ted to. "It was impossible to treat been anxious to discharge obligations for peace with a government which, once incurred.

The articles which imposed upon Aus. according to all accounts, had not yėt acquired sufficient stability, and tria severe sacrifices, and painful renun

ciations, were executed without reserve was still under the influence of the

or limitation; while those which were military power, which had thrown inserted for the alleviation of Austria off its obedience,

were either not at all carried into effect, In like manner no armistice could or only after arbitrary and disadvantabe granted ; for to restrain the Rus- geous alterations ; or at the close of fasian army in their victorious career,

tiguing negociations; and, in part only and successful progress, without a

at the expence of new sacrifices.

Scarcely one of the conditions of this firm and definite expectation of treaty, which affected the interests of peace, and without principles which the Emperor's court, his princes, or his might, with certainty, be relied on, subjects, was fulfilļed to the full extent, would have been a proceeding which, within the period prescribed, and to the only advantageous to the new go

real satisfaction of the parties. vernment ad interim, would have

Neither his imperial highness the

Archduke, then elector of Saltzburg. been entitely repugnant to the true

nor his imperial bighness the Grand abject of peace, and the restora- Master of the German Order obtained tion of a stable order of things in the full enjoyment of the possessions or Sweden.

revenues assigned them. consequence

of these conside- His royal highness the Archduke, then rations, orders were given to the Landgrave of Breisgau, was, according

to the express terms of the treaty, to troops to prosecute their functions with vigour; and to the two-fold the lands and revenues he had lost.

receive an indemnity of the full value of proposals for peace, and an armis: Every attempt to realise this precise tice, an answer was returned briefly, engagement, in any way, remained withof the following tenor :

even appeared, in the Russią is willing to make peace, course of frequently renewed negociabut can only negociate with the le tions, that the French cabinet had at no gal government, the principal basis royal highness even in part; and the

time the intention of compensating his of a peace must be

ministers of his Imperial Majesty were 1. The possession of Finland, be forced more than once, to endure the ing a country not only subjected by mortification of seeing the just demands arms, but by political and civil re- of the princes of the imperial house, lations, already irrevocably united treated as objects which merited no se to the Russian empire.

rious consideration. 2. The exclusion of the English complaint which was made concerning

A like fate was reserved for every from all the Swedish ports in the the violated interests of his Majesty's Baltic.

subjects or revenues. From the day of the exchange of the articles of peace,

no further contributions were to be raised, AUSTRIA.

and all arrears of military requisitions were to be discharged by the payment of

40,000,000 of francs. The payment was Though the Presburg treaty of peace made, but the hoped-for alleviation did bore, in all its essential articles, the not take place. On the one hand new stamp of those unhappy circumstances and oppressive requisitions for the

supwhich imposed upon his Imperial Ma- port of the French arıny was made, bem jesty the duty of rendering every other

cause the French magazines were sudconsideration subordinate to the momen- denly found empty which had been late tary necessities of his monarchy, yet in ly richly filled at the expence of the the execution of this treaty the severe

country. On the other hand, a number conscientiousness was not to be mis- of valuable objects, the undoubted pro taken, with which his Majesty has ever perty of his Majesty, lying in various of

out effect.


the ceded provinces, were yielded to rassments was soon after opened by the the new possessors of them, for a con- unexpected appearance of a Russian sideration ascertained by express treaty; fleet, which had seized the harbour and and this remained unpaid. The loss sus- territory of Cattaro. The delay of the tained by these two articles amounted French plenipotentiaries, in taking posto 24,000,000 of florins. All endea- session of this territory within the period vours to procure satisfaction for this were assigned by treaty, was the sole cause in vain.

of the intervening occurrence, and AusNevertheless, his Imperial Majesty tria was forced to suffer for their negliwould have endeavoured to forget this gence. It was in vain that every thing loss and these affronts, however painful, was done to convince the French cabinet, could the great end of a peace, pur- that how little soever his Imperial Machased by such great sacrifices, have jesty could be answerable for this accibeen attained. To devote himself in dent, he would yet do every thing in uninterrupted repose to the welfare of his power to evince, by every becoming his people

to provide for the success measure, the perfect purity of this deof the internal administration, and divert signs, and the wish to fulfil even this fresh dangers by suitable measures of stipulation of the treaty with literal exdefence this was the wish, this the just actness : it was in vain that the required expectation of his Majesty. To frustrate convention for the right of passage was this pacific plan by all means, has been, assented to and concluded : it was in from the conclusion of the Presburg vain that, on the tumultuous entreaties peace to the present moment, the unde- of France, the Austrian seaports were viating effort of the French government. shut against the Russian and English

