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nually(x); which is commonly called original sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions (y).
Q. 26. How is original sin conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity ?
A. Original sin is conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity by natural generation, so as all that proceed from them in that way are conceived and born in sin(2).
Q. 27. What misery did the fall bring upon mankind?
A. The fall brought upon mankind the loss of communion with God (a), his displeasure and curse; so as we are by nature children of wrath (b), bond slaves to Satan(c), and justly liable to all punishments in this world, and that which is to come (d). .
Q. 28. What are the punishments of sin in this world? A. The punishments of sin in this world are either
(x) Rom. 3. 10. As it is writ. is born of a woman, that he ten, There is none righteous, 10 should be righteous ? John 3. 6, not one. Eph. 2. 1. And you That which is born of the Aesh, hath he quickened who were dead is flesh; and that which is born in trespasses and sins. Rom. 5. of the Spirit, is spirit. 6. For when we were yet with- (a) Gen. 3. 10, 24. And he out strength, in due time Christ said, I heard thy voice in the gardied for ihe ungodly. Rom.8. 7, den: and I was afraid, because I 8. Because the carnal mind is was naked ; and I hid myself. So enmity against God: for it is not he drove out the man. subject to the lasv of God, neither (6) Eph. 2. 2, 3. Wherein in indeed can be. So then they that time past ye walked according to sre in the flesh cannot please the course of this world, accordGo:l. Gen. 6. 5. And God saw ing to the prince of the power of that the wickedness of man was the air, the spirit that now work, great in the earth, and that every eth in the children of disobedi. imagination of the thoughts of his ence. Among whom also we all heart was only evil continually. had our conversation in times
(y) James 1. 14, 15. But past, in the lusts of our flesh, fulevery man is tempted, when he filling the desires of the flesh and is drawn away of his own lust, and of the mind; and were by nature enticed. Then when lust hath the children of wrath, even an conceived, it bringeth forth sin: others. i and sin, when it is finished, bring- (c) 2 Tim. 2. 26. And that eth forth death.
they may recover themselves out (2) Psalm 51. 5. Behold, I of the snare of the devil, who are was shapen in iniquity; and in sin taken captive by him at his will. did my mother conceive me. Job (d) Rom. 6. 23. For the wages 14. 4. -Who can bring a clean of sin is death: but the gift of ihing out of an unclean? not one. God is eternal life, through Jesus Job 15. 14. What is man, that Christ our Lord. Mat. 25. 41. he should be ckap ? and he which Then shall be say also unto them
inward, as blindness of mind(e), a reprobate sense (Í), strong delusions (g), hardness of heart (h), horror of conscience(i), and vile affections (k); or outward, as the curse of God upon the creatures for our sakes (1), and all other evils that befal us in our bodies, names, estates, relations, and employments (m); together with death itself (n).
'Q. 29. What are the punishments of sin in the world to come?
A. The punishments of sin in the world to come are everlasting separation from the comfortable presence of God, and most grievous torments in soul and body, without intermission, in hell-fire for ever(0).
on the left hand, Depart from that which is against nature. me, ye cursed, into everlasting (1) Ger. 3. 17. And unto fire, prepared for the devil and Adam he said, Because thou hast
hearkened unto the voice of thy (e) Eph. 4. 18. Having the wife, and hast eaten of the tree understanding darkened, being of which I commanded thee, sayalienated from the life of God, ing, Thou shalt not eat of it: through the ignorance that is in cursed is the ground for thy sake; them, because of the blindness of in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all their heart.
the days of thy life. ( Rom. 1. 28. Even as they cm) Deut. 28. 15. to the end. did not like to retain God in their But it shall come to pass, if thoa knowledge, God gave them over wilt not hearken unto the voice of to a reprobate mind, to do those the Lord thy God, to observe to things which are not convenient. do all his commandments and his
(3) 2 Thes. 2. 11. And for statutes which I command thee this cause God shall send them this day; that all these curses strong delusion, that they should shall come upon thee, and overbelieve a lie.
