesque representations of as an artist goes very nearly back to that that personage, from the handsome youth of reign, and who may be in the most literal | 1780 to the puffy veteran of 1827, there are sense called the last of the political caricatu- scarcely any which present a tolerable rerists as he is considered by many the best semblance. The courtly Lawrence sucMr. Doyle, the world-famous H.B. of the ceed in portraying him well enough; the past generation. Those who belonged to it caricaturists, usually so happy, never. H. can well remember the height of popularity B.'s published sketches amount to some nine which his lithographed sketches achieved, hundred, and afford a capital key to the the little blokades before the shop-windows cabinet and parliamentary history of Engin St. James's-street and the Ilaymarket land, froin the Ministry of Wellington to whenever a new one appeared, and the con- the end of Lord Melbourne's. While numvenient topic of conversation which it was bers of them do credit to the artist's politisure to afford to men of the clubs, when meet- cal sagacity as well as his skill, we cannot ing each other on the pavement. For it was forbear to notice one which, to our present to critics of this class that H.B. particularly notions, illustrates the nescia mens homiaddressed himself. His productions wanted num fati_sortisque futuræ'
- produced the popular vigour of those of Gillray and his when the Tories, to whom H B. appertainschool. But it is to Mr. Doyle's high honour ed with all his heart, anticipated the trithat they were also entirely free from the umphs of French over English diplomacy scandalous coarseness of his predecessors, and under the conduct of our then Foreign Secthat he showed the English public how the retary: it is No. 171 in the series, The purposes of political satire could be fully se- Lame leading the Blind:'
Lord Palmerscured without departing a hand's breadth ton, guided into a ditch by Talleyrand. irom the dignity of the artist or the charac- With the renowned H. B. the line of regu. lar British caricaturists closes. The taste of The general subject can be nowhere so the nation has sought another direction. But well studied in a summary way as in the two do not let us be misunderstood. The spir- volumes of M. Jaime (' Musée de la Caricait of the art survives, and will do so as long ture'), with very fairly executed illustraas England is a free country and Englishmen tions, to which we can only apply the anretain a sense of the ludicrous; but its form cient reproach, 'tantamne rem tam negliis so completely changed, by the substitu- genter; for M. Jaime has but treated the tion of the cheap illustrated newspaper for matter in a perfunctory way, as if afraid the comparatively expensive broad-sheet of of dwelling too much on it. It has not, the last century, that a more convenient however, the interest which attaches either moment could not be found, for closing the to the coarser but bolder style of art inaugold chapter in artistic history and beginning urated by the Germans in the sixteenth cena new one, than that in which Doyle ceas- tury, or to that which prevailed in the great ed his labours and the ‘Punch’ school of English age of political caricature. Callot satirists began theirs. The very distinct was indeed a Frenchman, by race at least, mode of treatment which the small size of though born in Lorraine, then independthe modern comic newspaper, compared ent; but his associations were more with with the old sheet, necessarily requires, the school of the Netherlands than that of combines with other causes of difference to France. Nor had he any followers of note render this new school something quite apart in the latter country. The jealous wakefrom the old one. Its success must needs be fulness of French government, and the cold obtained more through skill in the delinea- and measured style which French art detion of individual faces, and compactness of rived from a close addiction to supposed wit in the motive of the composition, than classical models, were both alike unfavourathrough breadth of treatment, or (generally ble to the development of the artistic empire speaking) through talent for grouping. In of · Laughter, holding both his sides.' the delineation of faces, however, and es. French artists of the eighteenth century for pecially in portrait, which is the specialty the most part touched ludicrous subjects in of political caricature, the designers with a decorous and timid way, as if ashamed of whom we are now dealing have an immense them. As the literature of the country is advantage over those of former times, in said to abound in wit, while it is poor in hu. being able to use the results of the art of mour, so its pictorial talent found vent rathphotography. Photographs of faces and fig- er in the neat and effective tableau de ures, always at hand, are a very superior genre' than in the irregularity of the groclass of auxiliaries to those hasty drawings tesque; or, to employ another simile, French on bits of card’ with which Gillray was wont comic art was to English as the genteel to content himself. The popularity which comedy to the screaming farce. And the our present favourites have earned is prob- same was the case (to treat the subject ably more real, certainly much more exten- briefly) with that of other nations over sive, than that gained by their most success- which France exercised predominant influful predecessors, from. Ilogarth to Cruik- ence. Chodowiecki was the popular Gershank: with whose names that of Leech, so man engraver of domestic scenes in the last lately lost to us, and of his living associates century, and his copper-plates have great and rivals, of whom we need only name delicacy of execution and considerable powDoyle the younger and John Tenniel as er of expression. He was in high vogue specimens, will assuredly find their places for the purpose of illustrating with cuts the in the future annals of art. But, arrived at novels and the poetry of the great age of this turning point, we must take farewell of German literature, and his pro luctions are our subject, devoting only a few pages more extraordinarily numerous. But he habituto the cotemporary history of modern ally shrank from the grotesque. His adFrench caricature, on which Mr. Wright mirers styled him the Germin Ilogarth (to our regret) does not enter. We had comparison which he, we are told, rejected hoped to derive considerable assistance with some indignation, and which II garth, for this purpose from a new publication could he have known it, would cerqinly of our friend M. Champfleury, entitled have rejected likewise ; for Chodowiecki,
Histoire de la Caricature Moderne,' which with all his other merits, very seldom aphas just fallen into our hands ; but although proaches the ludicrous, and never soars to the iitle is thus comprehensive, the contents the height or descends to the depth of carireduce themselves to a few lively pages of cature. panegyric on two or three recent artists, The unbounded licence of the firs: French which seem to be dictated in great measure Revolution, and the strange mixture of the by personal feelings.
