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of Sweden, Baron Count Louis Bo- which, on his part, may y tend to the gislas; Christopher de Stedinck, one proinpt conclusion of peace between him of the Nobles of the Kingdom of and his Majesty the Emperor of the Sweden, General of Infantry of the French, King of Italy, and his Majesty Swedish armies, Knight and Com- the means of the direct negociations al
the King of Denmark and Norway, by inander of the Swedish Orders, Grand ready comienced with these powers. Cross of the Order of the Sword, III. His Majesty the King of Sweden, Knight of the Order of St. Andrew, in order to give an evident proof of his of St. Alexander Newsky, and of desire to renew the most intimate relaSt. Ann of the first class; and M. tious with the august allies of his MajesAndrew Frederick Skjolderand, Co ty the Emperor of all the Russias, prolonel and Cominander of the Order teni, with such modifications as shall be
mises to adhere to the continental sysof the Sword: and his Majesty the more particularly stipulated in the neEmperor of all the Russias, Count gociation which is about to be opened Nicholas Romanzoff, Actual Privý between Sweden, France, and Denmark. Counsellor, Member of the Council
Meanwhile, his Swedish Majesty enof State, Minister for Foreign Affairs, gnges, from the exchange of the ratificaMinister of Commerce, Senator, Ac- the ports of the kingdom of Sweden shall
tions of the present treaty, to order that tual Chamherlain, Knight of the be closed, both to the ships of war and Orders of St. Andrew, St. Alexan- merchantmen of Great Britain, with the der Newsky, Grand Cross of the exception of the importation of salt and Order of St. Wladimir, and of St. colonial productions, which habit has Ann, of the First Classes ; Grand rendered necessary to the people of Eagle of the Legion of Ilonour of Sweden. France, Knight of the Royal Prus- Russias promises before hand, to consent
His Majesty the Emperor of all the sian Orders of the Black Eagle and
to every modification which his allies Red Eagle, and of the Royal Dutch
may consider just and fit to be admitted Order of the Union, and M. David in favour of Sweden with respect to Alopeus, ActualChamberlain, Knight commerce and mercantile navigation. of the Grand Cross of the Order of
IV. His Majesty the King of Sweden, St. Wladimir of the Second Class, as well for himself as for his successors and of St. Anne of the First;-who to the throne and kingdom of Sweden, after the exchange of their respective in favour of his Majesty the Emperor of
renounces irrevocably and in perpetuity full powers, found to be good and all the Russias, and his successórs to in due forın, have agreed upon the the throne and empire of Russia, all his following articles :
"rights and titles to the governments hereArt. I. There shall henceforth be after specified, which have been conpeace, friendship, and good understand- quered from the crown of Sweden by the ing between his Majesty the King of
arms or bis Imperial Majesty in the preSweden, and his Majesty the Emperor. sent war, namely, of all the Russias. The high contract
The governments of Kymenagard, Ny. ing parties will make it their chief study land and Tavastchus, Abo and Bjorneto maintain a perfect harmony between bory, with the isles Aland, Savolax, and themselves, their stetes, and subjects, Corelia, Wasa, Uleaborg, and part of and will carefully avoid' whatever may West Botlinia extending to the river of hereafter disturb the union so happily Tornea, as shall be fixed in the subsere-established.
quent article in the demarkation of the II. His Majesty the Emperor of' all frontiers. the Russias having manifested the inva- Those governments, with all the inhariable resolution not to separate his in-bitants, towns, ports, fortresses, villages, terests from those of his allies, and his and islands, as well as all the depenSwedish Majesty wishing to give, in fa- dencies, prerogatives, rights, and emovour of his subjects, all the extent pos- luments, shall henceforth belong in full sible to the advantages of the peace, property and sovereignty to the empire
promises and engages in the most solemn of Russia, and shall remain incorporated and biuding manner, to neglect nothing with it.
