duties attached to his stipend have not petition between prizes which are open increased; indeed, they have diminished. to all without restriction, and prizes He is no longer bound to go through a which are fettered by conditions limiting long course of study ; he is not yet them to a particular class, is that the bound to reside at the University, or, if latter are sought for and obtained by resident, to teach. Though study and men of an inferior calibre. This ina monastic life are no longer synony- equality between the two kinds of mous, the college fellow, whether an fellowships, lay and clerical, was less Oxford tutor or a London barrister, is, apparent some twenty or thirty years or was till lately, of necessity a celibate. ago; but of late years, during which It is the very success of the legislation the proportion of candidates for orders of 1854, partial and tentative as that among those who take the highest legislation was, which has brought into honours at the University has, for strong relief the anomalies which it whatever reason, been steadily declining, left untouched.

its effects have become very striking. Against clerical fellowships it is not It is a well-recognized fact that men necessary to argue here at length. They who would have no chance whatever of have been condemned by implication obtaining a lay fellowship have a very in the Act of last year, and a Govern- fair chance of being elected to a clerical ment which has abolished denomina- fellowship. The inference that clerical tional tests cannot possibly defend the fellows are below par is scarcely correct, retention of denominational fellow- because many who ultimately take ships. Whilst they are retained, it is orders prefer to stand for a fellowship a mockery to say that the benefits of which leaves their choice of a vocation the University have been thrown open free, but it is a very natural one to freely and impartially to the nation at draw, and does not improve the posilarge. But the denominational in- tion of the class. And the fact that the equality which is produced by clerical field of candidates is so much narrowed fellowships is far from being the only, in the case of clerical fellowships, makes though it is by itself a fatal objection to them extremely unpopular with the more their continuance. From the point of active colleges, whose aim it is to secure view of the interests of the Established the ablest possible men for their teachChurch, of the interests of the fel- ing staff, irrespectively of their being or lows themselves, of the interests of not being in orders, and who find themUniversity education, they are open selves heavily weighted in their comto serious objections. If the Estab- petition with other colleges, if a large lished Church is disposed to think proportion of their fellowships happen that it cannot get on without this arti- to be confined to clergymen. It should ficial bounty on enlistment into the not, however, be assumed that the object ranks of its clergy, surely it must have of those who wish to abolish clerical had its eyes opened by this time to the fellowships is to eliminate the clerical scandal and evils which result from the element from the Universities. It system of inducing a young man, by a would be mere folly to shut one's heavy pecuniary bribe, to pledge himself eyes to the fact that clergymen no to a profession, the adoption of which longer have the monopoly of education ought pre-eminently to be uninfluenced which they once had, but on the other by pecuniary motives, and the relinquish- hand experience has shown that the ment of which is in all cases difficult, quiet and regular habits of the teacher, and, in the eyes of some, impossible. whether he be a schoolmaster or á Moreover, the monopoly which is so college tutor, and the necessity which jealously guarded, has results which are he is under of giving advice and counsel injurious not merely to the popularity, as well as intellectual food to his pupils, but to the reputation, of the Establish- and of leading a life which is not inconment. The natural result of a com- gruous with the discipline which he has

to maintain, in many cases induce him for lay teachers analogous to that which naturally and without compulsion to such livings provided for clerical teachers adopt formally a profession with the can arrangement more satisfactory perduties and liabilities of which his own haps to the colleges than to the parishes); have so much in common. So long as all of them difficult and complicatel human nature remains the same, and subjects, which ought to be dealt with, until theology insists on an open breach not according to the whim of each with learning, this natural tendency of college, but on broad, uniform, and tutors and schoolmasters to join the ranks statesmanlike principles. of the clergy will continue; and the A witty and ingenious apology for attempt to strengthen it artificially by non-resident fellowships has recently such institutions as clerical fellowships is appeared in these columns. The writer, not only unnecessary, but harmful. while admitting that they have been