I burlesque with the terrible which attended
its progress, gave of course for some years is no French Gillray or Rowlandson. Here the most favourable opportunities possible and there, however, among a multitude of for the exercise of pictorial wit, so far as the inferior performances, the eye is struck by nation possessed it. There can be no great- one really remarkable as a work of a higher er treat to one who loves to tread the by- order than our English cotemporary series ways of history, often the shortest cuts to could furnish. Such is the famous. Arrestatruth, than to turn over the series of those tion du Roi á Varennes,' 1791. The wellmagnificent volumes in the Imperial Libra- known features of the Royal party, seated ry of Paris, in which the whole pictorial an- at supper with lights, are brought out with nals of the last century or so in France are a force worthy of Rembrandt, and with preserved; everything arranged as nearly slight but marked caricature; while the as may be in order of date, and not of sub- fierce, excited patriotic figures, closing in on jects : portraits, festal shows and triumphs, them from every side, have a vigour which processions, battles, riots, great events, rep- is really terrific. Another, in a different resented under every form down to the style, is the 'Intérieur d'un Comité Révolurough newspaper woo:lcut and street carica- tionnaire,' 1793. It is said, indeed, to have ture, unrolling in one vast phantasinagoria been designed by a first-rate artist, Fragobefore the eye. We have much that is val- nard, one who doubtless wrought with a will, uable and useful in our Museum, but noth- for he had prostituted his very considerable ing, in the matter of historical art, compara- talents to please the luxurious profligacy of ble to this collection. An inadequate idea the last days of the ancient règime, and the of it only can be formed from the miscella- stern Revolution had stopped his trade, anneous contents of the well-known three fo- nihilated his efleminate customers, and relio volumes of prints, entitled Tableaux de duced him to poverly, Fragonard's powers la Révolution Francaise.' The earlier part as a caricaturist are characterised by a wellof the caricatures of that age are the most known anecdote. Ile was employed in humourous and also the best executed. As painting Mademoiselle Guimard, the famous the trag-dy deepened, fun became more dancer, as Terpsichore; but the lady quarand more out of place; and the satirists who relled with him, and engaged another to had seen its outbreak having most of them complete the work. The irritated painter got lost their heads or fled the country, the access to the picture, and with three or tour business fell into the hands of more vulgar strokes of his brush turned the face of Terpworkmen. One of the first (1788) may be sichore into that of a fury. The print now mentioned, not so much for its execution, in question is a copper-plate, executed with which is tame enough, as because it is (as exceeding delicacy of touch. A dozen fine far as we know) the real original of a piece ures of men of the people, in revolutionary of wit which has since made its fortune in costume, are assembled round a long table in every language, and been falsely attributed a dilapidated hall of some public building. to many facetious celebrities. Calonne, as a A young ci-devant,' his wife and child, are monkey, has assembled his notables,' a flock introduced through an open door by an ushof barn-door fowl. Mes chers administrès, er armed with a pike. If the artist's intenje vous ai rassemblès pour savoir á quelle tion was to produce effect by the contrast of sauce vous voulez être mangès.' •Mais nous these three graceful figures with the vulgar ne voulons pas être mangès du tout.' • Vous types of the rest of the party, he has sucvous écartez de la question.'