To this effect his Majesty the King of the above respects in favour of his former Sweden promises, in the most solemn subjects. and obligatory manner, as well for him- VII. On the signature of the present self as for his successors, and all the treaty, information thereof shall be kingriom of Sweden, never to make any transmitter iinmediately, and with the claim, direct or indirect, on the said greatest celerity, to the generals of the governments, provinces, islands, and respective armies, and hostilities shall territories, all the inhabitants of which, entirely cease on both sides both by sea shall, in virtue of this renunciation, be and land. Those acts of hostility which relieved from the homage and oath of may in the mean time be committed, fidelity by which they were bound to the shall be regarded as null, and shall not crown of Sweden.
infringe this treaty. Whatever may be V. The sea of Aland (Alands Haf) during the intervening period, taken or the Gulph of Bothnia, and the rivers of conquered on the one side or the other, Tornea and Muonio, shall hereafter shall be faithfully restored. form the frontier between Russia and VIII. Within four weeks after the ex, the kingdom of Sweden.
change of the ratifications of the present The nearest islands at an equal dis- treaty, the troops of bis Majesty the tance from the main land of Aland and Emperor of Russia shall evacuate West Finland shall belong to Russia, and those Bothnia, and repass the river Tornea. which are nearest to the Swedish coast During the said four weeks, there shall belong to Sweden.
shall be made no requisition of any kind The most advanced points of the Rus- whatever on the inbabitants; and the sian territory at the mouth of the river Russian army shall draw its supplies and of Tornea, shall be the isle of Bjorken, subsistences from its own magazines esthe port of Reatehamn, and the penin- tablished in the towns of West Bothnia. sula on which the town of Torpea stands. If during the negociations the Imperial The frontier shall then be extended along troops have penetrated in any other dithe river Tornea to the confluence of the rection into the kingdom of Sweden, two branches of that river near Kengis, they shall evacuate the countries they It shall then follow the course of the ri- bave occupied in virtue of the before stiyer Muonio, passing in the front of pulated conditions. Muonioniska, Muonio Ofreby, Palajoens, IX. All the prisoners of war made on Rultane, 'Enoutekis, Kelottijorfoi, Pai- either side, by sea or land, and all the tika, Nuimaka, Rannula, and Kilpis- hostages delivered during the war, shall jaure to Norway.
be restored in mass, and without ransom, In the course of the rivers Tornea and as speedily as possible; but at the latest Muonio, such as it has been described, within three months, reckoning from the the islands situated to the east of the exchange of the ratifications; but if any Thalwag shall belong to Russia, and prisoners may be prevented by sickness those to the west of the Thalwag to Swe- or other cause from returning into their den. Immediately after the exchange country within the period specified, they of the ratifications, engineers shall be shall not thereby be considered as having appointed on each side, who shall pro- forfeited the right stipulated above. They ceed to the before-mentioned places to shall be obliged to discharge or to give fix the limits along the rivers Tornea security for the debts they may have and Muonio, according to the above de contracted during their captivity with scribed line.
the inhabitants of the country in which VI. His Majesty the Emperor of all they may have been detained. the Russias having already given the The expences which may have been most manifest proofs of the clemency incurred by the high contracting parties and justice with which he has resolved for all subsistence and maintenance of to govern the inhabitants of the countries the prisoners shall be reciprocally rewhich he has acquired, by generously, nounced, and provision shall respectives and of his own spontaneous act, assuring ly be made for their subsistence, and to them the free exercise of their religion, the expence of their journey to the fronrights, property, and privileges, his Swe- tiers of both places, where commissiondish Majesty considers himself thereby ers from their sovereigns shall be direct dispensed from performing the otherwise ed to receive them. Sacred duty of making reservations in The Finland soldiers and seamen are,
on the part of his Majesty the Emperor
of Russia, excepted from this restitu: ly removed, and the property shall be. tion, with reference to the capitulations reserved to the owners; it being well which have taken place, if they grant understood that such as become subjects them a different right.--The military of either of the two powers, in virtue of and other officers natives of Finland, the preceding article, shall have no right who may wish to remain, shall enjoy to claim from the Sovereign of whom that privilege, and the full exercise of they have ceased to be a subject the all their rights over their property, debts, annuities or pensions which and effects, which they now or may
been obtained in virtue of acts of grace, hereafter have in the kingdom of Swe, concessions, or appointments for preceden, on the footing of the 10th article ding services. of the present treaty..
XII. The titles, domains, archives, X. The Fins now in Sweden, as well and other documents, public and prias the Swedes now in Finland, shall be vate, the plans and charts of fortresses, at full liberty to return into their re- towns, and territories, devolved by the spective countries, and to dispose of present treaty to his Majesty the Empetheir property, moveable and unmove- ror of all the Russias, including the able, without paying any duty of remo
charts and papers which may be deposival, or any other imposts due on the like, ted in the surveyors office, shall be faithoccasions.
fully delivered up within the space of The subjects of the two high powers six months; or if that period should be established in either country, Sweden found too short, at the latest within one or Finland, shall have full liberty to year. establish themselves in the other during XIII. Immediately after the exchange the space of three years, from the date of the ratification, the high contracting of the exchange of the ratification of the parties shall remove all sequestrations present treaty; but shall be held to sell which may have been placed on the or alienate, during the said period, to property or revenues of the respective any subject of the power whose doini inhabitants of the two countries and the uions they desire to quit.
public establishments therein situated. The property
of those who, at the ex- XIV. The debts, both public and piration of the above term, have not private, contracted by the Fins in Swecomplied with this regulation, shall be den, and, vice versa, by the Swedes in sold at a public sale by authority of the Finland, shall be discharged on the terms magistrate, and the produce thereof de and conditions stipulated. livered to the owners.
