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first designs were such as a school- carrying out Captain Fowke's design for boy draws on a slate, and his 1862 the Natural History Museum. Exhibition Building was only fit to It would be difficult to conceive a be pulled down. But he was a man process more insulting to the judges, or of architectural instincts, and, had he more detrimental to the encouragement been educated as an architect, and of architectural art, than this was, and escaped the trammels of the Copy- has proved to be. Government, it is ing School, might have done wonders. true, to save their responsibility, always As it was, he was brought up as a mili- insert clauses to protect themselves from tary engineer, and set to work to design legal damages in the event of their doing and carry out civil buildings before what they know to be a violation of the he had mastered the most elementary spirit of their agreement. Practically, principles of the art. He failed of however, no architect enters upon a comcourse; but ten years' experience at petition except on the understanding the country's expense-had enabled that, if his design proves to be the him to remedy the defects of his early best, he will not only get the first prize, education, and his natural aptitude for but be employed to carry out his dethe art at last enabled him to realize this sign. The prizes, however large, never very beautiful design. It was neither cover the cost of a competition; and Grecian nor Gothic, but thoroughly when to the cost we add the waste of nineteenth century; and had he lived energy and time, and the mental anxiety and been allowed to carry it out with involved in the process, no man in his such ameliorations further study senses would compete if he had not would have enabled him to introduce, faith in his judges, and confidence that his building would have marked an the only prize worth having would be epoch in the history of architecture in awarded to him who best deserved it. this country.
There is an end of all faith in the jusDis aliter visum. One fine morn
tice and discrimination of Government ing the Government, worried and per- when, in defiance of this understanding, plexed by the rival claims of the it is found that an official with no competing architects, issued an ukase special qualifications may any day tear which was intended to settle the whole up all the awards of the judges, and question. To Mr. Scott, as the Goth of then proceed to distribute the prizes the Goths, it was given to design and according to his own caprice, or accordcarry out the Home and Colonial Offices ing to the pressure brought to bear upon in the Italian style. To Mr. Street was him. Such a system is degrading to the awarded the Law Courts, because his profession, and it is very creditable to it design was the worst-a perfectly com- that the public are still so well served, petent tribunal having awarded him and our public buildings not infinitely only three marks in the competition, worse than they are. while it had assigned Edward Barry fortythree. But as a sop to keep the latter If the Government had any serious quiet—which does not, however, seem intention that Captain Fowke's design to have proved a successful expedient- for a natural history museum should be he was given the new National Gallery. carried out, they would have insisted on Because Messrs. Banks and Barry had a pledge that this should be done with some claim on the Government in re- only such changes and ameliorations as spect to a War Office competition, the original architect himself might they were given the Burlington House have introduced. Nothing of the kind buildings ; and lastly, because Mr. was done ; and what might have been Waterhouse was supposed to have earned foreseen as inevitable, soon
came to a claim by what he had done in the pass. Mr. Waterhouse's position as an early stages of the Law Courts competi- architect did not allow of his carrying tion, to him they awarded the task of out any other person's design, much
less that of a soldier-officer.
nightmare paintings of the Middle Ages. sequently very soon produced an entirely It is strange that educated men in the new design of his own, in what he is nineteenth century should desire this ; pleased to call the Norman, or accord- but if they do, it is well they should ing to the more fashionable modern have it in perfection. The more comeuphuism, the “Bizzantine" style, plete the reductio ad absurdum, the though what its connection may have sooner the reaction will set in. been with Byzantium I do not know. As Mr. Waterhouse very well knows, When the reviving taste for barbarit is no more Norman than the British ism imposed a task of this sort on the Museum is Greek. It is a modern late Sir Charles Barry, he submitted, building, with large openings filled with an architect must; but with chaplate-glass. The roofs are fitted with racteristic common sense he chose that skylights; swing doors, modern fire- form of Gothic which was least offenplaces, plate-glass cases, and every other sive to modern ideas. And he furnineteenth-century contrivance, is sought ther gave it a dignity and grace
which to be introduced; but he escapes from hardly belong to the style, by taking the difficulty of designing details appro- the licence of putting his design for the priate to the present age, under the pre- Parliament Houses into an Italian form. text that the rude clumsy ornament The Palace at Westminster is not perhe is using is correct Norman.
fect, but it has at least this merit, that If this building were as truly and its style is two centuries nearer our essentially Nornian as Mr. Street's is time than Mr. Street's, and thus inthirteenth century, it would be so in- corporates all the improvements that tolerable that it could not be erected. were introduced during those 200 years. Some people think we may safely go It consequently comes so much further back as far as the time of Edward III., forward, that modern improvements and but no human power would force modern art are not the complete discord British science to be content with the which they would be in a building so esdark dungeons that graced or disgraced sentially medieval as the Law Courts are our island in the troublous times suc- intended to be made. In so far as it is ceeding the Conquest.
