in 1846, and the subsequent news, in Italy against the Austrian, and called 1847 and 1848, that he was proving upon the other Italian princes to himself, by act after act, a rarity among send their contingents to the aid of Popes, bent on reforming his states, his Piedmontese army. They all did and governing constitutionally! What so, with more or less of heart ; Ferdihopes, what speculations, over the new nand of Naples with the least of all, but Pontificate! Pshaw ! ere men had compelled by his people. For everylearnt the new Pope's name, down went where the populations hailed Charles he, and all the hopes clustered round Albert, the Mazzinians or Republicans him, in a universal vortex. " Abdica- no less than the Moderates; nay, tion of Louis-Philippe” flamed the Mazzini himself in the midst of his newspaper placards all along Fleet Mazzinians, again willing for the moStreet one day early in 1848; and ment, as it seemed, that the Repubthrough that year and the next what lican theory should go into abeyance a crush of commotions and surprises, in the presence of immediate and pararevolutions and counter-revolutions, all mount duty. He had hurried from through Europe! Restlessness seemed England, through France, into Lomnormal, and Astonishment had her fill. bardy, on the first news of that insurOn the signal from France, the peoples rection of the Lombard cities and were up everywhere ; oppressed nation- Venice against their Austrian masters alities and states, with long accounts to (March, 1848) which had given Charles settle, were facing their tyrants at their Albert also his opportunity. Was the palace-doors; and the tyrants, bowing conspirator Mazzini to be seen as penitently from the door-steps, were volunteer, then, in the army of Charles swearing to new constitutions as fast Albert ? He ought to have been, as they were presented, any number of people afterwards said ; it was the acperjuries deep. Italy, more peculiarly, cusation afterwards both against him was a sight for Mephistopheles in this and the Venetian Manin that they imrespect. How Ferdinand II. of Naples, peded Charles Albert, fomented Repuband the minor princelings through the lican distrust in him, and kept fresh length of the Peninsula, were trembling forces from joining his standard. On and swearing in their several states, if the other side, the blame was thrown on perchance they might keep their thrones, the king; he wanted, it was said, to while old Radetzky and his Austrians, fight mainly with regular troops, and unable to stand against the popular up- looked coldly on volunteers, especially risings of the Lombards and the Vene- of the Mazzinian sort. Certain it is tians, were relaxing their hold of the that there was jealousy or mismanagenorth ! One Italian sovereign, indeed, ment somewhere, and it turned to stepped forward in another spirit. This the advantage of the Austrians. In was Charles Albert of Piedmont, the old July 1848 the strategy of Radetzky Carbonaro. He undertook now that beat Charles Albert utterly, recovered nobler part he had grimly declined Lombardy, and dispersed the general some seventeen years before, when the Italian cause into fragments. It was young Mazzini had tried to thrust it

among these fragments, however, that upon him. He would show now that Mazzini found occasion for a feat, peronly prudence and common-sense had haps the most heroic and characteristic then kept him back, and that, the of his own entire life, and certainly the conditions being ripe, Italy might have most momentous in that war of Italian in him such an actual patriot-king as Independence. The Pope, probably the too rapid Republican enthusiast had adverse to the war from the first, had declared to be an impossibility. As become decidedly pro-Austrian after King of Sardinia, Charles Albert took Charles Albert's defeat, and had conLombardy under his protection, pro- sequently lost his popularity with his claimed himself the champion of all Roman subjects. In November, acNo. 150.- VOL. XXV.


cordingly, he thought it safest to flee he knew that interference in Italian from Rome in disguise, and take refuge affairs was not in Great Britain's way, at Gaeta in the Neapolitan territories. and that least of all was she likely to The Romans, left to themselves, and stir herself very heartily for things unable to persuade him to return, at calling themselves Republics. But from length called a Constituent Assembly of France, anti-Austrian France, herself a 150 delegates elected by universal suf- Republic, and the beginner of the whole frage, and by the all but unanimous European Revolution which Austria vote of this Assembly (the dissentients