XV. The subjects of either of the high During the three years above fised, contracting parties, to whom inheritanit shall be allowable to all to make such ces may fall in the states of one or the use as they may please of their property, other, may without obstacle take pogthe peaceable enjoyment of which is for- session of the same, and enjoy it under mally secured and guaranteed to them. . the protection of the laws. The exer
They may, themselves or their agents,cise of this right, however, in Finland, pass freely from one state to the other is subject to the stipulations of article in order to manage their affairs, without, X. in virtue of which the proprietor experiencing any obstacle whatever in shall either fix his residence in the counconsequence of their quality of subjects 'try, or sell the inheritance within three of the other power.
years. XI. There shall henceforth be a per- XVI. The duration of the treaty of petual oblivion of the past, and a gene- commerce between the high contracting ral amnesty for the respective subjects, - parties being limited to the 17th (29th) other of the high contracting parties du- ror of Rassia consents not to reckon its ring the present war, may have rendered interruption during the war; and that them suspected or liable to punishment. 'the said treaty shall continue in force No trial shall hereafter be instituted until the 1st (18th) of February, 1913, against them on such grounds. If any with respect to every thing not contrary process have been commenced, it shall to the dispositions of the commercial be annulled and superseded, and no manifesto issued at St. Petersburgh, Janew proceeding shall be cominenced. 'nuary 1st, 1809. All sequestrations of property or reve- XVII. The territories incorporated mues shall in consequence be immediate-, with the Russian Empire' in virtue of this treaty, being attached to Sweden of such order, inay be made up when by commercial relations, which long in the prohibition shall be removed. tercourse, neighbourhood, and recipro- XIX. With respect to salutes at sea, cal wants have rendered almost indis- the two high contracting parties agree pensible; the high contracting parties; to regulate them on the footing of the desirous of preserving to their subjects most perfect eqnality between the two these means of mutual advantage, agree crowns. When their vessels of war to make such arrangements as may be meet at sea, the salutes shall take place necessary for consolidating them. In in conformity to the rank of the comthe mean time, until they come to an manders, in such manner that he who understanding on this subject, the Fins holds the superior rank shall receive the shall have the power of importing from first salute, which shall be returned gun Sweden, ore, smelted iron, lime, stones for gun. If the commanders are of for building smelting furnaces, and in equal rank, no salute shall take place general all the other productions of the on either side : before castles, fortresses, soil of Sweden.
and at the entrance of ports, the party In return the Swedes may export from arriving shall salute first, and the salute Finland, cattle, fish, corn, cloth, pitch, shall be returned gun for gun. planks, wooden utensils of all kinds, XX. Difficulties which may arise on wood for building, and, in general, all points not determined by this treaty, the other productions of the soil of the shall be discussed and settled by amGrand Duchy.
bassadors, or ministers plenipotentiary This traffic shall be re-established and respectively appointed, who shall be maintained to the 1st. (13th) of October, guided by the spirit of conciliation which 1811, precisely on the same footing as has dictated the treaty. it was before the war, and shall be lia- XXI. This treaty shall be ratified by ble to no interruption or burthen, with the two contracting powers ; and the the reservation of such restrictions as ratifications exchanged in proper and the political relations of the two states due form within four weeks, or sooner may render necessary.
if possible, reckoning from the day of XVIII. The annual exportation of the signature of the present treaty. 50,000 tschetwerts of corn purchased in In faith of which we, the undersigned, the ports of the Gulph of Finland, or of in virtue of our full powers, have signed the Baltic, belonging to Russia, is gran- the present treaty of peace, and have ted to his Majesty the King of Sweden thereto affixed our seals. free of the export duty, on proof being Done at Friedrickshamn, this 5-17th of -shewn that the purchase has been made September, in the year of Grace, 1809. on his account, or in virtue of his au- COUNT NICOLAS DE ROMANZOFF. thority.