Assuming clerical fellowships to be condemned by public opinion, appears injurious, can they not be left to be to think that they perform an eminently dealt with by the colleges themselves ? useful function in fostering the “academic The answer to this is, that a similar spirit”-a phrase which seems to indicate course was proposed some few years ago the frame of mind which, when it comes in Parliament with regard to University across an assertion or an institution, does tests, and was then decisively rejected not ask the vulgar question, Is it true! on both sides of the House as unsatis or, Is it useful? but contents itself with factory. No more delusive or exasperat- asking, Is it pretty ? That this frame of ing mode of dealing with the difficulty mind, which some coarse folk would could be devised. It would refer the solu- stigmatize as dilettantism, has a tendency tion of the question to bodies in which to be produced and fostered by the the clerical element is, ex hypothesi, enjoyment of a comfortable income strongly represented ; and it would in with nothing to do, cannot be denied. volve each college in a long and acrimo Whether it is worth producing at so nious theological war. The expedient great a cost, and whether genuine culture of shortening a denominational difficulty would not flourish in this country even by relegating it to local bodies has if sinecure fellowships were abolished, been recently tried in the case of School is another question. With the general Boards, and it cannot be said that the position of the apologist, that wanton result is encouraging. Moreover, clerical hands should not be laid on any part of fellowships form part of a complex and such great and venerable institutions as delicately interwoven college system, the Universities and their colleges, the and their abolition would involve the present writer fully concurs; nor would revision of many other points in that he deny that sinecure fellowships, system. For instance, in the case of strangely as they have been diverted some fellowships, the obligation to take from their original functions, indirectly orders after a certain period of years,

serve several useful purposes. has, in the case of fellows who never Their value as endowments for study, intended to become clergymen, the in as distinguished from teaching, has been direct effect of limiting the tenure of dwelt on with great force by the Rector those fellowships to that period, and it of Lincoln in his “Suggestions on Acawould be far from an unmixed boon demical Organization;" and though their suddenly to convert all such fellowships value is there probably exaggerated, yet into fellowships tenable for life. Again, this--the original purpose of fellowships it would be necessary to consider the -should certainly not be lost sight of best mode of keeping up religious wor in any re-distribution of the fund. Nor ship in the different colleges, and of would it be right to ignore the very making provision for the chaplains, the material assistance which they have, subject of college livings, and the de

1 “Strike, but Hear," Macmillan's Vanasirability of providing a retiring pension zine, February 1872.

afforded and still constantly afford to teachers, that fund should be applied in men of small means who are anxious such a way as to secure the services of to combine the lengthy and costly the most efficient teachers that can be education supplied by the Universities obtained. with an expensive profession, such as, Hów far can colleges carry out these for instance, the bar.

There is many a

objects by their own independent legisfather who, intending his son for such lation? It has been seen that what is a profession, would never send him to required is not the mere suppression of Oxford or Cambridge were it not for a non-resident fellowships; and that thus reasonable chance of a fellowship render- the problem is more complex than it ing him independent of further assist- appears on a superficial view. But the ance after he had taken his degree ; and difficulty which is really fatal to any there is many a young gradu:te who effectual reform of fellowships by the in would hesitate to plunge into the un- dividual colleges arises from the attitude known sea of London life if he had of rivalry and competition in which they not this raft of a competence to cling stand to one another. The success of to. Yet even here it may be doubterl every college depenils on the efficiency whether in the majority of cases energy of its teaching staff, and that teaching and parsimony would not find them- staff is composed mainly of its feliows. selves able to fight their way even with- It is therefore its great oliject to make out such help. The true way of making its fellowships as valuable and attractive a University degree more compatible as possible. It cannot, with safety to with a profession or occupation which itself, hand over a portion of its funds requires a long and expensive special to the University, or to any other teachtraining, is probably to be found in such ing body. It cannot diminish the value a modification of the University course of its fellowships, or limit their tenure as would on the other hand shorten it, to a fixed number of years, or annex to and on the other han:l, without for- them onerous conditions as to residence, getting that the object of the Univer- study, or college duties ; for if it did sity is to impart general culture and not so, it would be hanı!icapping itself in technical training, would yet bring that its race with its rivals.

