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From the Economist. afflicted with the existing plague, and adds, IS THE CATTLE PLAGUE SMALL-POX ?

“the cutaneous eruption is not the only

character in which rinderpest resembles The opinion recently expressed by a phy- small-pox. Its close resenıblance, if not sician, Dr. Parsons, that the cattle plague is still more intimate relation to human vari. in fact small-pox, seems to be attracting ola, is borne out by the considerations he considerable attention, to say the least, enumerates. Amongst these we may select amongst scientific medical observers. Now, the following:-“1. Small-pox is the only whatever may be the result of the investiga- acute contagious exanthem in man that astions Dr. Parsons' suggestion will produce, sumes a pustular form. The eruption in it is impossible to avoid an expression of rinderpest is also pustular. Any difference disapointment that the English veterinary between the two may readily be accounted practitioners have not applied themselves for by difference in the skin of man and with more purpose than they appear to have cattle'. .. 3. The anatomical lesions of done to the examination of the symptoms the two diseases are identical . . . 4. In and indications of the prevalent disease. If both diseases, a peculiar offensive odour is they had done so, instead of consigning exhaled from the body, both before and af every animal to slaughter in sheer despair, ter death. 5. In both, the duration of the could they have missed the discovery -- if pyrexial stage is about seven or eight days. such it bě — made by the physician ? If 6. The two diseases resemble one another the disease be indeed the small-pox, its treat- in their extreme contagiousness, and in the ment and the manner in which it is commu- facility with which the poison is transmitted nicated are by no means unknown. From by fomities. 7. Both diseases can be prothe first appearance of the plague we appre- pagated by inoculation. This can be said hended panic, and helpless assertions of its with certainty of no other human malady incurable character, and our fears have in a than small-pox. 8. In both diseases there great degree been justified by the event. is a period of incubation, which is shorter It is imported, it is not amenable to cura- when the poison has been introduced by intive treatment, seem to be the sum and sub- oculation, than when it has been received stance of veterinary medical testimony on by infection. 9. Vaccinated persons are the subject. It is clear, however, that the constantly exposed to small-pox poison with public, and eventually the terror-stricken impunity; and with regard to rinderpest

, agricultural community, will not long re- there are numerous instances in which indimain satisfied with such conclusions. vidual cattle, or entire herds, appear to have

Now an investigation of the plague with led charmed lives in the midst of surrounda view to ascertain whether it is or is not ing pestilence.” Upon these and other conthe small-pox presents something definite, siderations he has stated, Dr. Murchison,and cannot fail to prove useful whatever be without insisting on the absolute pathologithe result. Dr. Parsons says the animals cal identity of rinderpest and variola, — rewhich have died of the plague show small- commends as tests, “ to produce cow.pox in pox-like pustules under the skin, and pre- cattle by inoculating them on the one hand sent other symptoms of that disease. He with vaccine lymph, and on the other with has been followed by Dr. Charles Murchison, the matter of liuman variola, and afterwards a lecturer at the Middlesex hospital, who in to ascertain if they be proof against the preva long and elaborate letter to the Lancet, in- alent plague, or if the course of rinderpest dicates points of resemblance between the be thereby modified.” cattle plague and small-pox. He says, A case which seems to be strongly con. “ The resemblance of rinderpest to small- firmatory of the above view is stated by Mr. pox is no new discovery, although latterly it Thomas Chambers, senior, assistant-surgeon has been lost sight of." Ramazzina, in his to the London Surgical Home, who says: account of the cattle plague which pervaded“ A week ago, December 27, I had to pay a Italy in 1711, suggests such resemblance, as professional visit at the house of a London does also Laucisi. Dr. Mortimer and other dairyman. Before leaving the house Mr. physicians refer to the cattle plague in this B. asked if I should like to see his stock of country of the middle of the last century, as cows, and, without waiting for a reply, he exhibiting pustular eruption, and it has led the way to his sheds — two. They were generally been referred to by subsequent large roomy buildings, well ventilated, and writers as " an undoubted epizootic variola,” scrupulously clean. There I found 27 beauand inoculation was recommended and prac- tiful cows in the most perfect health.