was now undoing? Well, the French eleven at most) the temporal sovereignty Republic did interfere, but it was after of the Pope was abolished, and the the oddest fashion. She left Venice to Roman States were converted into a the mercy of the Austrians, and she Republic (Feb. 1849). These steps had sent an army of 30,000 soldiers, under just been taken when Mazzini, who had General Oudinot, to Civita Vecchia, meanwhile been wandering about in with orders to march upon Rome, put Lombardy as a volunteer with Garibaldi's down the mushroom Roman Republic, irregulars, and had since gone into and restore the temporal sovereignty of Tuscany, arrived in the Eternal City. the Pope. Louis Napoleon was then He had never seen it before; he was a in the fourth month of his Presidency Genoese by birth; but what of that ? of the French Republic; but the He was received by the Romans with expedition had been planned by the acclamations, elected at once to the Republican Cavaignac, and had the Assembly, and then appointed the chief concurrence of M. Thiers, M. de of the Triumvirs to whom the executive Tocqueville, M. Drouyn de Lhuys, and of the new Republic was entrusted. all the leading French politicians. Great The use of such a man in such a post Britain also had intimated her assent, soon appeared. Ferdinand of Naples, on the principle that the restoration of rampantly pro - Austrian since the Pope to his dominions “under an Charles Albert's defeat, had been taking improved form of government” would leisurely revenge on his poor Neapolitan be particularly agreeable to every candid subjects for their patriotic misde- Protestant mind. And so General meanour; and in March 1849 he had Oudinot landed at Civita Vecchia, and the farther pleasure of cannonading the marched to Rome, expecting that the still insurgent Sicilians into renewed Assembly and the Triumvirs would subjection. In the same month, the behave sensibly, recognise the will of unfortunate Charles Albert, who had France, and offer no opposition. Then again taken the field against the Austrians, was the hour of Mazzini. He knew was again shattered by Radetzky at that Rome must fall, but he had made Novara, and had nothing left but to

up his mind that in her fall there should abdicate the Sardinian crown in favour be buried the seeds of her renovation, of his son, Victor Emmanuel, and into and a bond for all Italy which the world exile to die. Only two relics of the would one day honour. For two months once hopeful Italian Revolution then the Romans, with 14,000 armed men remained in the entire peninsula—the among them—Mazzini in the centre, and Roman Republic, governed by Mazzini; the larger-framed Garibaldi in his red and the city of Venice, also a self- shirt heading the suburban sallies and declared Republic, besieged by the showing what street-fighting might be Austrians, and resolutely defended by maintained the defence of the city Manin. Were these two relics also to against the besieging French army; be overwhelmed? Was there no hope? and when, on the 3rd of July, 1849, Would no foreign power, for example, the French did enter Rome, it was over interfere? The mass of the Italians, corpses and ruins. Seven weeks afterin their ignorance, thought even of wards Venice surrendered to the Great Britain. Mazzini knew better; Austrians after a bombardment; and in




April 1850 the Pope came back from and ever and anon there was a flutter Gaeta to Rome, to resume his temporal through France and Italy about some sovereignty under the protection of intended Mazzinian movement, or some French bayonets.