This difficulty culture into somewhat closer relation to extends not merely to permanent or the practical needs of life.

general, but to temporary or exceptional But it is not desirable that any of the modifications of the conditions attached purposes which fellowships directly or to fellowships, and is illustrated every indirectly serve should be ignored ; all day. It constantly happens that a college, that is wanted is that security should be having a fellowship Vacant, is in immegiven agrinst their abuse. There are, in diate want of an addition to its working fact, three main views which may be staff Yet it very rarely ventures to taken of the fellowship fund. It may advertise that the fellowship will be be regarded as a prize fund for industry open only to those who will pledge themand ability, as an endowment for study, selves to reside ; for it knows that if it or as a fund for paying or augmenting did so, the probable result would be to teachers' fees. The existing system frighten away the most promising candihesitates between these several views, dates. What has been already said as to and carries out none effectually. So far clerical fellowships applies here also : as fellowships are mere prizes, they when a young man is at liberty to choose should be diminished in number and between two fellowships, one of which value, and be bestowed, not by the is subject to, and the other free from, colleges, but by the University; so far onerous conditions, he would be a great as they constitute an endowment for fool, cæteris paribus, not to choose the study, security should be given that they latter. And even if colleges could with be held by bona fide students; so far as safety to themselves require all their they are a fund for the payment of fellows to reside, it would be very doubt

No. 150.-VOL. XXV.


ful whether, so long as the present mode which cannot be described as anything of election to fellowships remains, they less than revolutionary. The first is the would be wise in doing so. A com

introduction of married fellowships, petitive examination is undoubtedly and the second is the system of interthe best and fairest way of awarding collegiate lectures. The one goes to the a prize, but it is far from certain root of collegiate social life, and the other that it is the best mode of filling to the root of collegiate teaching. up an educational office.

It by no

The first of these topics is one which means follows that because a young man it is impossible to approach without passes a brilliant examination, therefore fear and trembling. It wounds so many he possesses the qualities which fit him

tender susceptibilities, it involves 60 to be an efficient lecturer or tutor. So


delicate considerations, it raisessa long as fellowships are obtained by com many difficult moral and social problems, petition, colleges must trust to a subse a bachelor is so constantly reminded of quent process of sifting, for the purpose his necessary ignorance of the subject, of ascertaining which of their fellows that it requires some hardihood to allude are best adapted to become tutors and to it, much more to discuss it. It is not lecturers. If a young fellow shows

unnatural that old Oxonians should view himself both willing and competent to with dislike and alarm the feminine undertake work in the college, he is invasion which is so completely revolusure to get as much as he wants : and if tionizing the external appearance of the he does not, he will generally have tact old University town. They complain, enough to discover before long that the with much justice, that it has a tendency vocation for which he is suited is not to empty common-rooms at the legitithat of a college tutor, and in the mate dining hour, and to flood them at majority of cases he will pass into the irregular luncheon hours; that married ranks of the non-resident fellows. life destroys the easy intercourse which To compel him to reside would be is such a valuable element in the relainjurious to himself and useless to the tion of tutor and pupil, for that it is college. Thus, under the present sys one thing to stroll casually into Mr. tem, the possibility of non-residence Smith's room at any hour of the evensupplies an easy and natural corrective ing and ask his opinion on a difficult for the inherent defects of the compe- passage of Thucydides, and quite another titive system, and a safety-valve through thing to call at Mr. Smith's house, with which persons whose abilities are suffi the prospect of facing Mrs. Smith and cient to gain fellowships, but whose all the Miss Smiths; that the young tastes or qualifications do not adapt married tutor is never to be found inthem for University work, pass into the side the college walls when he is wanted, outer world.

