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2. Letter addressed by the Secretary of the Privy Council Committee to Rev. Wm. Stewart of Libberton.
Committee of Council on Education,
(Minutes of August and December, 1846.) REV. SIR,-I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, dated March 20, inquiring whether the grants for augmentation of salary and apprenticeship, will in any case be given to schools of any denomination, which are put down in places where, looking to the population, and to the schools already existing in that place, they are not to be supposed to be necessary; and where they cannot be so placed, without interfering with the schools already there established?
From the mode in which your question is framed, it is apparent, that you are aware, that the Committee of Council do not make any grants towards the erection of schools without minute preliminary inquiries on the subjects enumerated in that question; and that they have refused to accept any other rule for such grants than their manifest utility.
You cannot, therefore, have confounded grants towards the erection and establishment of schools with grants towards the improvement of schools already established. The grants of the Committee of Council for the apprenticeship of pupilteachers, and the augmentation of the salaries of teachers who have obtained their lordships' certificates, are made under stringent conditions as to the existence of a sufficient income to maintain those schools in an average state of efficiency without these grants. They require that the school shall have been in operation long enough to secure an orderly condition of the discipline and respectable attainments among the children; as well as, that the candidates for apprenticeship shall be able to pass their examination, and the master to prove that he is competent to instruct them. These grants are also accompanied by conditions as to the tenure on which the buildings are held, their stability, &c., as guarantees of the permanency and efficiency of the school.
They are, therefore, made to those schools only which have not only surmounted all the primary difficulties of their first establishment; but have secured a sufficient income, a sufficient daily attendance of scholars, an average degree of efficiency in the instruction and order, in the organization and discipline of the school.
When a school is in this state, the question whether it is superfluous, is at an
end; and their lordships consider it to be no part of their duty to bring into question, whether prosperous schools ought to exist.
If you find it necessary to advert to this subject in the Presbytery of Edinburgh, I request that you will read the whole of this letter to the Presbytery.-I have the honour to be, reverend Sir, your obedient servant, J. P. KAY SHUTTLEWORTH.
3. Letter addressed by the Secretary of the Privy Council Committee to the Rev. N. M'Leod of Dalkeith.
13th April, 1849. (Minutes, 1846.)
REVEREND SIR,-I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th instant.
In reply, I am directed to call your attention to the conditions specified in the enclosed broad sheet, as requisite to be fulfilled, to enable the Committee of Council to grant an augmentation of salary to the master of a school. You will perceive, that if the master has obtained one of their lordships' certificate of merit, and the income of the school is so constituted as to fall within the terms prescribed by their lordships' minutes of August and December, 1846, the grant is made to depend upon the report of Her Majesty's Inspector, that the school is efficient in organization, discipline, and instruction.
From this, you will perceive, that the inspection of schools, aided by annual grants, differs in character from that of schools which have received a more permanent form of assistance, only in so far as is implied in the very nature of an inspection which is to precede, instead of following the payment of the graut.
In reply, therefore, to your first question, I am to observe, that their lordships still adhere to the scheme of inspection laid down in the instructions addressed to Her Majesty's Inspectors in 1840; and that schools, under a certificated master, will be inspected according to the tenor of those instructions.
In reply to the second, I am to inform you, that my lords do not, in any way, interfere with the subjects taught in the school, beyond what may be necessary to satisfy them of the school's efficiency. Their lordships could not consider that to be an efficient school for the education of the poor, in which important elementary subjects were altogether omitted, or imperfectly taught. Which of the subjects included in the examination passed by certificated masters, in order to obtain
their certificates of merit, are considered by their lordships to be the more essential, may be learnt from observing the distinction made between the subjects in Schedule A and Schedule B of the broad sheet. Their lordships would not, of course, be understood to imply, that all the subjects in Schedule A, must necessarily be taught in such schools; but, at least, such of them as may be considered the groundwork of the rest.
I am to add, that it is an essential condition, in order that schools may receive
annual aid from the Committee of Council, that a portion of the entire Bible, in the authorized version, should form part of the daily instruction.