supposed vision of Mazzini himself The last two-and-twenty years of near the Italian frontier. Mazzini's life (1850-1872) make a story the stormy petrel of European polivery straggling in itself, inasmuch as he tics, the newspapers continually said. is not seen as the direct agent in the So in a sense he was; but not unfrewonderful transformation of Italy then quently, when he was reported to be actually accomplished, but mainly as the abroad, and the French and Austrian incessant idealist of the transformation, police were watching for him, he was foiled in his attempts to get the practical quietly smoking a cigar or listening to management of it into his own hands, Tamberlik in a London room. Tamberor even to regulate it in his own way, lik! What an evening was that when and obliged to be only the inspirer of this great singer sang Italia! O Italia! others and their critic when they did in a room filled with refugees and their not satisfy him. Having returned to friends, and the airaround you was a-shiver England, and resumed in London his with the intensity of feeling that trembled character of refugee, conspirator, and through the voice, and at the close the propagandist, he occupied himself for applause was like a yell of fury, and strong some years in denouncing more especially young men flung themselves upon his the French occupation of Rome, and neck with sobbings and embracings ! the conduct of the French generally in Italia ! 0 Italia ! The work of 1848–9 the affairs of Italy, including in his had not been quite in vain for her. She rebukes not only Louis Napoleon, first was somewhat freer than she had been ; as president and then emperor, but also the system of tyranny that racked her the other responsible politicians, many had been shaken and loosened. Above of them anti-Napoleonists. This was all, there was one solid block of her the time also, I think, of the first population enjoying constitutional freegeneral awakening of people in England doin and good administration in tolerable and Scotland, by Mazzini's influence, to degree, and yielding example, hope, and some knowledge of Italian affairs, and encouragement to the rest. Bluff King some interest in them. Now, too, there Victor Emmanuel of the Sardinian was his temporary alliance with Kossuth, States had remained steady to the later the arrival of whom in England, and the policy of his father, and he had the extraordinary eloquence and subtlety of matchless Cavour for his minister. It his speeches in English, were a public was on this quiet, deep, sagacious, topic for many months. From the at humorous man, covering the farthest tempt so made to link Italy and Hungary aims and the most determined zeal for in an anti-Austrian league nothing very them under the richest fertility in shifts practical followed ; but it led to pictu and compromises—this statesman of the resque groupings in the more private Individualist or Macchiavellian type, as circles of London refugeedom and cos Mazzini would have called him—that mopolitanism. Kossuth and Mazzini there devolved after all the successful might now be seen side by side, with scheming for Italy's liberation. He and other Hungarians and Italians round Napoleon III. put their heads together; them, and a due sprinkling of English and there was the alliance of the French men and Americans, Frenchmen, Poles, and the Sardinians in a new war against and Russians; and on rare occasions, Austria, ending in sonie gain for the when Garibaldi's ship chanced to come French Emperor, but also in the formainto the London Docks, one had a tion of a Northern Italian Confederation glimpse of that hero, with his noble or kingdom of North Italy, with Victor figure, and his fair, calm, trustworthy

Emmanuel at its head (July 1859). face. Plottings, I daresay, there were ; Not a Mazzinian Republic, then, but a

constitutional kingdom, was to be the shoot at him, and cage him up like a form of a substantially liberated Italy. lame old lion. With Mazzini it was Nay, even, as it proved, of an Italy worse. Transformed Italy would have whole and united! For now the Re been glad to welcome him permanently publican Garibaldi, accepting the King back too, and to assuage his declining dom of North Italy as an accomplished years with luxury, rewards, and honour. fact, volunteered daringly to give it the He did visit this transformed Italy ani necessary extension.

An insurrection, receive homage in some of her cities; devised in part by him and Mazzini, but she was not transformed, alas ! comhad broken out in Sicily against the pletely to his mind. His dream of a Neapolitan king, Francis II.; and, Republican Italy had remained unfulplunging into the midst of this, with filled ; and even in the system of a the battle-cry of “Italy and Victor Royalist and Constitutional Italy, as he Emmanuel,” Garibaldi was able, in the conceived that imperfect system might course of a few months, to win Sicily be made to work, he found much to and Naples too, and hand them over to blame, and many shortcomings of what his royal master, saluting him "King of was attainable. And so he died in Pisa, Italy," and receiving the reply “I thank plotting no one knows what; and, though you" (October 1860). In February the assembled Italian Parliament in 1861 the first united Italian Parliament Rome have properly signified their remet at Turin, and in March the Kingdom membrance of all that Italy owes to him, of Italy was formally recognised by they may have felt his death as a praetiGreat Britain. There was yet much to cal relief. When a prophet dies whose do, however, to accomplish the complete Excelsior! Excelsior has never ceased unification : especially there was the for forty years, there may be hope for Papal sovereignty ir the Roman States, rest and routine. with the French force guarding it, lying Of Mazzini's share in that great translike an extraneous lump in the middle formation of modern Italy, which is one of the Peninsula. The steps of the of the most remarkable, and surely one farther process by which the unification of the most beneficial, facts in the recent has been made perfect—the removal of history of Europe, it would be difficult the Italian capital from Turin to Florence, to form an estimate. Charles Albert, the plotting and negotiations for the Victor Emmanuel, Cavour, Napoleon III, possession of Rome, the evacuation of Garibaldi, and others and still others Rome by the French troops in the pres unnamed here, have all co-operated in sure of the great struggle between France their various ways and with various and Germany, the consequent incorpora- motives ; larger masses of the total subtion of Rome also with the Italian stance of the work, as the eye follows it kingdom of Victor Emmanuel, and the in the palpable form of moving armies transference of the capital at last to the and falling thrones, have to be assigned ever-glorious city—are all matters of to some of these than to Mazzini ; and recent recollection. Neither Mazzini Mazzini's lifelong pursuit of his enternor Garibaldi, I believe, was unfelt prise, but for their co-operation, might through all this later process. The sig- have been, in large measure, futile and nalling to Rome, the constant stirring of fruitless. Yet, with all allowance, very the national passion for Rome as the much of the result is due to Mazzini. consummation, was their share of the His defence of Rome against the French, duty. Not that they were contented. taken as a single action, was a deed after Even Garibaldi, we know, had his tem his own heart, and of vast consequence. pers ; and, though they would fain have To me it has always seemed precisely pensioned him, and hung golden collars the kind of deed which he was fitted to round his neck, and cushioned him do, and which, but for the inspiration softly for the rest of his life, they had of his peculiar character, would not have to take notice of his outbreaks, actually been done at all, or not nearly so well.

