442 Reflections on the Downfal of the Governments on the Continent. [Dec. employ us a moment, when it is so to treachery and cruelty, the constant easily decided by that universal and companions of cowardice. never failing axiom, " might alone If then it is not pretended that this “ constitutes right.”

was the kind of government which In a mercantile concern, where has been overthrown, let me ask many individuals are united for ge- what other the people can be exneral accommodation, it does not pected to defend? Is it to be supTequire a very great acquaintance posed that the slave will fight that with logic to find the truth of the he may preserve his chains, or risk proposition, that whoever has pro- his life for the sole purpose of deperty which is at the disposal of the fending a monarch whom he never company, has a right to an infu- saw, and the blessings of whose adence in the affair's, cqual to the stake, ministration he never experienced ? and if he must pay his share of the His motives must be strangely disa expenditure, he has a right to know interested, nor is his principle of how it is expended.

action rational; for it is well obBut it is somewhat surprising, served in a paper in the Adventurer, that (though this is universally the that “ the question whose name shall opinion on a small scale,) it should

“ be connected with a particular require an extraordinary exertion of

country as its King, is to those the mind to consent to what is

“ who who hazard life in the deciequally obvious, -- "That whoever is “sion, as trifling as whether a small expected to submit to, and obey the

spot in a chart shall be stained laws of any nation, has a right to

“ with red or yellow.” But it may some sort of influence over and par- be argued, that the Spaniards and ticipation in the authority by which the Calabrians withstood the enthey are enacted: on this basis, croachments of the French, there“ the sovereignty of the people," all fore they must be actuated by a rational pretensions to govern are spirit to defend their government, built; and I can imagine no autho- and in consequence, that the governrity, divine or human, that is suf- ment if not free, is suited to their ficient to prove the doctrines of rapine, conceptions of freedom, and therepassive obedience and non-resistance. fore all opposition to such a govern

Now Sir, I believe, it will not be ment is opposing their liberty. This contended, that any of the govern- will be granted if it can be proved ments which have been recently that the independence of a nation, overthrown, were founded on this consists in having one of their own principle; for it is worthy of remark, countrymen for a King, or if it can that wherever there is a government be ascertained that the majority of established by, a people, there will

people, there will the people are decidedly for the old bé a people to protect that govern- government: but is there not anoment. Nor will a tyrant have the ther cause for their taking up arms? presumption to invade a country, Are their actions of a nature to de where the force is any thing like monstrate to their neighbours that equal, if it has the hearts of the liberty is their object? Are their people for its defence. If examples efforts the calm result of the delibera

were wanting, I might'produce that tions of a people desirous to be free? most disgraceful one, the coalition What notions have the inhabitants of

which was formed by two or three Calabria of the principles of freedom? crowned ruffians to deprive the inha- One more question is necessary, and bitants of Poland of their liberties; on this hangs the decision: Were the an attempt which owed its success new government of Spain founded


on principles that were calculated to be observed, that whatever force has enrich the clergy and gain their ap- a right to establish probation, what would be the con- to overthrow; what is obtained by sequence? Would not an order force, and has no other pretensions, from a priest disband an army; or can support itself no longer than the an address from the Archbishop of power by which it is obtained exists; Toledo requiring the peasantry to lay while, therefore, the successors of down their arms be attended with the first founder can maintain themthe desired effect--the obedience to selves by power, if power constitutes the order? If this, or any part of right, they have a claim to govern, it is granted, where is their freedom? but no longer. That their priests are but indifferent The only remaining claim is that guides in politicks may be easily be- of hereditary right, founded on the lieved if we look to the consequences choice of the people. This will kols of obedience to them in matters of good so long as the laws and regulareligion : it therefore follows that the tions by which the sovereign was to people are influenced by some other rule remain in full force; but if thrò’ motive, and that the pretensions of inattention of the people, increasing the old government, as well of Spain influence of the government, or any as of other countries, rests upon other cause, such regulations are some other foundation : this is either trampled on; if by any act of dedivine authority or hereditary right. ception, or violence, the government As to the first of these, I believe, the becomes arbitrary, that moment the pope is the only monarch who will original right ceases, and the gopretend to it; and even his holiness, vernment is maintained by fraud or if he has a firm persuasion of a power force. immediately delegated from heaven, Now, those who gain their aumust, on the same principle, confess, thority by deception may hold it so that such a right is, at least for the long as new arts may be found to depresent, suspended. Let him, there- ceive, and new snares to intrap; fore, instead of repining at his fate, when these fail the foundation is gone. hush every contending passion with What then is to become of the super-The Lord gave, and the Lord hath structure? A slight inspection, with taken away ; blessed be the name of out any great historical knowledge, the Lord.

