Charity Building as the beginning of experience constantly tends to correct, a new era in their municipal adminis- is no great price to pay for the services tration. The vast size of London, and of so many private citizens-services the multifariousness of the benevolent which are of the utmost reflex benefit agencies which must be kept on foot in to themselves and the class they belong it, would make it impossible for us to to. follow the example of Boston exactly in In urging the importance of never this matter; but the principle might giving relief except after an investigawell be applied both here and in the tion into the applicant's circumstances other great pauper-ridden cities of Eng- and history, and the extreme care to land and Scotland.

be shown in making gifts of money, it New York, although the management is hardly necessary to appeal to American of all its public institutions, corrective experience; our own is so ample. No as well as charitable, is fortunately maxims, however, are more earnestly vested in the same board, has no such insisted on by those who direct the system of combined voluntary and offi- Boston and New York Associations. cial action as that which has been de. They absolutely refuse to give relief, scribed at Boston. But New York, not except by or on the specific report of less than Boston, supplies very satis- the visitor for the district in which the factory evidence of the possibility of applicant resides; and such visitor is organizing district visiting on a great bound to visit the house before he scale, and of securing, by means of a either relieves or reports. Both they trained staff of volunteers, the personal and the official Overseers of the poor examination of every case in which dilate in their reports on the dangers relief is applied for, and the appoint- attending all out-door relief, and exhort ment of the kind of relief which is the visitors and charitable citizens geneneeded. The city on Manhattan Island rally to be exceedingly cautious in giving has now nearly a million souls ; it has any help except that which is obviously grown with unexampled rapidity ; its of a temporary character, sufficient to pauperism is of a bad type ; its citizens help a family, so to speak, over the stile, are absorbed fully as much as ours in and set them again in the way to help business and in social enjoyments. But themselves. In Boston, at least, public the Association for Improving the Con- out-door relief seems to be entirely dition of the Poor has found no great confined to the sick and to helpless difficulty in keeping abreast of the work women. to be done; its organization by districts In the matter of in-door public relief, and sections has been extended over the the Americans seem to effect a great deal new quarters that have sprung up and of good by the marked distinction they has been strengthened in the old haunts draw between the almshouse and the of indigence; and the scantily manned workhouse. The former is in the towns central office seems able to hold all the fairly comfortable (in the country it is strings in its hand, and direct the four often very much the reverse), and the hundred visitors on principles whose infirm and aged admitted there are soundness is approved by their success subjected to no hard discipline. But in keeping pauperism in check. The the workhouse, whither a man who can tendency of the visitors, one hears, is work and won't work finds himself towards a rather too liberal dispensation despatched, is a very disagreeable place, of help; but this error, which longer

1 I saw only one country almshouse, the

rather wretched one of Tomkins County, 1 In mentioning this, I cannot refrain from N.Y., a few miles from Ithaca ; but it may referring to Miss Stephen's admirable book, be gathered from Professor Dwight's valuable The Service of the Poor. Its immediate subject paper in the Transactions of the American is the utility of Sisterhoods, but it abounds Social Science Association, that the condition with thoughtful and judicious remarks which of these establishments is generally unsatisbear upon the general question.


practically, in fact, a house of correction. heartening to see pauperism at all in a Its discipline is uniform and stringent, new country, where it ought never to and as its inmates are all of them persons have been suffered to set its loathsome of obviously undeserving character, va foot, and whence it might even now be grants, drunkards, sturdy beggars, people expelled by the exercise of a little more who come there not through misfortune, foresight and resolution. The same inbut in virtue of a judicial sentence, or disposition to take a comprehensive because they persist in claiming relief survey of phenomena, to deal with the from the Overseers after being warned to sources of a disease instead of its symphelp themselves, this stringency can toms, which is so often remarked in be justly and fairly maintained, without English policy, is also strong among the yielding to those gusts of popular senti Americans ; partly from easy good nament that disturb the administration ture, partly from not understanding the of our workhouses, which are places of danger, they are suffering the evils of refuge for the unfortunate as well as the Old World to strike such deep root the culpably idle.