Managers of schools which have received grants in augmentation of the teachers' salary, may, at any time, withdraw their schools from inspection, with the simple consequence of no longer receiving the grant.-I have the honour to be, reverend Sir, your obedient servant,
ROBERT LINGUS, Acting Assistant Secretary.
"BE IN EARNEST." "PERHAPS there is scarcely one single phrase more frequently employed in the sphere of human activity, or better understood than this,-BE IN EARNEST. What distinctness of aim-what fixedness of purpose-what resoluteness of will-what diligence, patience, and perseverance of action, are implied or expressed in these three words. He who would stimulate indolence, quicken activity, and inspire hope; he who would breathe his own soul into the soul of another, and kindle the enthusiasm which glows in his own bosom, says to his fellow, Be in earnest;' and that short sentence, uttered by his lips, has often been like a scintillation flying off from his own ardent mind, which, lighting upon the spirit of the individual whom he was anxious to move to some great enterprize, has lighted up the flames of enthusiasm there also. And what else, or what less, does Jesus Christ say to every one whom He sends into the work of the Christian ministry, than Be in earnest ?'"
AN EARNEST MINISTRY. "This-this is what we want, and must have, if the ends of the Gospel are ever to be extensively accomplished-an EARNEST ministry.
any truth, bearing upon this subject, be more momentous; for of all the curses which God ever pours from the vials of His wrath upon a nation which He intends to scourge, there is not one so fearful as giving them up to an unholy ministry. I trust our churches will ever consider piety as the first and most essential qualification in their pastors, for which talents, genius, learning, and eloquence, would, and could be no substitutes. It will be a dark and evil day when personal godliness shall be placed second to anything else in those who serve at the altar of God; but still there is something else wanted in addition to natural talent, to academic training, and even to the most fervent, evangelical piety, and that is intense devotedness. This is the one thing, more than any, or all other things that is wanting in the modern pulpit, and that has been wanting in most ages of the Christian Church. In a valuable article in a late number of the British Quarterly Review, the following sentence occurs:- No ministry will be really effective, whatever may be its intelligence, which is not a ministry of strong faith, true spirituality, and deep earnestness.' ANGEL JAMES's Earnest Ministry.
Extract from a Letter, dated Adelaide, South Australia, 15th December, 1848. "We have heard much of late about a "Stone masons are not wanted, because learned ministry, and God forbid we should there is no stone in the country; mechanever be afflicted by so great an evil as an ics are not needed, for there is no machinery unlearned one. We have been often re-used, except for farming purposes, and minded of the necessity of an educated ministry; and, in this case, as in every other, men must be educated for their vocation; but, then, that education must be strictly appropriate and specific. We are very properly told from many quarters, we can do nothing without a pious ministry. This is very true; nor can
they are very rude machines they use; but brick-setters, carpenters, joiners, shoemakers, tailors, blacksmiths-who can shoe horses-wheelwrights, brickmakers, plasterers, painters; all of whom get from six to eight shillings per day, are much wanted; and farming men, in any quantity, will find employment; but
persons who have not a trade on their
"We have now resided more than six months in this fine country, whose climate is fit for all useful productions, and many of luxurious character; and I should not be surprised if the best wine in the world be made here."
PEACE AND PROSPERITY OF BRITAIN.
"In consequence, partly of our geographical, and partly of our moral position, we have, during several generations, been exempt from evils which have elsewhere impeded the efforts, and destroyed the fruits of industry. While every part of the Continent, from Moscow to Lisbon, has been the theatre of bloody and devas
tating wars, no hostile standard has been set up here as a trophy. While revolutions have taken place all around us, our Government has never once been subverted by violence. During a hundred years, there has been in our island no tumult of sufficient importance to be called an insurrection. The law has never been borne down, either by popular fury, or by legal tyranny. Public credit has been held sacred. The administration of justice has been pure. Even in times which might, by Englishmen, be justly called evil times, we have enjoyed what almost every other nation in the world never considered as an ample measure of civil religious freedom. Every man has felt entire confidence that the State would protect him in the possession of what had been earned by his diligence, and hoarded by his selfdenial. Under the benignant influence of peace and liberty, science has flourished, and has been applied to practical purposes, on a scale never before known. The consequence is, that a change-to which the history of the old world furnishes no parallel-has taken place in our country. Could the England of 1685, be, by some magical process, set before our eyes, we should not know one landscape in one hundred, or one building in ten thousand."-Macaulay's History of England, Vol. i., p. 280.