Mr. tised by Dr. Layard. Dr. Murchison then B. has not had a single case of disease of describes the eruptions observed in cattle any kind in his sheds, although a neigh

bour of his, having sheds within a cannon it, instead of having any professional help. shot of Mr. B.'s, lost 80 cows in a fortnight in The inspector then recommended me to October last, I made particular inquiry as give them plenty of old ale. We went on to whether he had adopted any prophy- then with old ale warmed up with oatmeal, lactic measures, with a view to protect his together with a little ginger, aniseed, treastock from an attack of the cattle disease. cle, and honey, giving it to them three He replied that for several years past he times a day until two days ago. The first has been in the habit of vaccinating every one recovered in about a week. The others fresh cow on entering his sheds - old or sickened in turn, and one of them was for young — and that since his adoption of two days in a much worse state than the this simple proplıylactic measure he has not first one that was attacked; in fact she had lost a single cow from any cause whatever. such violent purging one day, that we subThese evidences certainly justify a recom- tituted for one dose of the old ale, &c., mendation to the owners of cattle to have three eggs and some brandy, and clothed their stock vaccinated without loss of time. her with an old blanket. However, the

A correspondent of the Birmingham result is, that they have all got over it. Daily Post says on this subject :-" After They seem quite well, only a good deal thinmore than six months' careful and minute ner, and enjoy very much all the food that treatment and observation of the rinderpest, is given them. They only had chlorate of the medical faculty of the districts of potash the first two days." Crewe and Nantwich, in Cheshire, have Here probably the symptoms were ob come to the unanimous resolution of treat- served and dealt with in an earlier stage ing the cattle plaque as small-pox. During of the disease than is the case in more nuthe week now ending, Mr. Bellyse and Dr. merous herds. Vaughan, of Nantwich, and Dr. Lord, of Crewe, bave vaccinated successfully large stocks, amongst which was that of Mr. D. Broughton, of Wistaston Hall, near Crewe. A very favourable report has just been

From the Spectator. made to us of their experiments. To this

SPIRITUALITY WITHOUT GOD. we may add the very important fact that in the very valuable stock of Mr. Trickett, of A REMARKABLE article in the new numRope, Cheshire, not a single case has oc- ber of the Westminster Review on the writcured since the vaccination, whereas pre- ings of Coleridge, an article evidently from viously there had been fatal cases. the hand of one of the finest of living

To these suggestive notices we may add critics, and itself full of the flavour of the following particulars furnished by Mr. genius, concludes with a suggestion, not Charles P. Christie, the well-known brewer made in the mood of profound melancholy of Hoddesdon, Heris, of the successful treat- which it is calculated to excite, but rather ment of three cases of the cattle plague: in that of pseudo-classical content, for keep"My stock consists of three young heifers, ing a religion while dismissing God. A which lie in a small field about three quar- suggestion the same in effect has been reters of a mile from Hoddesdon, and on cently made by an eminent critic of M. Tuesday, the 12th of December, it was ob- Comte, and it is evident that some of the served that one of them was unwell

, would highest-minded of the modern humanists not feed, and had a slight discharge from are beginning to hold and to teach, with the nose, and running from the eyes, togeth- this critic, that "religious belief, the craver with purging. The following morning, ing for objects of belief, may be refined finding the animal much worse, I sent a no- out of our hearts, but they must leave their tice of it to the inspector, whose assistant sacred perfume, their spiritual sweetness, came very promptly in the afternoon. He behind.” Or, as he says elsewhere, “ Longpronounced it to be one of the worst cases ing, a chastened temper, spiritual joy, are of rinderpest he had seen, and strongly precious states of mind, not because they urged me to slaughter it, and take every are parts of man's duty or because God has preventive measure with regard to the commanded them, still less because they other two, one of which he also told me are means of obtaining a reward, but beshowed symptoms. I had in the mean- cause, like culture itself, they are remote, rewhile administered some gruel, and also pro fined, intense, existing only by the triumph of vided some doses of chlorate of potash, and a few over a dead world of rouline, in which as my man had begun to doctor and nurse there is no lifting of the soul at all. If the animals, I resolved he should go on with there is no other world, art in its own in

1473.

