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cloudy sky and part of a tree. Both was thus forced to content himself by pictures are in the Kensington Museum. giving to the sky in his later pictures the The identity of the composition makes same colour as in the earlier ones. the difference in the colouring more If we look at Mulready's earlier striking If we look at the second works through the same yellow glass, picture through a yellow glass, the they lose considerably in beauty of difference between the two almost en colouring : the tone appears too weak; tirely disappears, as the glass corrects the shadows brown; the green, dark the faults of the picture. The smock and colourless; we see them as he saw frock of the boy no longer appears of them, and understand why he became that intense blue which we may see dissatisfied with them and changed his in a lady's silk dress, but never in the colouring. smock-frock of a peasant. It changes It would be more important to correct into the natural tint which we find in the the abnormal vision of the artist, than first picture. The purple face of the boy to make a normal eye see as the artist also becomes of a natural colour. The saw when his sight had suffered. This shades on the neck of the girl and the unfortunately can only be done to a arms of the child, which are painted in certain extent. a pure blue, look now grey, and so do the blue shadows in the clouds. The If it is the dispersion of light which, grey trunk of the tree becomes brown. as in Turner's case, alters the perception Surprising is the effect upon the of nature, it can be partly rectified by a yellowish green foliage, which, instead kind of diaphragm with a small opening of appearing still more yellow, is re (Donders' sthenopeical spectacles). stored to its natural colour, and shows In cases of astigmatism, the use of the same tone of colour as the foliage cylindrical glasses will completely corin the earlier picture. This last fact is rect the aspect of nature, as well as of most important to prove the correctness the picture. Certain anomalies in the of my supposition. My endeavour to sensation of colour may also be counterexplain it became the starting point of a acted to some extent by the use of series of investigations to ascertain the coloured glasses ; for instance, by a blue optical qualities of the pigments used in glass, when the lens has become yellow, painting, and thus to enable us to recog as in Mulready's case. nize them by optical contrivances, when If science aims at proving that the vision of the naked eye does not suf certain works of art offend against fice to analyse the colours of a picture. physiological laws, artists and art critics

When I had the pleasure of showing ought not to think that by being subthis experiment with Mulready's pic- jected to the material analysis of phytures to Professor Tyndall, he drew mysiological investigation, that which is attention to the fact that one single noble, beautiful, and purely intellectual colour, namely, the blue of the sky, was will be dragged into the dust. They not affected by the yellow glass. The ought, on the contrary, to make the reblue of the sky was almost the same in sults of these investigations their own. both pictures. I could not at once ex In this way art critics will often obtain plain the cause of this, but I discovered an explanation of the development of it afterwards. The fact is, it is im the artist, while artists will avoid the possible to change the sky-blue of the inward struggles and disappointments first picture so as to form a colour that which often arise through the differlooks like it when seen through a yellow ence between their own perceptions and glass. If more white is added, the sky those of the majority of the public

. becomes too pale ; if a deeper blue is Never will science be an impediment used, it becomes too dark. Mulready

Mulready to the creations of genius.

509

A MEMOIR OF MAZZINI.

BY DAVID MASSON.

FIVE-AND-TWENTY years have passed likely to find him. As it happened, since I first saw Mazzini. It was in a however, this my first sight of Mazzini was room in the north part of London, where by no means the last. By a concurrence he had politely called, in acknowledg- of circumstances, I met him again and ment of a slight claim I had on his again in the house of one or another of acquaintance through my friendship in the very few English families that another city with a fellow-countryman enjoyed his intimacy, till at length I of his who was very dear to him. I came to know him well, and what hardly remember well the first sight of him, as promised to be an acquaintanceship he entered, sat down, and immediately became for me one of the friendships of began to talk. He was then thirty- my life, for which I thank Fate and eight years of age, retaining much of that which I shall ponder till I die. Through grace and beauty for which he had been

many years, as he flashed from England famous when he first fascinated his to the Continent, and from the ContiGenoese college-companions, drew them nent back to England, I watched hiin, with into sympathy with his dreams, and some general knowledge of his designs, imagined the association afterwards -at one important crisis, indeed, with known as Young Italy. One know at thorough admiration, and such hopes once that slight figure, in a dark and for his success as could not but be closely-fitting dress, with the marvellous yielded by any who understood the face of pale olive, in shape a long oval, grand essentials of his drift, and the the features fine and bold rather than state of the poor Italy he longed to massive, the forehead full and high renovate ; afterwards with undiminished under thin dark hair, the whole ex affection, but perhaps more of doubt pression impassioned and sad, and the and dissent, as he pushed on, past great eyes large, black, and preternaturally achieved success, to those extreme speburning. His talk was rapid and abundant, cialities of his programme about which in an excellent English that never failed, one was more indifferent or less informed. though it was dashed with piquant Vaguest of all is my cognisance of his foreign idioms, and pronounced with a doings during the last seven or eight decidedly foreign accent. The matter years. No longer in London, save at on that occasion was discursive, and intervals, I had lost the customary opthe manner somewhat distrait, as if he portunities of seeing him, and a newswere on a visit of courtesy which he paper rumour now and then, or a more wanted to get through, and which need private message sometimes as to his happily involve no farther trouble to his whereabouts and the state of his health, recluse habits and the pursuit of his was all I had to trust to. The last