TRAINING THE YOUNG.
(Monthly Paper supplied by the Edinburgh Society of Juvenile Abstainers.—ED.) THE meaning, extent, and obligation of the Scripture injunction contained in these words, "Train up a child in the way he should go; and when he is old, he will not depart from it," (Proverbs xxii. 6,) is surely but imperfectly understood and believed; or why have we such multitudes of parents, who, so far from training up their children in the way they should go, scarcely even tell them of the way they should go, and, certainly, do not shew them, or walk with them in that way. As the obligation to train up a child, is not simply to tell a child the way, and leave it to find it out; but is to lead it in the way to shew it the way-to learn it the way, by walking with it in the way,-doubtless, the obligation to do this is most fittingly and appropriately bind ing upon the parents of the child; yet if they neglect, if they fail to train up their child in the way it should go, their
neglect and failure to discharge their duty, will not absolve us from the obligation we are under to see that the child is trained up in the way it should go; and hence the duty of every Christian is, to see that children are not left untrained in the ways of God; for if they are, they will not be untrained in the ways of sin, and will wander further and further in the evil ways of their own hearts, till they finally and forever perish.
What momentous consequences depend upon the training of the young!-what fearful results follow their being left untrained in good! It was, probably, the consideration of these consequences, or results, which prompted the devoted founders of Missionary Sabbath Schools, to pity the untaught and untrained thousands of little ones who crowd the streets and lanes of our large and populous cities. and to gather them together on the sacred
day, to speak to them of the love of God, | great cause of parental neglect, is beyond and of their never-dying souls, and to urge all doubt; and its bearing upon youthful them to seek to be reconciled to God, training has been of the most painful and through the blood of the Saviour of sin- distressing kind. But for it, we believe, ners; that they might walk with God three-fourths of the untrained and unedupon earth, and be with him forever in ucated children of our country had been heaven; and who can number the parent- trained in the way they should go; and neglected, untaught, and untrained child- the Church would have been rejoicing in ren, who, through the instrumentality of the necessity of lengthening her cords, and the Sabbath School, have been trained to strengthening her stakes; but for this, walk in the way they should go-who Ragged Schools, at least, would not have have glorified God in their walk and con- been needed; and parental training would versation in the world-and finally de- have been followed by its richest reward, parted this life in the blessed assurance--the consistency and exemplary fruits of of going to be with Christ, which is far children walking in the fear of the Lord. better?
Doubtless, it was a deep sympathy with the untrained thousands of ragged, destitute, begging, stealing, children, and an apprehension of the fearful consequences which would result from permitting them to remain untrained, which prompted the founders of Ragged, or Industrial Schools, to gather together these outcasts of parents and of society, and bring them under a system of training, to enable them to earn their daily bread, and lead them to choose the ways of wisdom and the paths of
And if the Christian community, by forming of Sabbath Schools, and by instituting Ragged Schools, thereby recognize or admit themselves to be the guardians of the untrained young, and of the parentneglected children of our country, they will not fail to see, that, as respects intoxicants, the prolific source from which flows the large proportion of that neglect and want of training, they ought also to prove themselves the guardians of the young, and not leave generation after generation to fall into the same untrained condition as respects intoxicants, until, from the progressive increase of the evils that flow from the use of these intoxicants, the great proportion of the juvenile population fall to be trained and reared by Sabbath and Ragged School associations, instead of by their own parents,--the parties designed by the Almighty to perform that duty.
That, next to the depravity-the native, innate depravity of the human heart-the using of intoxicants has been proved the
Surely it is not enough to admit, that there has been some mighty cause at work, blighting the sensibilities of the soul to its obligations to God and men. When the cause is discoverable, and the remedy at hand, the question of abstinence from these intoxicating liquors, which have so long proved the bane of our youth, and which have caused many thousands, and tens of thousands, nay, millions of them to be untrained in the ways of God, is not merely to be looked at at a distance, or the consideration of it as a remedy, adequate, under the Divine blessing, to remove the crying evil of our day, postponed till a more convenient season; but it ought to be adopted by the parents, and taught to the children and youth of our land as such a remedy.