that it will be hard ever after to eradiThe Industrial Aid Society of Boston cate them. Intoxicated with the greatis an institution which well deserves to ness of their country, happy in dilating be imitated in our English towns. It on its material resources and the swiftfurnishes the best means of discrimi ness with which these have been devenating the well-intentioned from the loped, seeing all around them the troidle and worthless pauper; and succeeds phies of their own restless activity, in relieving a great deal of distress in they have acquired an unbounded the healthiest way, by simply directing confidence in the future of the nation, labour to the place where it is wanted. and are in some danger of forgetting Acting in conjunction with the Over that even these resources must find a seers and the Provident Association, it limit, and that they cannot alone indisburdens them to a great extent of sure the well-being and grandeur of a the care of the able-bodied poor, and people, whose moral and social tone saves infinite vexation and waste to

may possibly suffer from a too rapid honest immigrants by informing them of growth in material prosperity. The old the market in which there happens to diseases of politics and society are quick be, at the moment, a demand for their to show themselves, more or less diskind of labour. This can be done rather guised in form but substantially the more easily in America than in England, same, in all our colonies, and spread not work is so much more abundant, and less swiftly than the community they wages so much higher. On the other infect. A time will come when the hand, the distances to which labourers causes which have produced pauperism would have to be sent are in England in Europe will operate with hardly less by no means so great, and the more intensity in America, when the best complex variety of our industries makes lands in the Mississippi valley will have some such agency even more needed been occupied, when all necessary than in the States.

ways and other public works will have America is a country full of good

been executed, when the pressure of works and labours of love; and there is population will have become as great as much that is cheering in the vigour and it is now in England without the relief ingenuity, as well as in the benevolence which in England emigration offers. If with which indigence is relieved and things are suffered to go on as now, and crime grappled with in its great cities. that incentive to sloth and vice, a PoorIn New York and Massachusetts, they law, is maintained, the pauperism which are not only kept in check, but pau is said to be already beginning to exist in perism, at least, is being reduced, rela- Chicago and St. Louis will have swelled tively to the increase of population. to dangerous proportions in those splenAll this is cheering. But it is dis did cities, and have found its way,


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ing a swarm of mischiefs in its train, to basis, free from the inheritance of annewer and as yet untouched centres of cient misery and crime which clings to industry, to places like Dubuque and it in the States of Europe-an opportuMinneapolis. American society is in nity perhaps singular in the past annals many respects so much healthier, better of the world, an opportunity which more stable than society in Europe, assuredly can never recur. Proportionthat one is loth to express anything but ately great will be the disappointment satisfaction in contemplating its future. if such an opportunity should prove to Nevertheless, the question cannot but have been in a measure neglected or be asked, whether its merits are as great misused, if from the want of a little as they might have been and ought to judgment and foresight at a critical have been, whether the most is being moment the evils and follies which in made of the unequalled advantages with Europe have grown to be almost part which the nation started. In the North of its people should be suffered to American colonies nature and history, spring up anew in America, to spread so to speak, combined to offer to a as only evil can spread, and poison the vigorous race a golden opportunity of life of our remote descendants. founding society on a new and sounder

No. 145.- VOL. XXV.






Our condition, too, was much worse, for there was neither house nor culti

vated field near us, and the darkness At a time when Daniel O'Connell and was approaching Mr. Lawless, commonly called Jack When we had spent a quarter of an Lawless, were agitating in the north of hour with no more success than having Ireland (especially Lawless), I was tra- prevented the carriage from being driven velling with my wife and two children by the rogue into the ditch and upset, between Londonderry and Coleraine. we heard a shout, and looking back, we The evening was closing in, when, going saw a large party of men running toup a tolerably steep ascent, one of the wards us, and soon recognized our late carriage-horses refused to pull, and all helpers, with a dozen recruits added. the efforts and contrivances of the • Ogh, then,” said a prominent indicoachman could not induce him to do his vidual among them, “I tould them how duty. We coaxed and we whipped, we it would be like to be with yees,

when changed sides, all in vain; and it ye'd come to the mountain ; and so we seemed a hopeless case, and a very

dis watched till we saw ye sticking like a agreeable one.