nearer our time it is better, but the Mr. Street's design, again, fails from public will hardly be able to measure exactly the opposite quality. It is the ac- this advantage till they feel the inconcuracy of imitation pervading every de- venience of the more archaic building. tail that makes it so perfectly intolerable. But the important question remains, According to this Joshua of architects, Where is all this to end? When we the sun of art stood still when Edward have got our Tudor Parliament Houses, III. died in 1377, and has not moved our Edwardian Law Courts, our Norforward since that time. Hence the man Museum, what is to be done next? lawyers of the nineteenth century must One step backward we can still see our be content to lounge in vaulted halls, way to-there is the Saxon. Instead of with narrow windows filled with repeating the vague term "Englishmen,” painted glass, and so dark that they can- representing a heterogeneous medley of not see to read or write in them. They nationalities, let the Saturday Review must wander through corridors whose use the more definite term, and ask, gloom recalls the monkish seclusion of Are we not “ Saxons ? " With sufficient the Middle Ages. They must sit on high iteration its claim must eventually be straight-backed chairs, and be satisfied admitted, and ought to be; for besides with queer-shaped furniture, which it is its undoubted ethnological claim, it has enough to give one the rheumatism to two merits of its own. We know SO look at; and no higher class of art must little about it that it admits of considerbe allowed to refresh their eyes
than the able latitude of design, without offence heraldic devices, or the crude, ungainly to archæologists, and its details are so
rude and lean that they must be cheap. It could not, without destroying its supLet the Government, then, when they posed use, be brought quite to the front, issue their proposals for a competition like Westminster Hall, thus making it for the new War Office, for once make the central feature in the façade. It up their minds beforehand, and specify must consequently be seen in perspecthe Saxon style as that to be adopted. tive at some distance behind, but in It will admit of some novelties, and be order to enable this to be done the quite as appropriate to the wants of the façade must be cut in two; and more nineteenth century as the Norman or than this, all the nearer features must Edwardian styles.
be kept small and subdued, so as not to When, however, we have thus com- dwarf the distant hall. All this is quite pleted our hortus siccus of dried speci- right and logical, if the hall is to be mens of dead styles, the prospects of But why the hall at all? If the the next generation of architects will be Government had even now the courage dark indeed. There will only then to say to Mr. Street, “You shall not have remain the so-called Druidical style of your vaulted hall, but must introduce a the Ordnance Survey. At present no glazed court, or such a hall as Mr. Waterdoubt it is inconvenient and
house proposed in his design," they what draughty; but if plate-glass and would not only immensely improve the modern refinements may be used with convenience of the Courts, but save the the Norman, why not with the Druidi- architect from a difficulty he does not cal? I do not feel by any means sure see his way out of. He could then close up that a stuccoed Stonehenge, with a glass his front and introduce a central feature, and iron roof, would not be as good, with appropriate wings, which would give perhaps a better representation of the some dignity and proportion to the whole architecture of the nineteenth century design, and so save it from the scattered than many buildings which have recently littlenesses which every one remarks, been erected.
though few are aware why they are
inevitable with the present arrangeBut to return to the Law Courts ments. for a few minutes, before concluding. The particular crotchet which, besides No re-arrangement of the parts, howits anachronism, renders the princi- ever, can possibly remedy the real and pal façade so unsatisfactory, is Mr. fundamental error which is inherent in Street's determination to insist on his the whole design. If the Strand were great vaulted hall. In his first design the bed of a pellucid mountain stream, this hall was placed east and west, in and this building were designed to be the centre of the building. It was not placed on its banks in some remote seen from the outside, and was useless sparsely inhabited Midland valley, for inside. It was therefore harmless, ex- the accommodation of a congregation of cept that it increased the expense enor- barefooted friars, we might admire the mously, while it darkened the lights, and picturesqueness of its details, and shut rendered the courts and passages
around our eyes to the anachronism in conit noisome and inconvenient. In addi- sideration of its appropriateness. It is tion to these trifles, however, it may
be difficult, however, to realize the frame of added that it is not Gothic, for so far mind in which any one could sit down as I know no such vaulted hall was at the present day seriously to prepare erected for any civil purpose in any such a design for a Palace of Justice in country of Europe during the Middle the largest and richest city of the world. Ages.