THIRD SERIES.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXXII.

terest must cherish such characteristics | analogous to that of intellectual culture, as beautiful spectacles. Stephen's face, would justify any spiritual attitudinizing, like the face of an angel,' has a worth of any swoon of solitary vanity, whether of its own, even if the opened Heaven is but a extasy or anguish, of fushing or of pallor, dream : ” — which means, we suppose, that any self-will of glorious but unfounded the power to dream of beautiful and un- faith, such as the critic ascribes to St. Stereal visions, to be clad in the glory of a phen, or of glorious but not unfounded defalse hope, is one which we ought to desire spair, such as we may find throbbing through and cheri-h for its beauty, even though we the exposed and quivering nerve of Shelknow that it is a mere transitory flush of ley's passionate verse. If the critic in the the spirit, which will shortly subside like Westminster Review be indeed the realist the crimson from an evening cloud, and he professes, he will not ground his apology reveal the cold leaden colour behind it. for religious emotion without faith on the Surely nothing can be less like " the Greek essentially unreal plea that all emotions spirit, with its engaging naturalness, simple, which are “ remote, refined, intense,” and chastened, debonair,” which this critic de- which express the triumph of a few over scribes (very falsely, we hope) as, for us of “the dead world of routine,” are good, and the present moment, “the Sangraal of an should be fostered for the sake of their endless pilgrimage,” than this attempt to rarity, intensity, and distinctiveness. We foster artificially states of feeling of which know of no plea more completely hollow, the natural springs and sources are pro- insincere, and, in a sense, even bad, than claimed to be imaginary or exhausted. To this. An aristocracy such as he would eninculcate the culture of a feeling not be courage, distinguished by rare and delicate cause there is any proper object worthy of blossoms of unreal sentiment, would be fit it, but because it is “remote, refined, in- for nothing but to be cast out and trodden tense, existing only by the triumph of a under the foot of man. We should feel few over a dead world of routine in which even a sort of passion of severely just exthere is no lifting of the soul at all,” is surely ultation in seeing the destruction of such the last vanity and infirmity of which hu- an aristocracy of hollow refinement by the man nature is capable, and so far from be- strong though coarse tread of the coming a duty, resting, as our critic says, on the monalty who are excluded by our critic same basis as that of intellectual cultare it from these “ remote and refined ” feelings. self, it would be of an essentially opposite A spiritual joy that is not good for the nature. The value of intellectual culture multitude can be worth no more to the consists in opening to us all sorts of new spirit, than an intellectual culture which is and true shades of distinction, which are ac- not good for the multitude can be worth to cessible to all who will travel the same path the intellect. All who have really underto find them. But feelings “ that just gleam stood the spiritual joy. of which the West. a moment and are gone,” and can be de- minster critic speaks have claimed it for all fended only as being “ remote, refined, in- men, and not exulted in it as the remote tense,” not as having any justification in a and refined distinction of a few. “Comfort living object, whatever defence may be set ye, comfort ye, my people,” is the strain of up for them, cannot certainly be defended the greatest prophet of this joy. The critic on the ground of belonging to the same who claims it as an esoteric gift marking sphere as true intellectual culture. Culture the spiritual rank of a few seems to us to is desirable, for the same reason for which know as little of its essence as he thinks achromatic eyepieces are desirable to the that he or any one else can know of Him astronomer, namely, as revealing true dis- who has been discovered by the modern tinctions which we could not otherwise dis- spirit not to be its source. criminate, or delicate phenomena which we But the critic suggests, though he does could not otherwise study at all, and which not hold by, another justification for this may help to throw an additional light on spiritual emotion and spiritual joy" for the laws of the universe. But to produce which he contends, which we readily admit for yourself voluntarily rare and delicate to be far nobler than the one of which we and arbitrary phenomena, - flashes of spir- have spoken. He says people accept in itual joy without an object, Auroras of the theology empty arguments which they would soul without any gleam of celestial light, - accept on no other subject, “ because what simply because such phenomena raise you chains men to a religion is not its olaim on above the common herd, and illustrate the their reason, their hopes, or fears, but the triumph of life over dead routine, is a glow it affords to the world, its beau