Before any articles stipulated in fa- flag a measure which struck a deep vour of Austria were carried into execu- wound into the reviving commerce, the tion by France, his Imperial Majesty consequent internal prosperity, and into found himself involved in unpleasant the finances of the monarchy: it was in discussions by demands of a very ques- yain that troops were sent out in order, tionable kind. In order to facilitate the in coinmon with the French, to effect military communication between Venice the surrender of Cattaro. No notice and the provinces on the opposite coast was taken of either of these steps. The of the Adriatic Sea, an uninterrupted Austrian territory on the right bank of march for the French troops was required the Isonzo, which ought to have been through the imperial dominions, and yielded up by the French troops within this not for the moment only, but to be two months of the exchange of the raticonfirmed by a formal convention as a fications of peace, not only continued in permanent arrangement. The weigh- their possession, but was even formally tiest objections (derived partly from organized and considered as French former relations towards the republic of property; the prisoners of war did not Venice, which had never obtained or return back; the fortress of Brannau required this prerogativè, partly from was not delivered up. But, what was the condition of these maritime provin- more offensive than all the rest, the ces, by no means well supplied with great French army prolonged their abode provisions-partly from the danger of in Germany, and incessantly threatened occasioning neighbouring states to make the frontiers of the monarchy from the like demands) were opposed to this pro- side of Bavaria and Franconia. posal : they obtained neither à reply The procrastinated delivery up of nor even a hearing. The will of the Catarro was but an insignificant preEmperor Napoleon, which had been al- tence for this highly vexatious proceedready intimated

the intimation that ing. But what at the same time was more serious evils might occur, if this taking place in Germany, furnished a were not readily endured the threat to clue to the real motives. Tenew the war, and proceed at once to "The Presburgh treaty had introduced take possession of the frontier-provinces; important changes in the possessions of these were the unanswerable arguments several Princes of the empire of the before which every reinopstrance was to South of Gerinany. Nevertheless, in give way. As in that, so in all later this treaty, the former constitution of discussions, no other were ever urged the empire was not merely maintained in by the French cabinet.

silence, but even expressly confirmed, A fertile source of unpleasant embar- The titļe of “Emperor of Germany,

was without any scruple or objection ad- ponderated over all of them, decided Initted into the treaty of peace; and the him to observe an opposite conduct. recognition of the royal title in the houses The immediate preservation of the Ausof Bavaria and Wurtemburgh stipulated trian monarchy was the Emperor's first with the express addition that the bond and holiest duty; and on the mournful which had united these princes to the concurrence of events which had taken German imperial confederation, should place, this was become the common inswt be considered as broken by the new terest of all regents and nations which prerogatives granted them.

had not altogether and forever renounced In the mean while, under the veil of the felicity of independent existence. secrecy, the probably long-fostered plan In the situation of the Emperor at that of utterly annihilating the imperial con- epoch, to have set the existence on stitution, had grown to maturity at Paris. Austria on a throw would have been a A considerable number of the greater manifest contradiction to what his Maand sınaller German Princes had ottered jesty owed to himself and his faithful their concurrence to this plan. Without subjects, and would, besides, have giving the slightest previous intimation broken in upon all the prospects and of so important an event to the legal hopes of redemption entertained by all head of the empire, the Princes who fellow-sufferers with himself, were under French authority, or French His Majesty thought himself so much influence, on a sudden burst asunder the the inore entitled to adopt as the basis bond to which were joined so inany of of his policy, a system of a temporary the most sacred rights of the Sovereign renunciation of all resistance which and the subject, and constituted the might compromise the repose of the Emperor Napoleon their chief, under monarchý at so dangerous a moment, the title of a protector. It was only at as the earlier history and uniformly conthe moment of a public notification of sistent character of his government must this proceeding, that his Majesty was for ever absolve his Majesty from the informed that henceforth the Emperor suspicion of considering exclusively his Napoleon would know nothing of the private interest, and indulging a selfish existence of an Emperor of Gerinany indifference to the welfare of neighbourand a German constitution." In order ing states ! What the Emperor had to give greater effect to this declaration, done, during a long series of years, to recourse was had to all those menacing oppose a barrier against the torrent of expressions, which had hitherto unde- universal ruin which had been rushing viatingly accompanied every ineasure of in, was known; what had frustrated his the French cabinet, with redoubled efforts was not less notorious. Now it emphasis, and under circumstances was of moment to yield to necessity. which his Majesty would gladly bury in An insulated and untimely resistunce eternal oblivion.