take thce. 5. 16. Cursed shalt (1) Rom. 2. 5. But after thy thou be in the city, and cursed hardness and impenitent heart, shalt thou be in the field. v. 17. treasurest up unto thyself wrath Cursed shall be thy basket and against the day of wrath, and thy store. v. 18. Cursed shall revelation of the righteous judg- be the fruit of thy body, and the ment of God.
fruit of thy land, &c. (i) Isa. 33. 14. The sinners in n) Rom. 6. 21, 23. What Zion are afraid ; fearfulness hath fruit had ye then in those things, surprised the hypocrites : who whereof ye are now ashamed? for among us shall dwell with the de- the end of those things is death. vouring fire? who amongst us shall For the wages of sin is death. dwell with everlasting burnings? CO 2 Thess. 1. 9. Who shall
rk) Rom. 1. 26. For this be punished with everlasting decause God gave them up unto vile struction from the presence of affcctions : for even their women the Lord, and from the glory of did change the natural use into his power.
Q. 30. Doth God leave all mankind to perish in the esiale of sin anıl misery?
A. God doth not leave all men to perish in the estate of sin and misery (2), into which they fell by the breach of the first covenant, commonly called the covenant of works (9), but of bis mere love and mercy delivereth the elect out of it, and bringeth them into an estate of salvation by the second covenant, commonly called the cove. nant of grace (r).
Q. 31. With whom qvas the covenant of grace made ?
A. The covenant of grace was made with Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed (s).
Q. 32. How is the grace of God manifested in the second covenant?
A. The grace of God is manifested in the second covenant, in that he freely provideth and offereth to sinners a mediator (t), and life and salvation by him (v), and recuiring faith, as the condition to interest them in him (20),
CD 1 Thess. 5. 9. For God of one, And to thy seed, which hath not appointed us to wrath, is Christ. Isaiah 53. 10. Yet it but to obtain salvation by our pleased the Lord to bruise him ; Lord Jesus Christ.
hne hath put him to grief: when c ) Cal. 3. 10. For as many thou shalt make his soul an offer as are of the works of the law, ing for sin, he sliall see his seed, are under the curse; for it is he shall prolong his days, and the written, Cursed is every one that pleasure of the Lord shall proscontinueth not in all things which per in his hand. He shall see of are written in the book of the the travail of bis soul, and shall law to do them.
be satisfied: by his knowledge (p) Tit. 3. 4. 7. But after shall my righteous servant justify that the kindness and love of God 'many : for he shall bear their our Saviour toward man appear. iniquities. 2 Samuel 23. 5. He od. Not by works of righteous-hatli made with rie an ness which we have done, but ac- covenant, ordered in all things eording to his. mercy he saved us and sure. by the washing of regeneration, it ) Isa. 42. 6. I the Lord and renewing of the Holy Ghost. have called thee in righteousness, Which le shed on us abundantly, and will hold thine hand, and will through Jesus Christ our Saviour. keep thee, and will give thee for That being justified by his grace, a covenant of the people, for a we should be made heirs accord- light of the Gentiles. ing to the hope of eternal life. ru ) 1 John 5. 11. And this
($) Galatians 3. 16. Now to is the record, that God hath given Abraham and his seed were the us eternal life ; and this life is in promises made. He saith not. his Son. And to seeds, as of many; but as rw ) John 3. 16. For God so.
promiseth and giveth his Holy Spirit (x), to all his elect, to work in them that faith (4), with all other saving graces (2), and to enable them unto all holy obedience(a), as the evidence of the truth of their faith (b), and thankfulness to God (c), and as the way which he hath appointed them to salvation(d).
Q. 33. Was the covenant of grace always administered after one and the same manner?
A. The covenant of grace was not always administered after the same manner, but the administrations of it under the Old Testament were different from those under the New (e).