will convince the candid enquirer that But the claim of hereditary right on some of these irrational grounds is much more generally admitted : the claims of the old monarchies are even in this country there are not founded. Against these Napoleon wanting men of talents who will has to oppose the all powerful one--

abuse their abilities in defending so the claim of conquest. If, therefore, gross an absurdity. Tory principles the right of conquest will be suffi

have not wanted a Johnson to de- cient to found a claim for successors, fend them openly, and liberty has surely it will establish the right of suffered 'even more by the secret the conqueror in person. Whatever stabs of a Burke. In order to deter- may be the sentiments of the other mine the justice of such claims, it sovereigns, the Pope has formally may not be amiss to observe, that the acknowledged this claim, by putting government which has so devolved, the imperial crown on the head of must be originally founded either by Bonaparte: should it be argued that the right of conquest or, in plain Bonaparte was chosen by the people, English, by force; or it must have it may be replied, that if the senate, been originally derived from the or constituted authorities were suffi-' people. Concerning the first, it may cient, in the manner they were then

elected, by their sanction to consti- the Pope himself has no right to tute a lawful King, the consulta of complain. There is, however, a more Rome have by their address formal- rational objection which I have not ly expressed their approbation, and yet noticed, and that is “ That the rendered the claims of Napoleon va- * ambitious projects of Napoleon delid. Thus have I run superficially “stroy the balance of power and enthrough this subject; and from what “dangertheindependence of Europe." I have already advanced I infer, that But as I fear I have already tresthe grounds on which the character 'passed too much on your limits, I of Bonaparte has been censured are must reluctantly intrude on you at insufficient, and will not stand the another opportunity, when I will test of argument; that we have ex- conclude the subject. pressed our satisfaction at the con- I remain, with the greatest resequences of measures similar to spect, your humble servant, those we uow deprecate; that we

DIOGENES. have just reason to rejoice; and that London, Dec. 10.



JUNTA OF SPAIN. nations to recognise the true principler

of the social equilibriuin, that people Seville, Nov. 3.-Ilis Majesty has rogatives and advantages of civil liberty,

who enjoyed, before any other, the prethought proper to publish the fol- and knew to oppose to arbitrary power lowing manifesto, fixing the days the eternal barrier directed by justice, when the General Cortes of the Spa- will borrow from no other nation maxims nish monarchy are to be convoked of prudence and political precaution, and held,

and tell those impudent legislators that

they will not acknowledge as laws the SPANIARDS--By a combination of e

artifices of intriguers nor the mandates

of vents, as singular as fortunate, it has instinct, and inflamed with the indigna

tyrants; animated by this generous seemed good to Providence, that in this terrible crisis you shall not advance a

tion excited by the perfidy with which step towards independence without like you were invaded, you ran to alms, wise advancing one towards a foolish of so unequal a combat, and fortune,

without fearing the terrible vicissitudes and feeble tyranny, in order to rivet your fetters and aggravate your chains,

subdued by your enthusiasm, rendered preparing the way for French despotism, you homage, and bestowed on you vicwhich, with the terrible apparatus of tory in reward for your valour - The

immediate effect of these first advantaits arms and victories, endravoured to subject you to a yoke of iron. It at ges, was the recomposition of the state, first exhibited itself, like every new ty- tions as provinces. Our enemies thought