If the Government, when the competiIn the new designs the hall is placed tion was proposed, had had the courage north and south, and comes so near the to proscribe both the Classic and the front that the temptation was irresistible Gothic styles, there are many architects to justify its introduction by showing it, in this country who could have furand making it a feature in the design. nished both elegant and appropriate
designs in styles perfectly suited to our tem it is to make a good one. 1 wants and feelings. If, however, Gothic have arrived at this conclusion bewas admitted, one of two things seems cause I find that every nation in the inevitable. The building must either world bas been able to produce a (like Sir Charles Barry's Parliament House style of architecture perfectly suitor his son Edward's design for the Law able to its own wants, and commandCourts) be an Italian design in a Gothic ing the admiration of all strangers; disguise, or, if it is to be (as Mr. Street and this though many were in a boasts that his is) a real fac-simile of the state of civilization infinitely below monastic or domestic architecture of the our own, and had neither the knowMiddle Ages, it must be such as is only ledge or the appliances which we possuited to that remote stage of civiliza- If we can revert to the thinking tion, and both antagonistic to the taste system, though we may blunder a little and inappropriate to the purposes of the in starting at first, we may look forward present generation.
with confidence to the future of archi
tectural art in this country. We have It is not pleasant to write thus of the hundreds of architects able and willing works of men who I am proud to call to do all that is required. The rapidity my friends, and for whom personally I with which they learned to copy Gothic have the greatest possible esteem ; but details, and the perfection of their my belief is that they are the slaves and imitations, are proofs that there is no the victims of a thoroughly vicious sys- lack of ability on their part. They tem, and unless some one will speak could just as easily and as quickly proout, even at the sacrifice of personal feel- duce designs in modern styles if they ings, there is no hope that it will be were asked for; but it is doubtful whether amended. My conviction is, that so the public are prepared to demand this, long as men copy, and copy only, art or whether they are sufficiently educated cannot advance beyond the schoolboy in true art to appreciate them if stage, and no ability, however great, obtained. On the other hand, if we will enable any one to produce a build- are content with the copying system, ing which will be satisfactory fifty we may fold our arms and despair. In years after its erection. There are not no part of the world has it succeeded probably in Europe two architects of in any age, and it is very unlikely it greater ability or greater knowledge of should do so now. their profession than Messrs. Street and Are the architects wise in the course Waterhouse, and their failure to produce they are pursuing? Is there no danger satisfactory designs for the two build- that the Government and the public ings criticized above, is to my mind may in future go to Chatham or to Great sufficient proof of the truth of the George Street for their architects? If proposition that it is impossible to render they ever do, it will be a dark day the art of a bygone age suitable or ap- for the arts of this country. Archipropriate to the wants or feelings of the tecture is not an art to be learned in a present.
day, or practised by amateurs. Long On the other hand, if men will think, apprenticeship and severe study are reand think only, of how they can best quisite for success; and if architecture carry out a design, with the best mate
ever passes out of professional hands, we rials and with the forms best suited for certainly may be more cheaply and more the purposes it is intended for, and orna- conveniently accommodated, but the art ment it in the manner most elegant and will probably be something one dreads appropriate to its constructive and to look forward to. The Institute of utilitarian necessities, without Architects may save us from this, but thinking of, or at least copying, any- to do so it must write over its doors, thing done before, my conviction is, “Archæology is not Architecture," and, that it will be as difficult to make I would add,
never can be made to a bad design as on the copying sys- take the place of true or manly art.”
THE STRANGE ADVENTURES OF A PHAETON.
BY WILLIAM BLACK, AUTHOR OF “A DAUGHTER OF HETH," ETC.
with some heightened colour in her face
and some half-frightened amusement in MASTER ARTHUR VANISHES.
her eyes, towards Tita; and lo! that “ Hampton me taught to wish her first for mine; majestic little woman was still regarding And Windsor, alas! doth chase me from her
the girl, and there was surprise as well sight."
as sternness in her look. “Rain !" cried Queen Titania, as she Presently the brisk step of Lieutenant walked up to the window of the break von Rosen was heard outside, and in a fast-room, and stared reproachfully out minute or two the tall young man came on cloudy skies, gloomy trees, and the into the room, with a fine colour in his wet thoroughfares of Twickenham. face, and a sprinkling of rain about his
“ Surely not!" said Bell, in anxious big brown beard. tones; and therewith she too walked up “ Ha! Not late ? No? That is very to one of the panes, while an expression good !" of deep mortification settled down on “But it rains !" said Tita to him, in her face.
an injured way, as if anyone who had She stood so for a second or two, irre been out of doors was necessarily responsolute and hurt; and then a revengeful sible for the weather. look came into her eyes, she walked “Not much," he said. firmly over to my Lady, got close up to off; but about six it did rain very hard, her ear, and apparently uttered a single and I got a little wet then, I think.” word. Tita almost jumped back; and “And where were you at six ?" said then she looked at the girl.
Tita, with her pretty brown eyes opened “Bell, how dare you?” she said, wide. in her severest manner.
“At Isleworth,” he said, carelessly; Bell turned and shyly glanced at the and then he added, “Oh, I have done rest of us, probably to make sure none much business this morning, and bought of us had heard ; and then, all this mys something for your two boys, which terious transaction being brought to a will make them not mind that you go close, she returned to the table, and away. It is hard, you know, they are calmly took up a newspaper. But pre
left behind sently she threw it aside, and glanced, “But Bell has given them silver
No. 148.-VOL. XXV.
“ It may go