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most, the absence of the skulls of the place in the centre of the host's hut, and bears, which are also objects of venera- an offering was first made to the god of tion, is very noticeable; and as the indi- fire. This was done in this wise. The vidual who gives a bear feast is compelled Ainos, who were all seated, raised their to invite all his relations, friends, and left hands, holding a drinking.vessel, to neighbors, and to supply them with un- their foreheads, while the palm of the limited quantities of saké (rice beer) right was also elevated slightly. A small a beverage which is three times more ex stick lying across the cup was then dipped pensive in Yeso than in Japan – the ex. in the sake and the contents sprinkled on cuse on the score of expense is probably the floor to the fire-god, the stick being a valid one. It is, it seems, incorrect to then waved three or four times over the say that the Ainos reverence the bear as cup. A formula was uttered by each perthey do their gods — the god of the fire son present, and the saké drunk in long

or of the sea, for instance; but they re. draughts, the stick being meanwhile emspect the bear above all other animals. ployed in holding up the moustache. A He is most useful to them; he supplies similar ceremony then took place in front them with food, raiment, and even with of the bear's cage. This was followed medicine. On the other hand, when en by a dance around the cage by the women raged, the bear is a terror to them; he and girls. Offerings of drink were then destroys their houses, plantations, and made as before to other gods, and finally domestic animals, and kills themselves. the bear was taken out of his cage by The animal intended for sacrifice is se- three young men specially selected for the lected while it is still very young, towards purpose. The animal was killed by pressthe end of winter, it is nourished by the ing the throat firmly against a larje block wise of its owner at first, and when it of wood. The body was then cleaned, gets stronger is sed on fish alone. In the and placed neatly on a mat, food and beginning it runs freely about the house, drink being laid before it, and ornaments but as it increases in size and strength it of various kinds being placed on its ears, is placed in a cage. About September or mouth, etc. Mats were spread around October, when it is a year old, and has the bear, the guests took their seats on become so strong that it attempts to break them, and the drinking commenced. This its cage, the time for the ceremony is continued for some time, until the Ainos deemed to have come, and the great event sank in a state of helpless intoxication of an Aino's life is about to take place. on their mats. The women in another He first addresses long prayers to the part of the village meantime amused gods and to the relations of the bear ask themselves with various dances, which ing pardon for what he is about to do, Dr. Scheube describes at length. and pleading that from the time the ani. The following day, as a rule, the demal came into his possession he has show. bauch is continued. The body of the ered favors on him, and has maintained bear is then cut up in such a manner that him as long as possible; but he is poor, the hide remains attached to the head. the bear is growing large, and he finds it The blood was collected in vessels and impossible to support him any longer. drunk by the men. The liver was cut out He has therefore no resource but to slay and eaten raw; the rest of the flesh was him; and for this act, which is forced on distributed amongst the partakers of the him by inevitable necessity, he prays for feast. The writer states that although forgiveness.

hardened in a certain sense to the sight On arriving at the scene of the cere- of blood, he could not look without hormony the visitor found about thirty per- ror on the sight of the drunken crowd sons, chiefly residents of the place, as- with their faces and bodies smeared with sembled, and dressed in their gala cos. blood. The skull of the bear - stuffed tumes, which consisted chiefly of old with charms — is placed in a sacred place Japanese brocaded garments. From the on the east side of the house, and the commencement to the end saké played mouth is filled with bamboo-leaves. It is almost as prominent a part as the bear then always preserved and venerated as a himself. The guests sat around the fire. sacred object.

Fifth Series, Volume XXXVII.

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No. 1969. - March 18, 1882.

From Beginning,

Vol. CLII.

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CONTENTS. I. THE RELATIONS OF RELIGION TO ASIATIC STATES,

Fortnightly Review, II. ROBIN. By Mrs. Parr, author of “Adam and Eve.” Part IV.,

Temple Bar,
III. THE KING AND HIS SUCCESSOR,

Fortnightly Review,
IV. THE SOCIAL STATE OF THE HEBRIDES Two
CENTURIES AGO,.

Cornhill Magazine,
V. Dutch ETIQUETTE,

Leisure Hour,
VI. LADY JANE. By Mrs. Oliphant,

Good Words,
VII. THINGS THAT A LADY WOULD LIKE TO
KNOW, .

Saturday Review,
VIII. FRIENDS AND FRIENDS,.

Spectator, IX. SWINDLING AS A FINE ART,

Saturday Review, . X. WIVES IN TRAINING,

Spectator,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living AGB will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

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AN OLD MINIATURE.

Your brightest rays, ye stars of evening, shed, • You showed me, Rob, the other day

And gild her home with your enchanting A miniature so full of grace,

beams; That it hath stol'n my heart away

With silv'ry splendor wreathe her slumbering I long again to see that face.

head,

And smile, ye planets, on her peaceful dreams; “ Find it for me before I go.