would have been then us assuredly und No doubt could be entertained of the essentially calamitous to Austria, Gerimport and purpose of this proceeding; many, and Europe, as at an earlier period and the consequences to be expected the inactivity of other powers, and their from it were too palpable 'to need the deploruble system of separation. occurrence of a mournful experience His Majesty, therefore, resolved to before they could be fully surveyed. prevent all useless and painful discusHis Majesty was at once aware of the sions of a subject, the bearings of which lamentable fate prepared for all Ger- were, besides, subject to no doubt. many; he was at once aware of the This resolution was facilitated by the augmented and pressing danger which unqualified subserviency and subjection arose to the Austrian hereditary domi- which appeared to promote, on all sides, nions, from a system which placed the success of so violent a revolution, all adjoining countries in immediate through the silence of all other powers, dependence upon France.

No one

und especially the marked indifference could have disputed with the Emperor with which u considerable part of Gerthe right to protect himself against the muny beheld the destruction of the anintroduction of such a systein by the cient institutions. To be compelled to atnost resistance. But however power- maintain by arms, a crown which had ful the motives might be which appeared been entrusted to hin by the legal electo invite his Majesty to the assertion of tion of the imperial states, which had this right, a consideration which pre- been worn with glory for centuries by his illustrious ancestors, for the protec- - Peace took place without the intetion and welfare of the empire, would, ference of his Majesty, though the meunder less oppressive circumstances, diation he had not long before proposed have put the dignity and sensibility of to the belligerent powers merited a rehis Majesty to a painful trial. He laid ciprocal attention. The conditions were down this crown.


by no means of a kind to appease or It might have been believed that so merely mitigate the earlier-formed apimportant a step would at least not have prehensions of the Emperor: but as his failed to improve his relations towards Majesty, invariable in his peaceful proFrance. Bút the state of things re- jects, had made no resistance to the mained the samé. None of the out- changes in the government affected at standing conditions of the peace were Naples and in Holland, he also acperformed; every attempt to procure commodated himself to those which had their execution was answered with re- been settled at Tilsit. It would have proaches and threats. Far from any been in vain for him to attempt deceiway taking into the account all that ving himself concerning the fearful and Austria had done for the maintenance dangerous extent of the advantages of peace, the French cabinet seemed, which were secured to the Emperor on the contrary, resolved to avail itself Napoleon by the Tilsit peace; and yet, of every proof she had given of modera- contemplated from a certain point of tion and submission, as a basis and step view, it seemed as if the very extent of to make still severer demands; and it these advantages afforded some prospect is hard to determine whether this con- of repose by the gratification of certain stant and hostile irritation might, even desires, which it was easy to see would then, have led, in spite of all the efforts follow. If this glimmering of hope vaof his Majesty, if the breaking out of a nished but too soon, he cannot at least war with Prussia had not occasioned a be reproached by the French governnecessary pause.

ment, with having attended to it for a His Majesty could not possibly behold moment. with indifference the progress and issue In the mean while all the subterfuges of this war. The fate which had befal- which had been employed to delay the len the Prussian monarchy and the roy- execution of the treaty of Presburg from al house of its Sovereign was in itself time to time till October in the year severe enough to awaken the liveliest 1807, lost even their ostensible meansympathy'; and the easily calculated ing. The evacuation of certain points consequences of this event affected the of the Austrian territory possessed by interest of the Austrian states on so the French troops could not with decenmany and such critical points that the cy be any longer postponed. A negoc gloonniest apprehensions for the future ciation was begun. The fortress of appeared to be justified on all sides. Brannau was given back. The possesTo take a share in such a conflict at sions on the right bank of the Isonzo any other period would, from the most were lost. Under the arbitrary denourgent and laudable motives, have been mination of an exchange, the Earldom his duty, but now motives to which all of Mont-Falcone, on the left bank of others were forced to yield, had imposed that river, was ceded to Austria, as an the necessity of following a contrary indemnity; but this had not a tepth system; and his Majesty, with the same part of the actual value of what was firmness with which he had been able to be given back on the conclusion of to yield up his own prerogatives and own peace. advantages, now renounced that higher It soon appeared that even this shasatisfaction which the application of dow of moderation, this half-return to his resources in behalf of his neighbours friendly relations, was but the introducwould have afforded him. At all times tion to new embarrassments, and the hostile to an ambiguous and insincere most oppressive demands. The Empel policy, he did not, in this situation of ror Napoleon had resolved that his war things, permit himself to maintain a with England should be the concern of false, or half-neutrality; and the strict- the whole continent, his hatred of the ness with which from the beginning of British government, the inheritance of the war he adhered to this resolution, all Sovereigns and nations; and the opforced the Emperor Napoleon to become pression which, in order to injure Eng the unwilling eulogist of it.