ideal.' course of conduct which, so far from being | Coleridge thinks that, if we reject the supernatural, the spiritual element in life row. The condition of feeling which this will evaporate also, that we shall have to passion, taken alone and without faith, accept a life with narrow horizons, without would really justify, is the last in the world disinterestedness, harshly cut off from the which, if we understand him rightly, the springs of life in the past. But what is reviewer seriously wishes to encourage. this spiritual element? It is the passion He admires and envies “the engaging for inward perfection, with its sorrows, its naturalness, simple, chastened, debonair aspirations, its, joy. These mental states of the Greek spirit. Now aspiration in its are the delicacies of the higher morality of most ardent form, “ the passion of perfecthe few, of Augustine, of the author of the tion,” without trust in the love of God and Imitation, of Francis de Sales; in their Christ, is a passion of pain. The homo essence they are only the permanent char- desideriorum whom it tends to make is as acteristics of the bigher life. .. The far as possible from “ the Greek spirit, with life of those who are capable of a passion its engaging naturalness, simple, chastened of perfection still produces the same men- debonair.” A debonair“ passion of perfectal states; but that religious expression of tion” is almost a contradiction in terms. them is no longer congruous with the cul- Indeed, however the Westminster critic may ture of the age. Still all inward life works talk of the religious graces reappearing in itself out in a few simple forms, and culture a “subtilized intellectual shape," it is percannot go very far before the religious fectly clear that the joy of perfect trust, graces reappear in a subtilized intellectual the profound self-abasement of conscious shape.” This is nobler and doubtless more alienation from God, are just as little capatenable than the other theory, for though, ble of “reappearing in a subtilized intelwith instinctive exclusiveness of feeling lectual shape,if there be no personal obrather odd in a Westminster reviewer, the ject for such feelings, as is the warmth critic still limits the “passion of perfection” derived from a real sun, of “reappearing to a few, by making it a desire for a higher in a subtilized intellectual shape” when the life, and not for mere distinguishing rarities sun is extinguished and shines no more. of feeling, he opens it to the many. And We do not deny - we earnestly maintain we should be the last to try and convince that men who by no fault of their own those who are unhappy enough to be blind have lost sight of God, still draw from Him to God, that therefore they ought to in- the life and love which they may, if they dulge no “passion of perfection” if they choose, ascribe to the "subtilized intellecfeel it stir within them. Even the Comtist tual” movements of their own intellects. who thinks he sees a law of historic de- So a blind man may rejoice in the sunvelopment in human nature towards some- light, and yet maintain that because he is thing nobler, and feels, he knows not why, blind the sun does not exist, and that what the ardour of desire towards that nobler he feels is the “subtilized intellectual” future, will not be challenged by any true heat which other and coarser minds falsely Christian for believing so much, only be attribute to an external object. But those cause he does not believe more. If he who know that God besets them behind and really feels “ the passion of perfection,” the before, and lays His hand upon them, though desire to reach a higher step in inward feel- they may admit that what he gives to othing himself, and to contribute bis mite to ers“ in a subtilized intellectual shape” is the attainment of a yet higher level by as much proof of His love as what He gives those who succeed him after he has ceased more openly, and without veiling Himself to exist for ever, then we say that whether behind the complexities of a fine organizathe Comtian philosophy explaine those tion, will feel great compensation in the states of feeling truly or not, he is at least revealed personality which bestows the justified by the positivist theory in assum- simpler gifts, for the delicacy and subtlety ing these emotions as facts marking out the of those which are filtered through a nettrue direction of the historic law, and in work of refined labyrinthine perceptions fostering them also, if that seems to him that conceals the giver. There seems to us the best kind of conformity to the historic something more natural in turning away law. Only we entirely deny the reviewer's from spiritual subjects altogether, when position that this “passion of perfection " once the natural focus of such subjects, is itself the "spiritual element” of all true God, disappears from the unhappy thinker's faith. The “passion of perfection” in its view, than in trying to warm himself still present form is mere aspiration, and no with the heat of feelings of which the insource of joy, though a rich source of sor- tellectual justification has disappeared. A