Q. 34. How was the covenant of grace adminislered under the Old Testament ?
A. The covenant of grace was administered under the Old Testament by promises (f ), prophe
lored the world, that he gave his because we thus judge, that if only begotten Son, that whoso- one died for all, then were all ever believeth in him should not dead. And that he died for all, perish, but have everlasting life. that they which live should not
(x) Prov. 1. 23. Behold, I henceforth live unto themselves, will pour out my Spirit unto you, but unto him which died for them, I will make known my words un- and rose again. to you.
(d) Epli. 2. 10. For we are ry 2 Cor. 4. 13. We having his workmanship, created in the same Spirit of faith, according Christ Jesus unto good works, as it is written, I believed, and which God hath before ordained therefore have s spoken : we also that we shouid walk in them. believe, and therefore speak.. (e) 2 Cor. 3. 6, 9. Who also
(:) Gal. 5. 22, But the fruit hath made us able ministers nf of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, the New Testament, not of the long-suffering, gentleness, good letter, but of the spirit: for the ness, faith ; v. 23. Meekness, letter killeth, but the spirit givtemperance : against such there eth life. But if the ministration is no law.
of death written and engraven in ra) Ezekiel 36. 27. And I stones, was glorious, so that the will put my Spirit within you, children of Israel could not sted. and cause you to w:: k in my fastly behold the face of Moses, staiutes, and ye shall keep my for the glory of his countenance, judgments, and do them.
which glory was to be done away, b) James 2. 18. Yea, a man How shall not the ministration may say, Thou hast.faith, and I of the Spirit be rather glorious ? have works : shew me thy faith For if the ministration of conwithout thy works, and I will demnation be glory, much more suew thee my faith by my works. doth the ministration of rightcous.
(c) 2 Cor. 5. 14, 15. For the ness exeeed in glory. love of Christ constraineth us, CÍ) Rom. 15. 8. Now I say,
cies (g), sacrifices (h), circumcision (i), the passover (k), and other types and ordinances; which did all fore-signify Christ then to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah (1), by whom they then had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation (m).
Q. 35. How is the covenant of grace administered under the New Testament?
2. Under the New Testament, when Christ the substance was exhibited, the same covenant of grace was, and still is, to be administered in the preaching of the word (n), and the administration of the sacraments of baptism (0), and the Lord's supper(r); in which grace
that Jesus Christ was a minister promises, but having seen them of the circumcision for the truth afar off, and were persuaded of of God, to confirm the promises them, and embraced them, and 'made unto the fathers." confessed that they were stran
(9) Acts 3. 20, 24. And he gers and pilgrims on the earth. shall send Jesus Christ, which be- rm Gal. 3. S, 9. And the fore was preached unto you. Yea, scripture foreseeing that God and all the prophets from Samuel, would justify the heathen through and those that follow after, as faith, preached before the gospel many as have spoken, have like- unto Abraham, saying, In thee wise foretold of these days. shall all, nations be blessed. So
ch) Heb. 10.1. For the law then, they which be of faith having a shadow of good things are blessed with faithful Abrato come, and not the very inage ham. of the things, can never, with an) Mark 16. 15. And h those sacrifices which they offer- said unto them, Go ye into all the ed year by year continually, make world, and preach the gospel to the comers thereunto perfect. every creature.
ri) Rom. 4. 11. And he re- ro) Mat. 28. 19, 20. Go re ceived the sign of circumcision, a therefore and teach all nations, seal of the righteousness of the baptizing them in the name of faith which he had, yet being un- the Father, and of the Son, and circumcised: that he might be of the Holy Ghost : Teaching the father of all them that believe, them to observe all things what though they be not circumcisedí soever I have commanded you : that righteousness might be im- and lo, I am with you alway, puted unto them also..
even unto the end of the world. (hc) 1 Cor. 5. 7. Purge out Amen. therefore the old leaven, that ye (P) 1 Cor. 11. 23. For I may be a new lump, as ye are have received of the Lord, that unleavened. For even Christ our which also I delivered unto you, passover is sacrificed for us. That the Lord Jesus, the same
C) (Heb. 8, 9 and 10 chap.) night in which he was betrayed, Heb. 11. 13. These all died in took bread; v. 24 And when he fuith, not having received the bad given thanks he brake it.