earthquake denotes a revolution: and the revolution, so described, may be either political or ecclesiastical'. Now the earthquake or revolution, here foretold, must, in point of locality, be sought for within the limits of the Western or proper Roman Empire; because the effect of it is the downfall of the tenth part of the great city Babylon, or (in unfigured language) the downfall of the Roman Church in one of the ten kingdoms into which the Western Roman Empire was divided: and, in point of chronology, if I have rightly applied the prediction relative to the death and the revival and the ascension of the two witnesses, it must be sought for, between the January of the year 1686 when the ancient Churches of the valleys were decretively suppressed, and the June of the year 1690 when they were decretively reëstablished. Thus it appears, that we have a double notation local and chronological, by which our inquiry must be governed. Whence the only question to be answered is, whether there and then a revolution occurred, which will answer to the prophetic description of the earthquake.

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I shall doubtless be anticipated, even by the most careless reader of modern history, in specifying the memorable English revolution of the year 1688. The whole reign of our second Charles, who lived a profligate hypocrite and who died an acknowledged papist, was paving the way for the reduction

See above book i. chap. 1. § II. 1. (1.) (2.)

of England under the yoke of Rome. His misguided, though more honest, brother openly professed himself a papist : and, when he had ascended the throne, immediately took steps to effect what he deemed the most vital and important of all objects. With this view, he forthwith sent an embassy of congratulation to the Pope, upon the union of England to the Papacy in the person of its head: he attempted to force avowed Romanists upon the Universities, to the exclusion of those who were Protestants: he commenced a course of direct tyranny over the Anglican Church: he laboured to proselyte the army, in order that his designs might thus be more effectually furthered and (as it is generally supposed) he entered into a regular plan, in close concurrence with the persecuting king of France, to overturn from its very foundations the cause of English Protestantism.

At this precise point of time, took place the great earthquake or revolution, described by the prophet as synchronising with the period during which the two witnesses lie dead and revive and ascend to heaven. Toward the close of the year 1688, William of Orange landed on the coast, and James abdicated the crown, of England: the jurisdiction. of the mystical Babylon was finally dissolved, within one of the ten kingdoms of the divided Roman Empire and forthwith, by the legalised exclusion of Papists from every office whether spiritual or secular within the realm of England, seven thousand names of men (the scriptural mode of express

ing universality, for seven is the number of completeness and perfection 1) were slain or reduced to a state of political non-entity. Meanwhile the protestant remnant, who are placed in contradistinction to those who were politically slain by the earthquake, were awe-struck at this wonderful revolution by which their liberty and their religion were secured to them, and gave to the God of heaven the glory of their deliverance 2.

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(3.) But we have yet another chronological note, which is carefully specified in this wonderful prophecy.

The second woe is said to pass away, after the great earthquake has taken place, after the two witnesses have risen from the dead, and after the same two witnesses have ascended to heaven. When these three events shall have occurred, then the second woe passes away.

1 See Parkhurst's Heb. Lex. in voc. ya.

The striking accordance of their sentiments and feelings on this occasion, with the description of those sentiments and feelings which is given in the prophecy, cannot be better exemplified than by the address which was made to the Prince of Orange, Dec. 18, 1688.

Sir, when we look back to the last month and contemplate the swiftness and fulness of our present deliverance, astonished, we think it miraculous! Your highness, led by the hand of heaven and called by the voice of the people, has preserved our dearest interest: the protestant religion, which is primitive Christianity restored; and our laws, which are our ancient title to our lives, liberties, and estates, and without which the world would be a wilderness. Complete Hist. of England, vol. iii. p. 537.

Now the chronologically latest of the three events is the ascension of the two witnesses to heaven: for, as we have just seen, the great earthquake took place toward the close of the year 1688; the two witnesses rose from the dead in the August of the year 1689; and the same two witnesses ascended to heaven in the June of the year 1690.

Unless, therefore, the second woe passed away very shortly after the year 1690, the whole of the preceding interpretation will be untenable: because, in that case, it will not quadrate with the chronological note laid down in the prophecy.

Here, however, we have, both a perfect coincidence of the two predictions which specify the term of the second woe, and a perfect accordance of their joint chronological specification with historical matter of fact.

In the one prediction we are taught, that the second woe passes away very shortly after the great earthquake and the figurative ascension of the two witnessing Churches. But we learn from history, that the great earthquake took place in the year 1688, and that the two witnessing Churches ascended to heaven in the year 1690. Therefore, according to the one prediction, the second woe passes away very shortly after the year 1690 has expired.

In the other prediction we are taught, that the second woe passes away at the end of a period of 3964 years reckoned from the epoch when the Turcomannic horsemen were let loose upon the Eastern

Empire. But they were thus let loose in the year 1301. Therefore, according to the other prediction, the year 1697 is the specific time appointed for the passing away of the second woe.

This striking coincidence of two distinct predictions has been perfectly corroborated by matter of fact.

According to the one prediction, the Turks cease to be a woe to the Roman Empire very shortly after the year 1690: according to the other prediction, they cease to be a woe to the Roman Empire very shortly after the year 1690: according to the other prediction, they cease to be a woe to the Roman Empire in the precise year 1697. Have they, then, actually ceased to be a woe in correspondence with these two concurring prophecies? The question is best answered by the voice of history. In the year 1683, the Turks were triumphant; for they were victoriously besieging Vienna and threatening the Austrian monarchy with destruction: at this epoch, therefore, the second woe could not have passed away. But, in the year 1697, at the decisive battle of Zenta, the tide of conquest finally and irrevocably turned against them: and, accordingly, from this fatally preordained time when the second woe passed away, down even to the period in which we are now living, they have gradually declined in strength and importance; so that thenceforth, instead of being any longer a woe to Christendom, Christendom has rather been a woe to them. In the undesigned language of an his

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