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greater mind than the reviewer's, in a state may be into the highest phenomena of hi somewhat similar, though not so blank of spirit, does not exist for the purely “ relaall faith, wrote

tive spirit,” simply because it does not be

lieve that they are the highest phenomena It seems His newer will of his spirit, or indeed characteristic pheWe should not think at all of Him, but turn, nomena at all. The purely relative spirit And of the world that He has given us make which disbelieves in absolute righteousness What best we may.

disbelieves also in the special sacredness of

duty, the special evil of sin. Surely that is healthier and more natural And while our critic's criticism fails on than feeding on the “sacred perfume,” the this side in showing that the “ relative “spiritual sweetness” which departed faiths spirit” does issue in a “delicate and tender have left behind them, healthier, and far justness," it fails still more conspicuously more likely to restore the vanished faith. in showing that faith in an absolute right

The reviewer has an odd impression that cousness hardens and petrifies the moral all belief in an absolutely Righteous, an judgment, rendering it inflexible and“ bruinfinitely Holy God, destroys the delicacy of tal” in its classifications. Was it our Lord, human insight, the finely graduated judg- — who realized the absolute righteousness ment for human moralities. “ The relative living in Him, as no human being before or spirit,” he says, “ by dwelling constantly on since could possibly have realized it, and the more fugitive conditions or circumstan- who in criticizing the moral evil in others ces of things, breaking through a thousand - the woman taken in adultery for instance, rough and brutal classifications, and giving or the woman who was a sinner - acted on elasticity to inflexible principles, begets an His own precept, “ Judge not, that ye be intellectual finesse of which the ethical re- not judged,”. was it He who failed in a sult is a delicate and tender justness in the delicate and tender justness” in the critcriticism of human life.” On the other icism of human life, or rather the “ relative hand, belief in the absolute has a tendency spirit” of that day, the Sadduceeism which to petrify moral judgments into abstract would have stoned Paul for believing in the principles which will not fit individual cases, resurrection ? No doubt belief in a dead and into harmony with which therefore in- dogma may become the cruelest Pharisaism. dividual cases are artificially clipped or But faith in a living Lord of absolute bent, to the great injury of true justice; righteousness is probably the most softenand he illustrates by the deplorable figure ing, the most purifying, and ethereally dewhich Coleridge's life, judged by abstract licate of the human influences which affect morality, itself presents. We admit that our judgment of others. Even M. Renan, what the critic calls the “relative spirit," the great apostle of the “relative spirit," that is, the spirit which believes in no ab- - has attributed this delicacy of moral solute righteousness, is often lax, but we appreciation in the highest measure to our should certainly not have thought it “elas- Lord, and has remarked that his feeling for tic.”

On moral subjects it is loose-fitting moral nuances was something quite new to enough, but has not belief enough of any the Oriental genius. And whence did this sort. to care to adapt itself closely to the arise, if not in that infinite love for the moral condition of individual natures. Mr. Absolute righteousness and beauty which 'Lewes's life of Goethe may be fairly taken opened His eyes to the most delicate shades as a very good example of what the critic of loveliness, whether in the lily of the means by the purely relative spirit" in its field or in the heart of man ? adaptation to the higher criticism. The result is not a “delicate and tender justness in the criticism of human life,” but a lax absolution of that great man from almost all bis sins, even those sins which “a tender and delicate justness” would be

From the Spectator. compelled to admit. The truth is that the

HAREM LIFE IN EGYPT. purely "relative spirit” has no belief in either the free power of man to choose the THERE is no problem in literature so diffihigher part, or in a higher inspiration than cult as to write on delicate things delicately,

- if there be such its own to show it the higher part to choose. and Mrs. Emmeline Lott The spiritual elasticity which is concerned to adapt itself closely to the moral conflicts By Emmeline

Lott. In ** vols, London: Richard

* Harem Life in Egypt and Constantinople. of man's life, in order to enter as fully as Bentley. 1868.

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