and that as he grows old there is reaHitherto we have dwelt mainly on son to fear that he will be thinking too the popular aspect of fellowships, and much about his wife and children and have tried to show that clerical fellow too little about his pupils. As to one ships and sinecure fellowships, however of the complaints which is most freunsatisfactory they may be, cannot be so quently brought against the intrusion of simply dealt with as has been supposed. marriage into the Universities, namely We now propose to call attention to that it tends to destroy the charm of certain changes which have been recently passing over the Universities, especially of women in colleges, holding that “when

· Queen Elizabeth prohibited the residence over Oxford, and which, even more than

chief governors, prebendaries, students, &c., the existence of such institutions as do keep particular household with their wives, clerical or sinecure fellowships, render a children, and nurses, no small offence groweth revision of the college system impera

to the interest of the founders and the quiet tively necessary. Among these changes (Archbishop Parker's Correspondence, quoted

and orderly profession of study and learning." there are two, above others, the effect of in Freeman's “Norman Conquest," iv. 425.)


college social life, it may be questioned tion apart, it is not to be denied whether a good deal of misconception that the revolution in social life to has not been produced by the kind of which we have referred, threatens the legendary balo which has somehow or Universities with serious difficulties. other been cast about common-rooms One of them, the increased extravaand combination rooms. There seems

gance of living which ladies have been to be a popular impression afloat that accused of causing, is, it may be hoped, common-rooms supply an almost ideal though an ugly, yet a temporary phase, form of social intercourse, where wit which will tend to disappear as soon sparkles without malice, and freedom, as young married tutors have realized unrestricted by petticoats, never degene- the fact that they must live very modestly rates into licence. It may be doubted if they wish to exist on six hundred whether the reality quite comes up, or a year.

But some of the other diffiever has quite come up, to this charming culties are of a more permanent nature, description. So far as we may judge and cannot be got over quite satisfacfrom the records of the past, such as are torily. Such are the impaired efficiency supplied by eighteenth-century biogra- of married teachers in consequence of phies, and by the contents of old betting their being removed to a greater distance books which still slumber in certain from their pupils, and the difficulty of common-room drawers, there

allowing officers of the college to marry, time when Oxford commun-rooms had and yet maintaining an efficient supera strong savour of the tavern. And as vision over the discipline of the college. for the present, those whose memories As to the first, while fully admitting the linger affectionately round the remem- reality of the evil, all that can be done brance of social gatherings in well-known is to hope that some alleviation of it old halls or common-rooms, are apt to may be found in a modification of the forget that these occasions are necessa- hours of work, and to point to the prerily exceptional, and that under ordinary cedent of masters at public schools, as circumstances the complete enjoyment showing that marriage is not incompatible of a six o'clock dinner is materially im- with a teacher's both throwing his heart paired by the prospect' of eight o'clock into his work, and seeing a great deal of pupils. It is possible that there may his pupils. The second difficulty may Jave been a golden age intervening be- be met

be met in two ways-by allowing $tween the past of somewhat besotted married fellows to live within the col

idleness and the present of somewhat lege walls, and by limiting the right of oppressive industry, during which com- marriage to a favoured few. mon-room life combined the best cha- objections to both courses. Indepenracteristics of a Parisian salon and a dently of the difficulty of adjusting London club; but that is problematical. collegiate buildings to the requirements Moreover, it has been suggested that of families, a witness in a recent Uni. even societies from which the feminine versity inquiry has dealt with amusing element has been most carefully ex- pathos on the inconveniences attending cluded, are not altogether free from the the invasion of quiet college precincts petty jealousies and scandals and rival- by nursemaids, perambulators, and ries which usually disfigure small cote- similar horrors. And it must be adries. And in any case it would require mitted that a teething infant would prostronger arguments thau those which bably be a more formidable neighbour have been advanced to prove that the to a quiet student than even an ambilife which men and women lead in each tious practiser on the cornet-à piston. In other's society is not as a rule more the one case the hours of practice may healthy, natural, and useful, than that be regulated ; in the other they cannot. which they lead apart, whether shut up If, on the other hand, only a certain in colleges or in convents.

number of the residents are to be allowed However, setting this delicate ques- to marry, on what principle is this deli

There are

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