land, he had laid upon the industry and


trade of every country which his troops the proposal, had hitherto suffered no or his decrees could reach, should be opportunity to pass by without declaring the line to be adopted by all states. that the preservation and integrity of Under the pretence of not having ren- that empire was one of the fundamental dered sufficient homage to this unheard- maxims of its political system) would of system, a few months after the Tilsit have been quite sufficient to restrain peace, the house of Braganza was driven the Emperor from giving his approbafrom the throne of Portugal! At the tion to it; but besides this, a sound same time a distinct proposal was made policy, and the true interest of his moto his imperial Majesty utterly to aban- narchy, would never have allowed him don all connections with England; and to take a share in it. The proffered inthe choice between such a resolution crease of territory would have been, at and an immediate war with France, was best, an illusive gain to his Majesty : the intimation that accompanied this on the other hand, the only sure conseproposal, without any further modifica- quence would have been, the introduction or mitigation,

tion of a French army into the interior Though, under the circumstances of of his states.--and what the

consequence the moment, and the measures already of this latter circumstance might have forced upon his Majesty in the year of been, was exhibited on another theatre 1806, concerning the exclusion of the of French policy with fearful and warnBritish flag from his ports, and by means ing perspicuity. of the entire blockade which the Empe- The transactions beyond the Pyrenror Napoleon had ordered of the conti- nees, by which a dynasty closely connental harbours, the commerce of the nected by family bonds with the AusAustrian dominions was already in a trian house was robbed of the throne high degree crippled and destroyed; and freedom, would, without any pernevertheless, the step now required gave sonal reference, have deeply affected the evil its utmost extension, and, in his imperial "Majesty. Not less would fact, the effects became too soon visible his Majesty have been touched and afto their full extent. Considered from a flicted by the unmerited fate of a noble higher point of view, the sacrifice which and high minded nation, which, at one his Majesty on this occasion made for blow, deprived of their dearest blessings, the maintenance of peace was of no their independence, their constitution, small importance. It broke the bonds their laws and their princes, had no which had hitherto connected the com- other than the desperate resource remon interests of the European states; maining of a glorious resistance. But it impeded every reciprocal communica- the circumstances by which this shocktion; it lessened the means of defence ing catastrophe had been prepared and possessed by the greater states, and occasioned, added to its natural effect, completed the abject condition of the For twelve years had the Spanish court, smaller; and in as far as motives of per- in order to purchase from a formidable sonal hostility, with which Austria had neighbour, if not friendship, at least fornothing in common, co-operated, it bearance, sacrificed its resources, treacould not but be more sensibly felt by sure, troops, fleets, and colonies. The the Emperor. When this sacrifice was will of the Emperor Napoleon was as to be offered up, his Majesty felt still omnipotent in Spain as in France. But more acutely than before, how difficult instead of this excess of subserviency it would be to fix any external limit to availing to save what alone was remainhis pacific subinissiveness opposed to the ing to it--an independent name, interever-growing pretensions of the French nal security, and domestic peace--this

court found rather, in its mistaken enSoon after this negociation, the rest- deavours to obtain repose, the immediless ambition of this cabinet manifested ate source of its ruin. His imperial itself in a new shape, apparently less Majesty had also declined no sacrifice hostile to Austria. Proposals were made for the maintenance and assurance of to his Majesty, which respected the dis- peace; only one boundary he had not solution and partition of a great adjoin- overstepped. He had at all times cares ing empire. The palpable injustice of fully maintained the dignity of his throne, such an enterprize (which made a stron- and the right of leaving no means unger impression upon his Majesty, be employed for its defence. That when cause the very cabinet which had made that is trifled with, and this is neglected,

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