at that time divided into as many facranny, under a flattering form, and its political impostors presumed they should

that they had sown among us the deadly gain your favour by promising you re

germ of anarchy, and did not advert forms in the administration, and announ

that Spanish judgment and circumspec; cing in a constitution framed at their

tion were always superior to French mapleasure the empire of the laws. A bar chiavelism. Without dispute, without barous and absurd contradiction worthy blished,' and the people, after having

violence, a supreme authority was estacertainly of their insolence. Would they astonished the world with the spectacle have us believe that the moral edifice of of their sublime exaltation and their the liberty and fortune of a nation can victories, filled it with admiration and be securely founded on usurpation, inequity, and treachery? But the Spa- respect by their moderation and dig nish people who were the first of modern


The central junta was installed, and sooner, if circumstances should permit. its first care was to announce to you But in the time which has intervened that if the expulsion of the enemy' was since this resolution, a variety of public the first object of its attentions, the in- events have agitated the minds of the terior and permanent felicity of the state people, and the difference of opinions was the principal in importavce; to relative to the organization of the goleave it plunged into the flood of abuses, vernment, and the re-establishment of prepared for its ruin hy arbitrary power, our fundamental laws, has recalled the would have been, in the eyes of your attention of the junta to shese important present government, a crine as enor- objects with which it has latterly been mous as to deliver you into the hands profoundly occupied. It has been reof Bonaparte; therefore when the tur- commended on the one hand, that the bulence of war permitted, it caused to present government should be converted resound in your ears the naine of your into a regency of three or five persons, Cortes, which to us have ever been the and this opinion has been represented bulwark of civil liberty, and the throne as supported by one of our ancient laws, of national majesty, a name heretofore applicable to our present situation. But pronounced with mystery by the learnedthe situation in which the kingdom was with distrust by politicians, and with when the French threw off the mask of horror by tyrants, but which benceforth friendship, to execute their treacherous signify in Spain the indestructable base usurpation, is singular in our history, of the monarchy, the inost-secure sup- and cannot have been foreseen in our porter of the rights of Ferdinand VII. institutions. Neither the infancy nor and of his family, a right for the people, the insanity, nor even the captivity of and the government an obligation. the Prince in the usual way in which

That moral resistance, as general as these evils occur, can be compared with sublime, which has reduced our enemies our present case, and the deplorable to confusion and despair in the midst of situation to which it has reduced us. A their victorieś, must not receive less re- political position, entirely new, requires ward. Those battles which are lost; political forms and principles likewise those armies which are destroyed, not entirely new. To expel the French, to without producing new battles, creating restore to his liberty and his throne our new armies, and again displaying the odored King, and to establish solid and standard of loyalty on the ashes and permanent basés of good government, ruins which the enemies abandon; those are the maxims which gave the impulse soldiers who, dispersed in one action, to our revolution, are those whichi supreturn to offer themselves for another; port and direct it; and that governmentthat populace which, despoiled of almost will be the best wbich shall most proall they possessed, return to their homes mote and fulfil these thiee wishes of the to share the wretched remains of their Spanish nation: property with the defenders of their Does the regency of which that law country; that concert of lamentable speaks promise us this security ? What and despairing, groans and patriotic inconveniences, what dangers, how masongs; that struggle in fine of ferocity ny divisions, how many parties, how and barbarity on the one hand, and of many ambitious pretensions within and resistance and invincible constancy on without the kingdom, how much and the other, present a whole as terrible as how just discontent in our Americas, magnificent, which Europe contemplates now called to have a share in the prewith astonishment, and which history sent government? What would become will one day record in letters of gold of our cortes, our liberty, the cheering for the admiration and example of pos- prospects of future welfare and glory terity. A people so magnanimous and which now present themselves ? What generous ought only to be governed by would become of the object most valualaws which are truly such, and which ble and sacred to the Spanish nation, shall bear the great character of public the preservation of the rights of Ferdiconsent and common utility-a charace nand ? The advocates for this instituter which they can only receive by ema- tion ought to shudder at the imminent nating from the august assembly which danger to which they exposed themselves, has been announced to you. The juntą and to bear in mind that by it they af had proposed that it should be held due forded to the tyrant a new opportunity ting the whole of the ensuing year, of of buying and selling them ; let us baw