Children must be taught every duty. They must be trained to adopt and practice every good thing, and abstain from every evil thing. And if parents neglect, or leave them untrained to abstain from intoxicants, then those who believe that abstinence is a good thing, must not fail to perform that duty, which these parents fail to discharge. No one can expect that intoxication can be removed from our land, while our children and youth are trained to partake by precept and example, and are not trained not to partake. To do something to train the young and rising generation to abstain, not merely by telling them, but by setting them the example, is, we believe, the incumbent duty of every Christian.
How often has the Christian parent had to lament over the blighted prospects of
his beloved child-his reckless careerhis untimely end-his hopeless death! How often have the grey hairs beer. brought with sorrow to the grave; and all by the cup which that unconscious parent put into his own child's hands when yet it was a babe! How often have mothers' hearts been broken, and sisters' tears flowed, over the lost son and ruined brother! And is the past defective training still to continue? Are the young not to be trained to follow another course?are they still to be allowed to follow on the pathway which leads to such a fearful end? Oh! no; let us, casting aside our prejudices, look at this question in the sight of God; and, seeking His direction, let us inquire, whether it is not our solemn and imperative duty to train the young to abstain from intoxicants?
No training is a neglect of duty;-indeed, there cannot be such a thing as no
training; for if we are not training the young to good, we are training them to evil. To leave the young untrained on the question of abstaining or partaking of intoxicating liquors, is, therefore, to leave them to be trained by the practices of those around them; and we know the practice most commonly is, that of partaking,-the practice from which springs the untrained children of the Sabbath and Ragged Schools,—the practice from which arises our pauperism, crime, madness, and premature death.
The training the young to abstain, does not imply that they are to take a pledge; for the pledge is no part of abstinence, and ought not to be associated in any one's mind with it. Abstinence should be taught and practised from love to God, and from a sincere desire that is kingdom may come, and His will be done on earth as it is done in heaven.
THE MAY MEETINGS.
IT is known, we dare say, to most of our readers, that in the months of May and June, meetings are held in London of all the leading missionary and benevolent societies of Britain, amounting, in all, to nearly fifty. Public sermons, upon weekdays and Sabbath days, are preached in connection with them. Our space will not permit of our giving more than an abstract of this year's Reports of four of
THE BIBLE SOCIETY.
The following is a general summary of results for 1849:
"The entire receipts of the year ending March 31, 1849, amount to £95,933,
6s. 1d. The amount applicable to the general purposes of the Society, is £52,574, 148. 3d., including £7636, 16s. 3d., spe
cial contributions in aid of the extended circulation of the Scriptures on the Continent, and £31,993, 15s. 5d., free contributions from Auxiliary Societies, shewing an increase, in this item, of £695, 11s. Id. The receipts for Bibles and Testaments, amount to £43,358, 11s. 10d. The issues of the Society for the year, amount
to 1,107,518,-viz., from the depôt at home, 802,133; from the depôt abroad, 305,385. The total issues of the Society have now amounted to 21,973,355. The expenditure, during the past year, has been £88,831, 1s. 2d.; and the Society is under engagements to the extent of £67,694, Os. 11d."
The immense advance which has been made, during the last forty-five years, in translating and disseminating the Word of God, cannot but excite our wonder and gratitude. In 1804, there was not a society in existence, whose sole object was to diffuse the Word of God; there are now upwards of 9000 Bible Societies. In 1804, as far as could be ascertained, there were only 4,000,000 of Bibles in circulation; there are now 32,000,000. In 1804, the Bible was translated into forty-nine languages only; it is now translated into 138 languages. In 1804, it was accessible to 200,000,000 of the human race; it is now accessible to 600,000,000. But not one translation of the Bible has been made by the Church of Rome, for the benefit of the heathen, since the Reforma