Then come, blest spirits, hold your watch The eyes had caught the heav'nly hue,

around, The proud lips gave you Cupid's bow,

Guard with your presence one of all most The brow was steadfast, strong, and true.

dear;

Draw near and shield the consecrated ground “A regal robe she seemed to wear,

Where lovely innocence is sleeping near. In newest fashion of our day;

So earth and sky, with all their glittering host, And on her neck, so nobly fair,

In jealous care shall still their powers comSplendid old-fashioned laces lay."

bine,

While I alone, who fain would offer most, “I'll look, my boy. Was it this one ?

Have nought but love to give my Valentine ! (Her eye is blue as China ware);

ALFRED H. POULTNEY. Or this? (Her face is like the sun).

Chambers' Journal. Stay! Here's the likeness I dare swear.” “No; none of those, Rob; none of those.

That's Lizzie Courtenay, this is Jane ; I know her well — and little Rose:

A DAY IN JUNE. Good creatures, though they're rather vain.

Out of heaven from God." “'Twas none of these did steal my heart; Come down amongst us, and men know it not ! For them I never breathed a sigh;

They call it lightly a fine summer's day, Or, sleeping, wakened with a start

But breathing Nature knows it; not one spot From thrilling dreams that they were nigh. But trembles at the knowledge. Every spray

From garden unto forest at its lot “Oh, seek once more the portrait rare :

Smiles in the stillness, and the veil away In yonder cabinet it lay;

'Twixt earth and sky, earth's confines are for. Then breathe my lady's name, and where

got ; Her knight may follow her to-day.”

Praise shakes the world, too near its God to “Your fond impatience urges me

pray. To seek the fair enchantress' face

So when the glory of the Godhead came Yet here lies all my gallery;

Long years ago and trod the paths of men, Not one is absent from its place;

They called him prophet, and his words of

flame “Or only one an artist friend Begged as a loan from me last night;

The poet's madness. Earth at her Lord's It lies apart, half packed to send Glance at it ere we lose the light.

Was speechless; but 'twas hers alone to hide

Her widowed face in darkness, when he died. “What! That is she? Oh strange weird fate !

C. C. FRASER TYTLER.
My boy, your stricken heart lies low
Before the lovely Countess Kate,

Who died a hundred years ago!”
Macmillan's Magazine.

K. G.

FADING INTO CHANGE.
A GRADUAL failing in the summer light;
Bright sunsets dying in the crimson west;

Brown leaves that fall in the quiet autumn
MY VALENTINE.

night; OH, lovely Earth! awake to welcome her, A swift decay in flowers we love the best;

And spread a fow'ry path beneath her feet; A Aush of life, slow-deepening into rest; Let new-born Spring in beauty reappear, A wintry wind beneath a threatening sky;

And kiss her temples with its odors sweet. Snowflakes that fall, and gather, and then die ! Clothe all thy banks with moss, that she may Spring, with its changing winds and leafy vest; rest;

Full summer, with its ealth of flowers that lie Wreathe in rich foliage each protecting tree; Sparkling like gems upon a monarch's crest ; Twine rosy garlands o'er her lily breast, Then round to autumn! So our brief years And scatter sunbeams on the verdant lea.

fly, Birds of the sylvan grove, sing sweet and low, So run our days! Sometimes in sunshine drest,

Yet hush to hear her answering voice divine; And oft in cloud! So fleeteth fitfully Ye balmy winds, your melody bestow,

Each little life into the great eternity ! In praise of her, my own, my Valentine ! Chainbers' Journal.

name

J. H.

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From The Fortnightly Review. direct and practical authority over reliTHE RELATIONS OF RELIGION TO ASIATIC gious affairs. Moreover, these difficulSTATES

ties, where Islam is concerned, have not ONE important difference between the missed appreciation at Constantinople ; earlier and the latest principles of govern- for the sultan has lately been disclosing ment is marked by the changes which some anxiety about the spiritual unity of have taken place in men's ideas on the Islam, and is showing a disposition to subject of the proper relations between employ bis claims to the kaliphate as a the ruler and the priesthood, the State means of taking upon himself the funcand the Church, the civil government and tions left vacant by the disabilities of a the ecclesiastical bodies. The ruling non-Mahomedan ruler in Mahomedan power no longer looks to the religious countries. And the mere fact that the bodies, as such, for support; but on the Turkish sultans, with no pretensions to contrary is anxious rather to disown than sacred character or descent, have for to rely upon an alliance with any form of some centuries been able to impose themreligion. Politics and theology, finding selves as kaliphs upon a very large part of that they cannot work together, have the Mahomedan world, proves how closely agreed to stand apart, desiring to have as the spiritual headship is bound up, outlittle to do with each other as may be posside Europe, with temporal dominion. sible; and upon some compromise of this It may, therefore, be interesting to exkind peace is now generally concluded in amine the relations of the civil governthe most advanced societies, except be- ment to religion in a country where creeds tween the extreme and irreconcilable par- and rituals still preserve their primitive tisans in either camp. The main current multiformity, where they all have, neverof modern opinion sets towards disestab- theless, free play, and where the ruler lishment, disendowment, suppressing bud finds it possible and advantageous to pregets des cuites, cutting the States clear of side over all of them. Nowhere is this their connection with Churches, and tak- better seen than in that empire which has ing up an attitude, in regard to religious not only attained, as a government, the institutions, of irresponsibility and more highest level yet reached by purely Asior less respectful unconcern. So that the atic civilization, but is at once the oldest earlier ideas on this subject are now not of Asiatic empires, and the most likely only rejected, but reversed ; to the prin- to outlast all others now existing - the ciple of union between the secular and empire of China. spiritual authorities is succeeding the The Chinese government is singular in principle of divorce.