DAVID ALOPEUS. Years of scarcity in which the expor- COUNT STEDINCK. tation shall be prshibited are excepted, A. F. SKJOLDEBRAND. but the quairtity in arrear in consequence
TOWNS OF GREAT AND LITTLE RESOLVED UNANIMOUSLY,
1. That Gwillym Lloyd Wardle, Esq. At a General Meeting of the Inhabitants M. P. by bringing to light abuses, which
of the Towns and Neighbourhood of if continued must end in the downfall of Great and Little Bolton, convened by our most invaluable constitution, has in a Requisition signed by two hundred an eminent degree proved himself a and Thirty Persons, held at the Ses- faithful servant of the public, as well as sions Rooni in Great Bollon, on Satur- a friend to the safety, honour, and star day the 27th of May, 1809.-MIr. bility of the throne, nad has whereby reWilliam Bowker, in the Chair.
titled himself to the gratitude of every the superintendance of the late Com friend to his king and country.
mander in chief: 2. That this ineeting most cordially We are convinced, by the scenes that joins the unexampled uumber of those are now acting on the great theatre of who have already conveyed to him, their Europe, that more is to be feared from thanks and approbation,
internal corruption than from external 3. That Sir F. Burdett, Bart. Lord foes that no government can be secure Folkestone, S. Whitbread, Esq. Sir S. that is not supported by the great body Romilly, General Fergusson, Lord A. of the people, and that the true friends Hamilton, and Sir O. Moseley, Bart. of this country can in no way evince for the disinterested manner in which their attachment to our king and constithey stepped forward to assist and sup- tution more effectually than by following port Mr. Wardle, be requested to accept your example. We therefore rejoice the thanks of this meetings
that your success has already stimulated 4. That the thanks of this ineeting are others to imitate your conduct, by inalso due to the rest of the one hundred stituting inquiries into abuses in other and twenty-five independent meinbers departments of no less importance to of the house of comnibns who voted with the vital interests of our country than Mr. Wardle on that occasion.
the army itself, and we hope and trust 5. That while we regret the very ina- that their and your exertions will not be dequate manner in which this county is relaxed, till all corruption shall be erarepresented, we observe with the inost dicated from every department of the lively pleasure, the naines of Lord Stan- state in which it may be found to exist. ley, and S. Horrocks, Esq. members for the borough of Preston in that vir
LONDON, tuous minority.
COURT OF COMMON COUNCIL. 6 That the votes af tbe najority of
Nov. 3, 1809. the house of commons on that occasion Mr. Kemble declared, that in rising eppear to be in direct opposition to the to bring forward the motion it was his opinion of the people at large, and afford intention to submit to the court, he was a lamentable proof of the imperfect man- actuated by no party motive whatever. ner in which the country is represented. He begged leave to assure the court he
7. That an address of thanks be left was actuated solely by the conviction of at the Sessions Room in Great Bolton his own mind, and was unbiassed by the for the signatures of the inhabitants, and opinions or wishes of any other person. that Lord Stanley be requested to pre- He held in his hand a resolution of the sent the same with a copy of these reso- court, passed on the 1st of August, Intions to G. L. Wardle, Esq.
which it was his intention to oppose, 8. That a copy of these resolutions be not from any difference of opinion as to transmitted to Lord Stanley, S. Hor- the matter contained in that resolution, rocks, Esq. Sir F. Burdett, Bart. Lord but from a decided objection to the manFolkestone, S. Whitbread, Esq. Sir S. ner in which it had been introduced. Had Romilly, General Ferguson, Lord A. he been present in the court at the time Hamilton, and Sir O. Moseley.
a motion was made to rescind the resoW. BOWKER, Chairman. lution of the court of the 6th of April, 9. That the thanks of this meeting be which wasdone with a view to negative the given to Mr. W. Bowker for his conduct question, the matter would have been set in the chair.
J. GORDON at rest; but when the court was summon
ed, every member was not aware of the
intended object of the meeting; he did To G. L. Wardle, Esq. M. P. not think, therefore, the court was bound Sir,
to abide by the decision. The court Impressed with the highest admiration had been convened on the 1st of Angust of your parliamentary conduct, We, the for the purpose of rescinding the vote of undersigned Inhabitants of the towns
thanks to Mr. Wardle, and had it proand neighbourhood of Great and Little ceeded no farther, he should have been Bolton, beg leave to congratulate you content; but, instead of that, a gentle on the success which has attended your man thought propen, on the first queslate exertions, towards the exposure of tion being negatived, to bring forward a abuses existing in the army, while under long resolution, with the contints of