ceeded admirably. They are humbly preBut French art, as we have seen, refined senting their papers for examination ; but it and softened into effeminacy under the class is pretty clear that the estimable comunitcivilization of the ancien règime, and ren- teeman, to whom the noble is handing his dered prulish also by its adherence to classi- passport, cannot read it. The cunning, cal models, had its decorum soon shocked by quiet, lawyer-like secretary of the committoo coarse intermixture of the grotesque. In- tee, pen in hand, is evidently doing all its deed, the reason often given by Frenchmen work. At the opposite end of the table an of the last generation for the acknowledged excited member is adulressing to the walls inferiority of their caricatures to ours, was the what must be an harangue of high elosuperiority of French taste, which could not quence; but no one is listening to him, and accommodate itself to‘ignoble’exaggeration. the two personages immediately behind him On the whole, therefore, those of the revo- are evidently determined to hear no noise lutionary series of which we have been but their own. But our favourite figure speaking are more interesting historically, and one well worthy of Hogarth — is that of and also fiom the keen wit often developed the sentinel off duty: he is seated beside a in them, than from their execution. There bottle, pike in hand, enjoying his long pipe,
and evidently, from the expression of his tember. It had a brief and feverish reviface, far advanced from the excited into the val under the Republic of 1848 ; some of meditative stage of convivial patriotism. A its productions in that period are worth a placard on the door announces, somewhat moment's notice, both from their execution contradictorily as well as ungrammatically, and good humour: we remember two • Ici on se tutoyent: fermez la porte s'il vous of the class of general interest; the Applait!' Altogether there is much more of parition du Serpent de Mer,' a boat full of the comic than the ferocious about the pa- kings, startled by the appearance of the new triots; and one may hope that the trembling Republic as the problematical monster of family, for whom it is impossible not to feel the deep; and the • Ecole de Natation,' in an interest, will this time be quittes pour la which the various Kings and Emperors of peur.'
Europe are floundering in a ludicrous variThe popular governments Revolutiona- ety of attitudes among the billows of revory and of the First Empire - easily tamed lution, while the female rulers of Britain, the spirit of caricature, as they did that of Spain, and Portugal are kept afloat by their more dangerous enemies, and it only revived crinolines. But under the decorous rule of when France was replaced under the tyran- the Empire, no such violation of the reny of legitimacy. There is a great deal of spect due to constituted authorities at home merit in those on the Bonapartist side, of is any longer tolerated, while ridicule, 1814 and 1815; many of them appear to be even of foreign potentates, is permitted executed by some one clever artist, to us un- only under polite restrictions. Debarred known. We will only notice one of them, from this mode of expressing itself, French the “Væu d'un Royaliste, ou la seconde en- gaiety finds one of its principal ou lets, in tree triomphante.? Louis XVIII. is mounted the more innocent shape of social caricabehind a Cossack - the horse and man are ture, which was never so popular, or cultiadmirably drawn — while the poor King's vated by artists of so much eminence, as expression, between terror and a sense of within the last thirty years. And here we the ludicrous of his position, is worthy of the must notice a singular change in French best efforts of Giliray or Doyle.
workmanship, which appears to us to have Caricature continued to be a keen party been occasioned chiefly or wholly by the weapon in France through the period of introduction of lithography. We have althe Restoration, and in the early years of ready observed how, much difficulty its artLouis Philippe. The latter monarch's head ists found in departing from the rules of especially, under the resemblance of a pear, classical outline and correct drawing, so which Nature had rendered appropriate, long as the old-fashioned line engraving was popularised in a thousand ludicrous or prevailed, and the consequent inferiority of ignominious representations; his Gillray French to English caricature in breadth, was Honoré Daumier, a special friend and its superiority in correctness, The introfavourite of M. Champfleury, but in whom duction and great popularity of lithography we are unable ourselves to recognize more in France seems to have altogether changed than secondary merit. • Entre tous, Dau- the popular taste. Artists now dash off, mier fut celui qui accommoda la poire aux rather than embody, their humorous consauces les plus direrses. Le roi avait une ceptions in the sketchiest of all possible honnête physionomie, large et étouffée. styles, and that which affords the greatest La caricature, par l'exagération des lignes licence for grotesque distortions of figure du masque, par les différents sentimens and face. Boilly, a clever and fertile lithog. qu'elle prêta à l'homme au toupet, le ren-rapher, was perhaps the first to bring dit typique, et laissa un ineffaçable: relief. this style of composition into vogue. But Les adversaires sont utiles. En politique, to such an extent has the revolution now un ennemi vaut souvent mieux qu’un ami.' gone, while we, on the other hand, have The genius of Daumier had some analogy been pruning the luxuriance of the old with that of the sculptor-caricaturist Dan- genius of caricature, that the positions of tan.
