or immediately before (w) or after these (x) or other helps to prevent or remedy such miscarriages (y): if in public, or in the presence of others, who are thereby likely to be provoked or defiled (2).

Q. 152. What doth every sin deserve at the hands of God? ***A. Every sin, even the least, being against the sovereign

ty (a), goodness (b), and holiness of God (c), and against his righteous law (d), deserveth his wrath and curse (e), both in this life (f), and that which is to come (g); and cannot be expiated but by the blood of Christ (h).

w ) 1 Cor. 11. 20, 21. When he is guilty of all. For he that ye come together, therefore, into said, Do not commit adultery, one place, this is not to eat the said also, Do not kill. Lord's supper. For in eating (6) Exod. 20.1, 2. God spake every one taketh before other his all these words, saying, I am the own supper : and one is hungry, Lord thy God which have brouglit and another is drunken.

thee out of the land of Egypt, ro) John 13. 27. 30. And out of the house of bondage. after the sop, Satan entered into

Hab. 1. 13. Thou art of him. Then said Jesus unto him, purer eyes than to behold evil, That thou doest, do quickly. He and canst not look on iniquity. then, having received the sop, (d) 1 John 3. 4. Whosoever went immediately out.

committeth sin, transgresseth also (y) Ezra 9. 13, 14. And after the law; for sin is the transgresa all that is come upon us for our sion of the law. Romans 7. 12. evil deeds, and for our great tres. Wherefore the law is holy : and pass, seeing that thou our Ged the commandment holy, and just, hast punished us less than our ini- and good. quities deserve, and hast given us e Eph. 5. 6. Let no man'de. such deliverance as this : Should ceive you with vain words : for be. we again break thy command- cause of these things cometh the ments, and join in affinity with wrath of God upon the children the people of these abominations, of disobedience. Gal. 3. 10. For wouldst not thou be angry with as many as are of the works of us till thou hadst consumed us? the law, are under the curse : for

(z) 2 Sam. 16. 22. So they it is written, Cursed is every one spread Absalom a tent upon the that continueth not in all things top of the house, and Absalom which are written in the book of went in into his father's concu- the law to do them.. bines, in the sight of all Israel. (f) Lam. 3. 39. Wherefore

1. 2. 22. Now Eli was very doth a living man complain, a old, and heard all that his sons man for the punishment of his did unto all Israel, and how they sins ? Deut. 28, from verse 15 to lay with the women that assem- the end. bled at the door of the tabernacle (S) Mat. 25. 41. Depart from of the congregation.

me, ye cursed, into everlasting (a) James 2. 10, 11. For fire, prepared for the devil and whosoever shall keep the whole his angels. law, and yet offend in one point, (h) Heb. 9. 22. And almost


Q. 153. What doth God require of us, that we may es. cape his wrath and curse due to us by reason of the transgression of the law ?

A. That we may escape the wrath and curse of God due to us by reason of the transgression of the law, he requireth of us repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ (i), and the diligent use of the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation (k).

Q. 154. What are the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation ?

A. The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to his church the benefits of his mediation, are all his ordinances; especially the word, sacraments, and prayer: all which are made effectual to the elect for their salvation (1).

Q. 155. How is the word made effectual to salvation ?

A. The Spirit of God maketh the reading, but especie ally the preaching of the word, an effectual means of erlightening (m), convincing and humbling sinners (n); of


all things are by the law purged soul ; all they that hate me, love with blood; and without shedding death. of blood is no remission. 1 Peter (1) Mat. 28. 19, 20. Go ye, 1. 18, 19. Forasmuch as ye know therefore, and teach all nations, that ye were not redeemed with : baptizing them in the name of the corruptible things, as silver and Father, and of the Son, and of the gold, from your vain conversation Holy Ghost. Teaching them to received by tradition from your observe all things whatsoever I

s; But with the precious have commanded you: and lo, I blood of Christ, as of a lamb with am with you alway, even unto the out blemish and without spot. end of the world. Acts 2. 42.

(i) Acts 20. 21. Testifying And they continued stedfastly in both to the Jews, and also to the the apostles' doctrine and fellow. Greeks, repentance toward God, ship, and in breaking of bread, and faith toward our Lord Jesus and in prayers. Christ.