fly on a wall, and when you made no However, some men harvesting on a hand of getting up this pinch, we ran to hillside a quarter of a mile off saw our give ye a help." distress, and came quickly to the rescue. They had thoughtfully brought ropes. A score of stout fellows with hearty They took the horses out of the traces, goodwill, and hardly giving an oppor and


them to one of their party to tunity to ask their aid, shoved and lead. They made me get into the rumble dragged the carriage, in spite of some behind, and the coachman up on the opposition on the part of the culprit- box, and drew us up the steep for half horse, to the top of the hill, where there a mile, to the top of that hill. They appeared a gentle slope downwards for a halted, and I got down and thanked mile, and they left us with the assurance them. that the rogue, as they designated the “Ogh, then, it's small thanks ye'd horse, would warm to the collar before need to give us, as if we'd be after we reached the ascent of the mountain laving ye here. Sure the roguish rascal road that lay between us and our jour- of a baste would be at his villiantry at ney's end.

the next pull, and no help there. No, A wayside carman's inn offered the no, sir, we won't lave the lady and the means of giving my friends a glass of children till you have falling ground beer, which they proposed to accept before ye into Coleraine." after refusing a present of money.

So they set to again, and lustily they We went spinning along for the fa- pulled, sometimes shouting, and somevourable mile, and for about half a times singing. I walked beside them mile of the up-hill road too, till we got part of the way, and while they did not into the moors, and came to a steeper perceive me in the dusk, I overheard a pinch, and there the rogue began his conversation. tricks again, and proved as untractable One of them said to his companion, as before.

on pulling alongside :

Pleasant Recollections of Fifty Years' Residence in Ireland.


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“ Do ye know who it is we've got in In a particular district it was the carriage ?”

managed that the magistrates were led “Not a know I know. Do


?" to believe that an Orange demonstration “I don't know neither ; but I guess would be made at a certain place, and they’re the wrong sort.”

that an intended counter-demonstra“Why? What do you mane ?” tion at the same place would certainly

“Don't you see it's a green carriage, lead to a serious collision, unless a strong and he's got a green coat on him. force were there to keep the peace. They're in the wrong colour for us." The magistrates, therefore, congregated

« Well, who do you think they are ?” where the danger was expected, and the

"I can't tell that, but it would be a principal part of the police, as well as a pretty thing for us, a set of true Orange company of infantry, were brought there boys, to be making ourselves horses for too. maybe some

The dangerous illness of one of my Before he could finish his sentence, family kept me at home. his companion, without letting go his On the 12th of July, at daybreak, a hold on the rope, drove his elbow into policeman from the neighbouring small the speaker's ribs with such force as to town came to me with information that compel him to groan, saying, “And the Orangemen were assembling in force if it was Jack Lawless himself, would we there instead of at B-, where it had lave his lady and the children here in been expected they would meet; and trouble, and we able to help them ?” that they expressed their determination

Then with a shout-" Hurrah for the to have their procession with flags, emglorious memory of King William !” he blems, music, and arms, in defiance of pulleil with all his might, and was ap the Royal proclamation. plauded by all who heard him.

I was quickly on my horse, and at They drew us fully three (Irish) miles the town, about two miles off, I found it up the mountain, and set us where as the policeman had reported. I had there was, as they had promised, falling visited the masters of the Orange lodges ground into Coleraine.

a few days before, and laid before them A public-house gave again an oppor two letters which I had received from tunity for a drink, but all who had had their Grand-master, and the Grandit before declined, saying it was not for master for Ireland, desiring them to be that they had done the job.

obedient to the proclamation, and they said

one, sir, we'd have no pleasure in had promised to follow this advice; but, life after it, if we were to impose our except one lodge, they seemed to glory selves on a gentleman that way.” And in having deceived the magistrates, and bowing to the lady, they wished us good knowing that I had very little force at night, and a prosperous journey. hand, they thought themselves sure of

being able to have their own way. VI.

I sent more than one messenger to

B- to let the magistrates know the A TWELFTH OF JULY.

truth, but they were waylaid and turned DARK and disagreeable adventures some back. times best bring out bright and pleasing However, by sending to a neighbourtraits, as was the case on the 12th of ing village and requiring the attendance July, 1834

of a party of revenue police-partly Notwithstanding a proclamation under mounted—which was stationed there, Royal authority, along with the earnest and adding them to the few police in advice of their Grand-master and other the place, we made a tolerable show of high authorities, the Orangemen could strength. And the people, though acting not be persuaded that it was illegal or now wrong, and under had advisers, are wrong to have their party processions thereabouts a very orderly, peaceable folk, with music, flays, and arms.

and not at all used to deeds of violence,


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