the two countries seem to have become reBut the liberty of art, like that of the versed, and England to be now the country Tribune, degenerated into licence, and of classic, France of grotesque art; in the France has never been able in her long age comic line of which any reader may judge of State tempests to maintain the line be- for himself, by comparing the style of the tween the two. Political caricature was cuts in • Punch,' for instance, with those in
more extinguished in the Orleans the Charivari.' We cannot say that we reign, with the applause of decent people find the change on the other side of the in general, by the so-called laws of Sep-Channel an improvament, or that we have
been enabled to acquire a taste for the Noé (under his nom de plume, or rather de hasty lithographed caricatures of popular crayon, of. Cham,'Ham the son of Noah) be figures and scenes which encumber French supposed to contest with him that eminence. print-shops. The works of Bunbury, among The journal · Les Gens du Monde' (1835), English artists of this kind of renown, per- and subsequently the Charivari,' owed to haps most nearly approach them; but these, him the greater part of their celebrity. If not rough though they are, have, at all events, equal to Charlet in the “nait" and simply a body and substance, and consequently a popular style, Gavarni excels him in satirivigour, which their Gallic successors appear cal force and in variety. Twenty-five to us to lack, and which they endeavour too years hence (says Théophile Gautier) . it is often to supply by loose exaggeration. through Gavarni that the world will know llowever, it is idle to set up our own canons of the existence of Duchesses of the Rue of taste in opposition to that of a nation, du Helder, of Lorettes, students, and so and a foreign nation into the bargain ; and forth.' Gavarni visited England in 1849, we may do our readers more service by where, according to his biographer M. de giving them a few short notices of the Lacaze (in the Nouvelle Biographie Géleading artists who have risen to popular-nérale '), he took so profound a dislike to our ity in modern France by this style of com- English aristocratic social system (it was position.
the year, be it remembered, in which the Nicolas Toussaint Charlet had an educa- doctrine la propriété c'est le vol,' took tion and parentage somewhat like those of some short hold on Parisian spirits), that our Gillray; born in 1792, the son of an he fell into a fit of 'le spleen,' became old dragoon of Sambre-et-Meuse, he began misanthrophic, and produced nothing fora his career in a not very noble occupation, long time but sketches of gin-shop frequentbeing employed in the office where military ers, thieves, street-sweepers, Irishmen, and recruits were registered and measured: and the beggars of St. Giles's and Whitechapel ;' it was in that function, possibly, that he but we are happy to learn, from the same picked up and stored in his memory those authority, that he soon recovered his gaiety thousand types of grotesque young con- in the less oppresive atmosphere of Paris. scripts and old grognards, enfants de His • (Euvres Choisies' were published as troupe,', tourlourous,' and 'gamins,' with long ago as 1845, in four volumes. • Déjà,' which he filled the shop-windows while says Champfleury, son euvre est curieuse amusing the multitude with their darling à consulter comme l'expression d'un peintre • scènes populaires.' He was not exactly a de mæurs épris d'ideal élégant dans une caricaturist in the peculiar sense which we époque bourgeoise.' have given to the word, but an artist.de Completing these brief notices of modern genre;' in his own peculiar line few have French caricaturists with the mere mention surpassed him. It must be noticed that his of the great artist Gustave Doré, who has sturdy Bonapartiem evinced itself in some lately condescended to some clever extravaambitious attempts at more serious compo- gances allied to caricature, and of that ecsitions; one of which, · La Garde meurt et centric novelty Griset, we must now conne se rend pas,' established his fame in 1816, clude our hasty retrospect of the art in while an
Episode de la Campagne de general. The institution of the comic Russie' (1836) is ranked at the head of his illustrated newspaper* has now made the works by some of his admirers. But for tour of the world ; the United States furour part, we greatly prefer the exquisite nish abundant specimens; Germany and naïveté, though without much of the Eng- Italy toil manfully in the wake of France and lish vigour, which characterises some of bis England; we have even seen political caricapopular scenes; such — to quote one among tures from Rio de Janeiro nearly as good as a thousand — as that in which a peasant, the ordinary productions of either. But it looking down with the utmost gravity on a .is impossible to follow a subject so greatly comrade who is lying in the road, helplessly widening in its dimensions; and as cheap drunk, exclaims, · Voilà pourtant comme je ness of execution, while it extends the serai dimanche !' Charlet, who died in popularity of this class of compositions, 1845, left some two thousand lithographed diminishes the labour expended on them, designs, besides numerous water-colours and we have not to expect for the future either etchings.
productions of so much interest, or artists Paul Chevalier Gavarni, born in 1801, of such celebrity, as some of those dealt ranks at the head of the living caricaturists with in this article. of France, unless the Vicomte Amédée de