( m ) Neh. 8. 8. So they read (k) Prov. 8. 33. 36. Hear in- in the book, in the law of God struction, and be wise, and refuse distinctly, and gave the sense, and it not. Blessed is the man that caused them to understand the heareth me, watching daily at my reading. gates, waiting at the posts of my (1) 1 Cor. 14. 24, 25. But doors. For whoso findeth me, if all prophesy, and there come findeth life, and shall obtain favour in one that believeth not, or one of the Lord. But he that sinneth unlearned, he is convinced of all, against me, wrongeth his own he is judged of all: And thụs are

driving them out of themselves, and drawing them unto Christ (0); .of conforming them to his image (P), and subduing them to his will (9); of strengthening them against temptations and corruptions (r); of building them up in grace (s), and establishing their hearts in holiness and comfort through faith unto salvation (t).

Q. 156. Is the word of God to be read by all ?

A. Although all are not to be permitted to read the · word publicly to the congregation (v), yet all sorts of people are bound to read it apart by themselves (W);

the secrets of his heart made preaching of Jesus Christ, accord. manifest ; and so, falling down on ing to the revelation of the myshis face, he will worship God, and tery, which was kept secret since report that God is in you of a the world began. truth.

ro) Deut. 31. 9. And Moses (0) Acts 2. 37. 41. Now when wrote this law, and delivered it they heard this, they were prick- unto the priests the sons of Levi, ed in their heart, and said unto which bare the ark of the core. Peter, and to the rest of the nant of the Lord, and unto all apostles, Men and brethren, what the elders of Israel. Neh. 8. 2, 3. shall we do? Then they that glad- And Ezra the priest brought the ly received his word, were bapti- law before the congregation, both zed : and the same day there were of men and women, and all that added unto them about three could hear with understanding, thousand souls.

upon the first day of the seventh ( 2 Cor. 3. 18. But we all month. And he read therein bewith open face, beholding as in a fore the street, that was before glass the glory of the Lord, are the water-gate, from the morning changed into the same image, until mid-day, before the men from glory to glory, even as by and the women, and those that the Spirit of the Lord.

could understand ; and the ears of CO 2 Cor. 10. 4. For the all the people were attentive unto weapons of our warfare are not the book of the law. earnal, but mighty through God to (w) Deut. 17. 19. And it shall the pulling down of strong holdls. be with him, and he shall read

() Mat. 4. 4. But he answer- therein all the days of his life : ed and said, It is written, Man that he may learn to fear the Lord shall not live by bread alone, but his God, to keep all the words of by every word that proceedeth this law, and these statutes, to do out of the mouth of God.

them. Rev. 1. 3. Blessed is he (s) Acts 20. 32. And now, that readeth, and they that hear brethren, I commend you to God, the words of this prophecy, and and to the word of his grace, keep those things which are writ which is able to build you up, and ten therein : for the time is at to give you an inheritance among hand. John 5. 39. Search the all them which are sanctified. scriptures, for in them ye think

(t) Rom. 16. 25. Now to him ye have eternal life, and they are that is of power to establish you they which testify of me. Isa. 34. aecording to my gospel, and the 16.' Seek yè out of the book of

and with their families (x): to which end, the holy scriptures are to be translated out of the original into vulgar languages (y).

Č. 157. How is the word of God to be read ?

A. The holy scriptures are to be read with an high and reverent esteem of them (z); with a firm persuasion that they are the very word of God (a), and that he only can enable us to understand them (b);. with desire to know, believe, and obey the will of God revealed in them (c); with diligence (d), and attention to the matter and scope of them (e); with

the Lord, and read : no one of that shineth in a dark place, unthese shall fail.

til the day dawn, and the day-star ( x ) Deut. 6. 6,7. And these arise in your hearts. Knowing words which I commanded thee this first, that no prophecy of the this day, shall be in thine heart. scripture is of any private inter-, * And thou shalt teach them dili- pretation. For the prophecy came gently unto thy children, and shalt not in old time by the will of man, talk of them when thou sittest in but holy men of God spake as they thine house, and when thou walk-' were moved by the Holy Ghost. est by the way, and when thou (b) Luke 24. 45. Then openliest down, and when thou risested he their understanding, that up. Psal. 78.5. For he establish- they might understand the scriped a testimony in Jacob, and ap- tures. pointed a law in Israel, which he (0) Deut. 17. 19. And it shall commanded our fathers, that they be with him, and he shall read should make them known to their therein all the days of his life : children.

