cate and important privilege to be culties with which he himself has recently granted ? If on that of seniority, it seems struggled, full of belief in the truths rather hard that a sighing lover of twenty- into which he has just been initiated, seven should have to wait till his and full of scorn for the fallacies frote senior has made up his mind whether he which he has just been emancipated will or will not take a companion for his It will be an evil day for the Universideclining years. If priority of appli- ties when this element disappears from cation is taken into consideration, the their teaching. But admitting this system would form a heavy premium on

there are

many—not merely among early engagements, and a fiancée would those who regard the Universities pribecome as indispensable an appendage to marily as homes of culture and science, an unmarried tutor as a follower is to a but among those who attach greater housemaid.

weight to their strictly educational funcThe fact that, in spite of these diffi tions—who feel strongly that this eleculties, every college which has recently ment needs to be supplemented by taken in hand the remodelling of its another in which the Universities are fellowships, has found itself compelled at present deficient: the elemento to tolerate, to a greater or less extent, thorough, solid, scientific teaching; the the marriage of its resident fellows, teaching which is the fruit of mature reshows the necessity of the change. flection, and patient, laborious years, and Without it college tutorships cannot which ultimately enriches the Univercompete with their most formidable sity and the world with written work of rivals, masterships at public schools and permanent value. Teachers of this Scotch professorships. Scarcely a year kind the Universities now and then passes without seeing some graduate, contrive to retain in their service, rather who appears eminently qualified to re through the operation of some “ divine main a University teacher, transferred chance” than by good management; to some sphere of life for which celibacy but they can never reckon on retaining is not a disqualification. The difficulty them until they have made the career of inducing able men to remain at the which they offer attractive, not merely University is one which increases every to a youngster, but to a middle-aged year. The average age of the working staff is probably under thirty, and there The second innovation to which we is said to be a college where the senior have referred, namely the system of tutor has not reached that venerable intercollegiate teaching, is a necessary age. There will be some who will say result of the increased and increasing that this is just as it should be; that the variety and elasticity of the recognized time when a tutor is at his best is when University course. When the Unihe is young, vigorous, and enthusiastic, versity curriculum simply offered and not yet sufficiently removed from choice between a comparatively narrow the standing of his pupils to be unable

of classics and a comparato comprehend their difficulties; and tively narrow course of mathematics, that an older man very soon tends to there was always a reasonable chance become dull and mechanical. There is that in each college might be found a a great deal of truth in this; and if the teaching staff sufficient to conduct the whole work of education consisted in undergraduates through their course of the ploughing up of the mental field, mathematics, or classics, as the case and the rooting out of the prejudices might be. But now that to classics and which have sown themselves in the mathematics have been added law, hisfallow, it is probable that no more potent tory, theology, and physical science; now instrument could be devised for the that the school of "litera humaniores” purpose, than a young graduate, fresh has ramified into a number of subjects, from his degree, eager to do his best for more or less cognate, but each sufficient his pupils, full of sympathy for the diffi to monopolize the exertions of any one



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teacher, and that each successive modi. mon of a comprehensive programme of fication of the examination statutes lectures open to all members of the conshows a further tendency in the direc federated societies. In fact for teaching, tion of specializing, - pretensions on the as distinguished from disciplinary purpart of any one college to supply with poses, the college has disappeared, and the its own unaided staff the teaching re confederation, under the management of quired for all these subjects become a common board of tutors and lecturers, absurd, and the costliness and wasteful has taken its place. In some subjects, Biess of the cumbrous and antiquated such as mathematics, for which there is in chinery of separate college teaching a more limited demand, and consequently become apparent. Whilst colleges still a more limited supply of teachers, it is struggled to maintain their independence believed to be the case, that teaching, of external assistance, their aútápkelu, at least so far as “honour" mathematics in teaching, there might be seen, here are concerned, is entirely irrespective of a lecturer delivering to five a course of the colleges. The mathematical teachers lectures which might, with equal advan of the University meet together, and lage, have been delivered to fifty ; there divide the profits among themselves, a pupil unable to obtain any college drawing their fees out of the tuition teaching which met his wants.

funds of the different colleges. the latter anomaly which first led to a It requires no great sagacity to foresee change; for colleges now-a-days usually that this system of confederation is only feel some scruple about adhering to preparing the way to a still greater unity the time-honoured system of contenting in the administration of the University, themselves with pocketing tuition fees, to a state of things in which the colleges leaving all real instruction to be supplied will be far more completely subordiby private tutors. The most obvious nated to the University, and in which mode of meeting the want was that of the most important lecturers will be in calling in as lecturers, or even as tutors, theory, as they are rapidly becoming in members of other colleges ; and this fact, University and not college officers, Was soon resorted to.