Asia as representing a kind of modern But if it is true that European ideas on conservatism. No other great Asiatic the relations between Church and State State ever got beyond the simplest forms are reaching this climax, this makes it of arbitrary sovereignty; whereas in China very well worth while to bear in mind the governing class has for centuries been that in the non-Christian world the earlier endeavoring to stand still at a remarkably notions on this subject predominate, and forward stage of administrative organizamaterially influence societies. Three out tion long ago attained; and this is not the of the great governments of Europe immobility of mere superstition and ig. England, France, and Russia — rule over norance, as in the case of the nations large numbers of non-Christian people, around, but it is apparently due to a deliband are in constant relation with non erate mistrust of progress beyond the Christian States; and some of the many point already reached. This feeling is and strange difficulties besetting this posi- probably much more justifiable in Asia tion are connected with the incident that than in Europe; for until the incoherent in Asia and Mahomedan Africa the tem- groups of different races and religions poral ruler is generally expected to do which make up the population of an Asiwhat in western Europe he is generally atic empire become moulded into some denounced for doing, to assume, that is, al sort of national conglomerate, they form

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a very shifty foundation for elaborate of belief can no longer be preserved, the political buildings. Nor can it be denied State usually finds it impossible to identify that civilization, whatever be its benefits itself with several rival creeds, and very to Asia, acts as a disintegrating force inconvenient to remain on good terms with among the first principles which lie at the any one of them. In Mahomedan coun. base of all Asiatic governments, where tries the difficulty is forestalled by dilithe cornerstone is usually the divine right gently stamping out all creeds but one of kings. However this may be, the Chi- wherever this is possible. But in China, nese have certainly succeeded in organ- so far as can be judged from written acizing scientific methods of administration counts, the peculiarity is, that the State is without disturbing primitive ideas — an not only tolerant and fairly impartial to a experiment of great interest to the En- multiplicity of creeds and worships (for glish, who have before them a problem that is seen everywhere in Asia beyond not altogether dissimilar. China has had, the pale of Islam), but that at least three moreover, the good fortune of lying be-established religions are fostered and yond the full sweep of the destructive sedulously patronized by the government waves of Mahomedan invasion, which according to their specialities and respecspent their force on her extreme frontier; tive values in use, for the great purposes so she escaped the deluge which has sep. of the orderly administration of the emarated all western Asia into two distinct pire, and the upholding of the national periods, and has interrupted political con- traditions of conduct and morality. Notinuity. And while her religions have where is the principle of adapting the mo. thus retained their natural variety, and tive power of religion to the machinery of have escaped being crushed out or over- administration carried out so scientifically laid by the dead levelling power of Islam, as it appears to be in China. The vast China has attained this superiority over area and the immense population of the India that she succeeded centuries ago in empire afford ample room for several bringing her religious doctrines and wor- religions; the system of government finds ships into practical co-operation with her employment and a congenial atmosphere secular organization. It would seem as if for them all. The tradition of the impe. the lavish fertility with which Indian soil rial court is to keep the emperor's person produces religious ideas and forms has in august and majestic seclusion; the hindered them from being turned to ac- practice is to set out all their administracount and built up into any great religious tive proceedings and acts of State under system; or else that India has never had imposing formularies and high-sounding a native government large and strong moral ordinances, keeping the inner enough to organize Brahmanism as a foun. mechanism of the State secret and mystedation and support of its authority, as the rious. : All this system harmonizes with Chinese have enlisted their ancient pan. and favors the policy of associating relitheon into the State's service. The only gion with every department of the public great State religion and organized Church service, and of identifying the laws of the which ever throve in India was Bud- government with the decrees of Heaven. dhism; and it is precisely this religion The State interposes itself as much as which, after its mysterious break-up in possible between the people and their India, found a permanent home and an gods, the emperor claims to be the authorimmense though distorted development as ized chargé d'affaires or chief agent the greatest established religion of China. and intercessor for his country with the Yet Buddhism is only one among others, supreme powers. And the Chinese gov. for the Chinese government seems, per- ernment has this advantage, that although haps alone among civilized States, to have its dynasty is to some degree foreign, it is solved the problem of maintaining simul. nevertheless not so far ahead of or apart taneous relations, close and sympathetic, from the prevailing intellectual standard with several established official religions. among its subjects, that it cannot recog. In European States, wherever uniformity i nize or treat with religions of low or in.

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