that he may learn to fear the Cy) 1 Cor. 14. 6. 9. Now, Lord his God, to keep all the brethren, if I come unto you words of this law, and these staspeaking with tongues, what shall tutes, to do them. I profit you, except I shall speak (d) Acts 17. 11. These (Beto you either by revelation, or by reans) were more noble than knowledge, or by prophesying, or those in Thessalonica, in that they by doctrine ? So likewise you, received the word with all readiexcept ye utter by the tongue ness of mind, and searched the words easy to be understood, how scriptures daily, whether those shall it be known what is spoken! things were so. for yo shall speak into the air. (e) Acts 8. 30. 34. And Philip

z Psal. 19. 10. More to be ran thither to him, and heard him desired are they than gold, yea, read the prophet Esaias, and said, than much fine gold: sweeter Understandest thou what thou also than honey, and the honey. readest ? And the eunuch ancomb,

swered Philip, and said, I pray (a) 2 Peter 1. 19-21. We thee, of whom speaketh the prohave also a more sure word of phet this? of hiraself, or of some prophecy ; whereunto ye do well other man? that ye take heed, as unto a light

meditation (f), application (g), self-denial (h), and prayer (i).

R. 158. By whom is the word of God to be preached ?

A. The word of God is to be preached only by such as are sufficiently gifted (k), and also duly approved and called to that office (l).

Q. 159. How is the word of God to be preached by those that are called thereunto?

A. They that are called to labour in the ministry of the word, are to preach sound doctrine (m), diligently (n), in season and out of season (0); plainly (p), not in the en

A Psal. 1. 2. But his delight of good behaviour, given to hospiis in the law of the Lord, and in tality, apt to teach ; Not a novice, his law doth he meditate day and lest, being lifted up with pride, he night. Psal. 119. 97. O how love fall into the condemnation of the I thy law ! it is my meditation all devil. 2 Cor. 3. 6. Who also hath the day.

made us able ministers of the New CS) 2 Chron. 34. 21. Go, in- Testament, not of the letter, but quire of the Lord for me, and for of the spirit: for the letter killthem that are left in Israel, and in eth, but the spirit giveth life. Judah, concerning the words of (1) Jer. 14. 15. Therefore the book that is found; for great thus saith the Lord concerning is the wrath of the Lord that is the prophets that prophesy in my poured out upon us, because our name, and I sent them not. Rom. fathers have not kept the word of 10.15. And how shall they preach the Lord, to do after all that is except they be sent ? Heb. 5. 4. written in this book.

And no man taketh this honour ch) Prov. 3. 5. Trust in the unto himself, but he that is called Lord with all thine heart; and of God, as was Aaron. lean not unto thine own under-' (m) Tit. 2. 1. But speak thou standing. Deut. 33. 3. Yea, he the things which become sound loved the people; all his saints doctrine. are in thy hand; and they sat (n) Acts 18. 25. This man down at thy feet ; every one shall was instructed in the way of the receive of thy words.

Lord : and being fervent in the ri) Psal. 119. 18. Open thou spirit, he spake and taught dilimine eyes, what I may behold gently the things of the Lord. wondrous things out of thy law. (0) 2 Tim. 4. 2. Preach the Neh. 8. 6. And Ezra blessed the word, be instant in season, out of Lord, the great God : and all the season ; reprove, rebuke, exhort people answered, Amen, amen, with all long-suffering and docwith lifting up their hands : and trine. they bowed their heads, and wor. (D) 1 Cor. 14. 19. Yet in the shipped the Lord with their faces church I had rather speak five

words with my understanding, (k) 1 Tim. 3. 2. 6. A bishop, that by my voice I might teach then, must be blamelcss. the hus others also, than ten thousand . hand of one wife, vigilant, sober, words in an unknown tongue.

to the ground.

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