A still more

To hold such a view implies rather a beneficial extension of the system of wish for, not a belief in, the probability extra-collegiate instruction was made, of the extinction of the colleges. The when one college admitted to its lectures, recent admission of unattached students or to some of its lectures, the members to the University does indeed show that of another college, either on the condi- colleges are not necessary, but it is far tion of a money payment, or of being from showing that they are not highly granted a reciprocal favour. This plan

This plan useful elements of a University. Not was found to be at once so simple, so merely as institutions round which sensible, and so useful, that it was widely honourable and venerable traditions and rapidly taken up; and the most have gathered, but as institutions which remarkable phenomenon in Oxford have always fulfilled and still fulfil teaching during the last few years has functions of the highest value in the been the growth and increase of these University, the loss of the colleges commercial treaties, as they may be would be irreparable. There is one termed, between different colleges, which point especially in which the Univerbave formed a network embracing nearly sities of Oxford and Cambridge, through every college at the University. These the possession of colleges, contrast confederations may

be more or less com favourably with the Universities of plete, and may extend to all, or only to other countries, and of other parts of a part, of the subjects professed to be the United Kingdom. No one who taught; in their completest form they has enjoyed the inestimable advantage involve the most entire intercommunion of belonging to a good college can fail to for teaching purposes, a common staff remember that much as he owes to his of lecturers, and the settlement in com tutors and lecturers, he owes still more

to his college friends and contem down over the face of the conntry: ard poraries, to comnion studies, common secondly, the serious extent to which recreations, common interests, all stimu- rivalry between the colleges in founding lated by attachment to one small society, and augmenting scholarships and exhiand given full play by the easy and bitions has run. At the last conferelo. familiar intercourse which college life of the masters of public schools, a prin supplies. How much of all this is not test was raised against the unnecessary lost to one who, instead of becoming multiplication of scholarship examina a member of a college, is cast adrift tions, in running the gauntlet of which upon the University at large?

the most promising pupils at a school The future constitution of the Univer are apt to be employed during no incorsity is, however, too large a subject to siderable part of the working year, aud be discussed here. It has been the others have complained of the growing object of this paper to state problems, tendency on the part of colleges to rais not solve them; to indicate the magni- unnecessarily the pecuniary value of tude and complexity of the questions their scholarships, and the maximum which are involved in college reform, age of eligibility, in the hope of making by showing, in the first place, that the them more attractive, and of drawing points in the fellowship system which candidates from a wider field. No are the most favourite topics of popular money can be better applied than that criticism, are not mere ugly warts which which is devoted to aiding poor scholars may be renoved, but are inherent in in defraying the expenses of a gond the very coustitution of the colleges; and education ; but scholarships are scarcely in the second place, that the changes fulfilling their proper purpose when they which are passing over the University, are made the means of inducing scholars not in consequence of any gratuitous to prefer a less to a more efficient college experimentalizing on the part of its for the sake of getting a little monts, members, but through the operation of when in fact they are used not as meals natural causes, are of the most serious of promoting education but as advertiseand important kind, going to the root ments of rival teaching-shops. of the most fundamental principles upon Nothing can be more praiseworthy which the University and the colleges than the strenuous efforts wbich the have been built up; and to draw the most active colleges have been making conclusion that these changes require to reniedy the defects to which we ljare to be dealt with, not by such fray- referred, and to adapt their antiquated mentary, incomplete, and incoherent machinery to the wholly new state of measures of reform as the colleges can things which they have to meti themselves supply, but upon broad, Nothing can be more valuable as sluit comprehensive, and general principles. gestions and indications of the direc

It would be tempting to say a few tion which reform ought to tirke, but words on some other points in which it is mere mockery to tell them that the working of the existing college they, exposed as they are to the ketu system is unsatisfactory, whilst an est competition, with their imperfect adequate remedy seems to be out of powers, their conflicting theories, and the reach of the colleges themselves. their jealous rivalries, are competent The most important of these are, tirst, to carry out what is nothing less than the economical waste which is involved a remodelling of the University