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To fire a population, at a critical mo sopher, a Moralist, a Reasoner about ment, up to the pitch of such a deed of everything from a definite system of desperation, and yet of duty, and to first principles, a Thinker on all subcarry them through it, was, I believe, jects, a Universal Critic of Art and his most natural function in the world Literature. His general writings, partly of hard action. In a settled Government, collected and republished in conjunction or even in a Government of ordinary with those appertaining to Italy and struggle and difficulty, I do not think he his own political life, illustrate suffiwould have so excelled. He was too in- ciently both the systematizing habit of tolerant, too tenacious of his own ideas, his mind and the wide range of his and these not the ideas that other able reading and culture. He knew someand honest men might have ; practical thing about everything. He had a co-operation with him long in actual consecutive scheme of the History of business by a sufficient number of men the World in his head; he had an acof any strength of will, and of tolerably quaintance with the chief Greek and good parts, would have been impossible. Latin poets, and the characteristics at Tenacity is one of the words I would least of the chief English, Spanish, apply to Mazzini ; he was the most tena German, and even Slavonian, authors; cious man I ever met. But here, in his in Italian Literature, and in contemcareer of propagandism, was his superla- porary French Literature, his knowledge tive merit. As an Idealist in Italian was extensive and minute; he had at politics, as the spiritual torch-bearer of least looked into Kant and Hegel, and a great cause, he was unsurpassable. He caught the essence of some of their rap with the torch, the same torch, for abstractions; he was intelligent on subforty years; and, but for the Republican jects of Art, and especially of Music ; colour in the flame, it proved the right and he had no objection to the last torch at last. The Unity of Italy ! who novelty in physical science. With all does not remember how that idea was this universality of range, and abundderided in all our newspapers, attacked, ance of casual allusion, his writings are written down, treated as a wild chimera ? somewhat disappointing to those who It is to Mazzini's credit that he had desire instruction rather than stimulaseized that idea when no other man had tion. The stimulation is in great overseized it, when the very Italians them- proportion to the nutriment, and on selves held it to be naught, and that he this very account fails, after a while, kept it alive through good report and

as stimulation. Vagueness ; rabad report, drove it by iteration and re- pidity; the recurrence continually of iteration into the popular Italian con

or other of a certain limited sciousness, and even into the heads of number of fixed ideas, couched in imstatesmen, and persevered till he saw it pressive but nebulous phrases, such as triumph. Facts will take any course, I i God and Humanity," “ Progress," said some time ago. It is but a half “the Unity which is the Soul of the truth. Facts will always in the end Universe," “ the infallibility involved flow in the channel of the deepest specu in the idea of progression and of collative perception. So far as most people lective mankind," "faith in the tradition will now pronounce Mazzini's views of your epoch and your nation,” “ the about Italy to have been right theoreti necessity in this


of a return from Discally, he had succeeded before he died. solving Analysis to Creative Synthesis ;"

real eloquence, and sometimes startling Mazzini, it may be necessary to say, dithyrambic power, in the presentation was more than the Italian Patriot, of these ideas, but the presentation of though he was that pre-eminently. His them always as axioms which there were patriotism was the main outcome of a a baseness in not accepting, while you very powerful, original, and various admit their truth only so far, and would mind. He was a Theosophist, a Philo- occasionally like a little explanation and



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