He was then living in time I saw him was, I think, about two an obscure off-street from the City Road, years ago. He was then in a lodging at somewhere beyond the New River, in the Brompton, and I found him painfully house, I believe, of an Italian tradesman, emaciated and weak from long illness, who was one of his devoted followers ; but full of kindly interest in persons but one had been forewarned that he did

and things, his spirit unabated, and the not expect chance visitors there, and black eyes beaming with their old lustre. that indeed such visitors would not be And now he is dead at Pisa, at the age

many affairs.

of sixty-three ; and, while the world at to be worth anything, if it was not to large is agreeing that all in all he was be mere Macchiavellism or mere Carone of the most memorable men of his bonarism revived, and to die out in time in Europe, but there are the pedantry and cowardly drivel as these strangest variations in the particular vaunted originals had done, its very estimate, here am I recalling my own characteristic must be that the three experience of him, the memory of by- things should be kept togetherin thought, gone evenings in his society, the sound and that in action every stroke should of his voice amid other voices, and the be for all at once, or for one as implying touch of his hand at parting.

all! Nevertheless, if only to demon

strate this necessary identity of the “Friends, I owe more tears three ideas, they might be held up To this dead man than you shall see me pay.” separately in exposition.

The Independence and Freedom of Above all, it is as the Italian Patriot Italy! This meant the hurling out of that the world thinks of Mazzini. The

the Austrian, whose hoof had been so summary of his aims in that character long the degradation of her fairest prohad been set forth by himself, systemati- vinces, and the rectification at the same cally and once for all, as early as 1831, time of the petty domestic tyrannies when he was first a refugee in France, which the Austrian upheld. Well, flung out from his native land in the where was the Italian that could say ardour of his pure youth, and with no

nay to that, and where over the wide other means of acting upon that land world were men—themselves living and than conspiracy and propagandism. breathing as men, and not lashed and

Italy must be a Republic, one, free, tortured like beasts—that could refuse and independent! This was the pro- this deliverance to the Italians when. gramme of the Young Italy Association, ever the time should come? About this inscribed in all its manifestoes, and re- part of the programme there could be peated and expounded everlastingly. no controversy. Grasp the phrase in its full meaning, Ay, but the Unity of Italy! What and in all the items of its meaning, and necessity for that; what chance of it? you have that political creed from which Did not many of the wisest Italians Mazzini, as an Italian politician, never themselves look forward merely to an swerved, and never, save perhaps at one Italy of various governments, each toleror two moments of practical exigency, ably free within itself, and all perhaps could be made even to seem to swerve. connected by some kind of Federation; But, though the phrase was from first to

was not that also the notion of the last a glowing whole in his mind, and most liberal French politicians, and of the very accusation against him was and the few Englishmen that troubled themis that he would not break it into its selves with any thought about Italy at items, the fact that it does consist of all? Universally, would not the speculaitems which may be taken separately tion of a United Italy be scouted as a ought to be distinctly apprehended in mad Utopia ? Let them rave, replied any retrospect of his life. The items are Mazzini. The idea of a single Italian three, and they ought to be taken in the nation, one and united, had been, he

the Independence and maintained, an invariable form of thinkFreedom of Italy first, the Unity of ing in the minds of all the greatest Italy next, and the Republicanism of Italians in succession, from Dante to the Italy last. First, next, and last, I re- Corsican who had Europeanized himself peat, were the very words which Maz

as Bonaparte; and an examination of zini abhorred in the whole matter. The the practical conditions of the problem first could not be except by and with of Independence and Freedom would also, the next, nor that except through the he maintained, show that problem to be last ; if the new Italian Patriotism was insoluble except in the terms of Unity.

Well, but why a Republic? If some Patriot-King, or of a conquering soldier existing Italian potentate, with due am- who would win the freedom of his counbition in his heart and something of try by winning a crown for himself, was better fibre to aid (Charles Albert of declared to be an impossible phenoPiedmont, for example, once a Car- menon.