. The in the existence, side by side, of a simple statement that what is really number of in-titutions, all existing for. 'needed is a revision of the relations of the same object, but each maintaining the colleges to each other and to the in jealous independence its separate ex University, is enough to show how una serisive establishment, separate officers, equal the colleges are themselves to the separate buildings, and separate "pocket- task; and of this a strong confirmativa vandkerchief estates,” scattered up and might be found in the wild panackas

which some colleges have been pro- spite of the elasticity of the Commisposing, and the incongruous principles sioners' instructions, it is impossible not upon which they have been reforming to regret that they did not extend a their constitutions.

little further, and authorize them to The most indispensable preliminary collect opinions as well as facts. It of any reform is an accurate knowledge may very well be that opinions on of facts, and for this purpose the in the proper mode of University reform, quiries which the University Commis- both at Oxford and at Cambridge, sioners are directed to make are invalu are at present in an almost hopelessly able. The nature and value of college pro divided state, and that the bulk of perty is a subject about which not inerely what would be elicited would be a members of Parliament and journalists, mass of contradictory and impractibut fellows of colleges themselves, are cable theories ; but even so, if legislation as absolutely ignorant as they are about is desirable, it is surely better that the number of land holders in Great it should be preceded by an inquiry Britain. The instruction to inquire into into the opinions of those most conand report on, not merely the nature versant with the facts, and that those and extent of college revenues, but the opinions should be given an opportunity mode in which those

of sifting and clearing themselves, of applied, will, it is to be hoped, have the discovering their own inconsistencies, effect of making the Commissioners and of crystallizing themselves into report something more than a mere shape. Perhaps it is not too much to balance-sheet, and will enable it to con hope that such an enlargement of the tain useful suggestions as to the best Commissioners' powers as will impose mode of utilizing and of redistributing this additional duty upon them may if necessary, college property. Yet, in still be made,








she always does in the morning. She

glanced at the tire, at the clean table, at AVENGER.

Bell sitting by the window, and at the Love had ordained that it was Abra's turn

blaze of sunlight on the wall on the T'o mix the sweets, and minister the urn."

other side of the street. Apparently,

this pleasant picture put her into an SURELY nine o'clock was early enough excellent humour, and she said to the for breakfast at this remote little inn on Lieutenant, with one of her brightest the top of the hill; and indeed, when lookswe parted the night before, after our “Well, have you been making dismoonlight improvisation of Fra Diavolo, coveries this morning? Have you made that was the hour agreed upon. Nine

the acquaintance of many people Has o'clock ! Going down at a quarter Bourton-on-the-Hill anything peculiar past eight, with some notion that the about it?” Lieutenant night have sat up half the “Oh yes, Madame," said the Lieunight cousuming his wrath in the smok

tenant, seriously, "something very sin. ing of many cigars, and night now be gular, which you will not like to hear. still in bed, I heard voices. Sometimes This is an English village, in the middle there was a laugh—and no one who had of the country, and yet they never have once heard Bell's musical laugh could any milk here--never. They cannot ever mistake it. When I went into

get any. The farmers prefer to make the parlour which had been the Lieu butter, and they will not sell milk on tenant's bedroom, I found that all traces

any inducement.” of his occupation were gone : a fire was Why," said Tita, “ that is the reason burning brightly in the grate, the

of our having no milk with our tea last breakfast tray was laid, and Bell sat evening. But is there no one the landat the open window, talking to Von lady can beg a little wilk from ?". Rosen himself, who was standing out The Lieutenant looked at Bell, and on the pavement in the full blaze of

that young lady endeavoured to conceal the morning sunshine that now filled a smile. They had evidently been specuthe main thoroughfare of Bourton on lating on Tita’s dismay before we came the-Hill.

down. Bell looks round with a startled air. “ The great farmer in the neighbour

“My dear," I say to her, "travelling hood,"continued the Lieutenant. gravely, is doing you a world of good. Early “is a Mrs. Phillips. I think she owns rising is an excellent thing for young all the cattle-all the milk. I did send people.”

to her a polite message an hour ago, to " I did not know when you might ask if she would present us with a little want to start,” says Bell, gently, and of it, but no ; there is no answer.

At rather averting her eyes — for which tlie moment that Mademoiselle came there was no reason whatever.

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down, I was going up to Mrs. Phillips's At this moment Queen Titania came farm, to get the milk for you, but Madown, looking brisk and cheerful, as demoiselle was too proud for that, aud


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