with revererice to the venerable antiqui- it, and at what time, gracious God! ty of the law, but let us profit by the can it adopt this measure better than at experience of ages; let us open our au- present? when an obstinate war bas nals and trace the history of our regen- exhausted all the ordinary means, when scies: what shall we find? A picture the egotism of some, and the ambition equally melancholy and frightful, of de- of others, debilitate and paralyse the solation, of civil war, of rapine, and of efforts of the government by their oppohuman depravity, in unfortunate Castile. sition or indifference, when they seek to 0 Doubtlees in great states power is eradicate the essential principle of the momore beneficially exercised by few than narchy, which is union, when the brydra by many. Secrecy in deliberation, uni- of federalism, so happily silenced the ty in concert, activity in measures, and preceding year by the creation of the celerity in execution, are indispensable central power, dares again to raise its requisites for the favourable issue of the poisonous heads, and endeavours to preacts of governinent, and are properties cipitate us into the dissolution of anarof a concentrated authority only. The chy; when the subtlety of our enemies supreme junta has therefore just con- is watching the moment when our divi

centrated its own with that present cir- sions disunite us, to destroy the state, cumspection which neither exposes the and to erect their throne on the rains state to the oscillations consequent upon which our distractions afford them,-this every change of government, nor inate is the time, this, to collect in one point rially affects the unity of the body which the national dignity and power, and is entrusted with it. Henceforth a sec- when the Spanish people may will and tion composed of the removeable mem- decree the extraordinary surplus which bers will be specially invested with the a powerful nation ever has within it for necessary authority to direct those mea- its salvation; it alone can encounter and sures of the executive power which from put them in motion; it alone can encouthis nature require secrecy, energy, and age the timidity of some, and restrain dispatch. Another opinion, hostile to the ambition of others; it alone will the regency, equally contradicts what-suppress importunate vanity, puerile preever innovation may be attempted to be tensions, and infuriated passions, which, made in the political form which the unless prevented, go to tear in pieces government has at present, and objects the governinent. It will, in fine, give to the intended cortes as an insufficient to Europe a fresh example of its religion, representation, if they are constituted its circumspection, and its discretion in according to the ancient formalities; as the just and moderate use which it is all-timed, and perhaps hazardous in re- about to make of the glorious liberty in spect to present circumstances; in short, which it is constituted. Thus it is that as useless, since it supposes that the su- the supreme junta, which immediately perior juntas erected immediately by the recognised this national representation people are their real representatives. as a right, and proclaimed it as a reward, But the junta had'expressly declared to now invokes and implores it as the most the nation that its first attention in the necessary and efficacious remedy; and great object would be occupied with the has therefore resolved that the general number, mode, and class, with which cortes of the monarchy, announced in the meeting of this august assembly in the decree of the 22d of May, shall be the present situation of affairs should be convoked on the first day of January in carried into effect; and after this decla- the next year, in order to enter on their ration it is quite superfluous, not to say august functions the first day of March malicious, to suspect that the future following. When that happy day has cortes are to be confined to the rigid arrived, the junta shall say to the repres and exclusive forms of our ancient ones! gentatives of the nationYes, Spaniards, you are going to have Ye are met together, O fathers of your your cortes, and the national represen- country! and 1e-established in all the tation will in them be as perfect and plenitude of your rights, after a lapse full as it can and ought to be, in an as- of three centuries, when despotism and sembly of such importance and eminent arbitrary power dissolved you, in order dignity. You are going to have the to subject this nation to all the evils of cortes, and to have them immediately, servitude. The aggressions which we because the urgent situation in which have suffered, and the war which we the nation is placed imperiously demand. maintain, are the fruits of the most

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