The time for such things was bonaro, and with some shame of his past. There were epochs and eras in recreancy said to be gnawing at his con- human affairs, and when an old era came science and stirring to thoughts of atone- to a close the methods of that era ceased ment), if such a potentate, already in to be the methods of Providence. Mazcommand of an arined force, were to zini always had this large semi-mystical head a war of Independence, drive out way of reasoning about eras and epochs, the Austrian, and cashier the rabble of of listening to the vast march through tyrannical princes, would there not then the vacancies of Time, and being sure of be a United and Free Italy, and might its divisions and halts. Especially he not the crown be his? Or if, in the announced that the world had passed course of a popular revolution, some through the stage of Individualism, Macgreat soldier were to emerge, crashing chiavellism, the accomplishment of God's the opposition, like another Napoleon, purposes for humanity by the mere deeds by his military genius, would it not be and scheming of particular persons, and in accordance with analogy, and for the that the era of Association, collective security of the work done, to raise him effort, action by the will and heart of to the sovereignty? Young Mazzini every people for itself, and of all peoples had ruminated these questions, and one united, had at least begun. The very can see signs of a faltering within him- struggle for Liberty which had been self before he answered them. Repub- going on, with ever-increasing results, lican as he was, Republican as he meant through all previous ages of the world, to be, there was plausibility in the fore- had consequently now changed its form casts hazarded. Facts might take that and the state of its parties. Essentially course ; it was the way of facts to take the struggle had always been one beany course; precedents were perhaps in tween Privilege and the People; but favour of the agency of kings and great the battle in all its previous forms of soldiers in wars of national liberation; antagonism had rather been for the it would not do for a young theorist, People than by the People. Such forms who would welcome his motherland of the eternal contest had been that for liberated anyhow, to stand too stiffly on Personal Liberty against Slave-owning, the banks of his own ideal channel the Plebeians against the Patricians, towards that end, only to see it empty Catholicism against Feudalism, the Reafter all, and events flowing in another! formation against Catholicism, ConstituHence à certain published Appeal to tional Government against Arbitrary Charles Albert, much talked of at the Power. Now, however, that Privilege time. The Appeal was read by that had been brought to its last agonies by monarch ; and he threw it into his such a succession of contests, the essenwaste-paper basket, with orders that, if tial nature of the struggle which had ever the writer showed his face again been involved in them all was more in Italy, he should be laid fast in the nakedly disclosed. What had always nearest prison. No need then, Mazzini been a struggle between Privilege and concluded, for any farther hesitation. the People might now proclaim itself in The Republicanism so dear to him- all the simple generality of that name ; self in theory was put into the pro- and the People themselves, in the final gramme of the Young Italy Association, strife against the last shreds and fastas equally indispensable with the oath nesses of Privilege, might be their own for Independence and Liberation and proctors and advocates, and might disthe vow of ultimate Unity. The reasons pense with champions and intermediaries. were duly given. The advent of a Yes! all the complexities of the social tackling, all the scaffoldings of the sup- fusing his ideas more especially among posed pyramid, had now been struck the youth of Italy by contrabandwritings away, and the People, assembled multi- and a machinery of secret societies, tudinously as on one level plain, might and promoting every possible attempt at look up direct to Heaven, with nothing an insurrection anywhere in the Peninto distract the view. Dio e Popolo— sula. He was near the end of this stage God and the People - such, for all of his career when I first saw him. peoples, was to be the true formula of Respectable England had grown alarmed, the future. Translated into ordinary some two or three years before, at the political language, this, for most peoples, existence of such a man within her could mean only Pure Republicanism. bounds, and had begun to question In Great Britain alone would Mazzini whether he ought to be allowed a conrecognise an exception. For certain tinued refuge in London. Sir James positive and practical reasons, connected Graham, as Home Secretary, had opened with her special insular history, he his letters in the post-office; there were thought Constitutional Government suit- the wildest stories not only of his pro able for her, and likely to be suit- moting insurrections, but even of his able for a long time to come. But of encouraging assassination. But the all nations Italy was the one specially storm had passed, and had been fitted for Republicanism. Her greatest followed by a reaction. Sir James traditions, her peculiar glories, were Graham had been obliged publicly to Republican. Whatever associations of retract the most odious of his charges; coarseness, cruelty, or meanness other English indignation had been roused at nations might have with the word Re- the discovery of a spy-system in a publicanism in recollection severally of Government office; Mr. Carlyle had their past histories, the word had come published his letter, avowing his perdown in the Italian mind entwined with sonal intimacy with Mazzini, and memories of heroism, high-mindedness, testifying that, whatever he might Poetry and Art at their noblest, all that think of Mazzini's " practical insight was exquisite and even fastidious in and skill in worldly affairs," he knew scholarship and culture, the fullest rich- him to be, if ever he had seen such, “a ness of social life, the truest enterprise man of genius and virtue, a man of in commerce, the utmost originality of sterling veracity, humanity, and nobleindividual genius. Let Young Italy re- ness of mind." By that time also, present the real soul of the nation ! other persons of distinction in the Paying no heed to the remonstrances metropolis, knowing Mazzini by his or the jeers of the so-called Practical more purely literary contributions to Statesmen, the Pedants and Diploma- English periodicals, had contracted the tists, the Individualists and Macchiavel- same high regard for him, and there lians, let them blazon on their banner the were particular English families whose symbol of an Italian Republic as the only proved affection for him drew him at possible form of a future Italy that should length gently and irresistibly out of his also be independent, free, and one ! exclusive daily companionship with the

For forty years Mazzini fought for the Italian refugees that formed his working programme of his youth. He lived to staff, and made him and these associates see part of it accomplished, and he has of his happier, not only by their symdied labouring for the rest.

pathies with the Italian cause generally, For seventeen of these forty years but also by their aid in schemes of relief (1831-1848), he was known only as the for the poor Italians in London, and of Italian 'agitator and conspirator, driven schooling for their children. from France into Switzerland, and Mazzini lived on in London, with his thence into England, corresponding in- eyes always on Italy. cessantly by unknown means with his How strange to remember now the adherents in various parts of Italy, dif- accession of Pius IX, to the Popedom

And so

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