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getic of their number will gradually outstrip them in the variety and extent of their professional attainments; command for the Church-what it at present wants -men able and willing to maintain its character and usefulness by quarterly, monthly, and weekly periodicals; and as theological chairs become vacant, furnish candidates for filling them, who require not to submit to the humiliating drudgery of instructing themselves, at the time
when their undivided energies are needed for instructing their pupils; but can proceed, at once, to their appropriate work, ripe in all the varied accomplishments necessary for its efficient performance.
If these hurried suggestions meet with general concurrence throughout the Church, the next step is to follow them up by overtures to the General Assembly. It is probable that we may resume the subject in future numbers.*
FACTS ON EMIGRATION.
In order that the world should be peopled, and that the human race should, at the same time, advance in civilization from age to age, two things are equally necessary:-Men inust settle; form cities and nations; and they must, also, move onwards, and occupy unpeopled territories, and found new cities and new kingdoms. There must, therefore, be aggregation and emigration,―settlement, yet movement. How are these apparently opposite conditions to be fulfilled? By laws similar to those which keep the planets in their orbits. There are the forces of attraction, such as love of country and of kindred; the innumerable blessings attending an advanced state of society, and old institutions, with countless other causes, which tend to bind men together, and to keep them "at home;" while, again, forces of repulsion, such as the want of employment -the necessities of a family-the desire of bettering one's condition, and the like, compel men to fly to new climes and to occupy other lands. God's Providence, beyond man's will and intention, balances those centripetal and centrifugal forces; and the world is peopled at the right time, and in the way best fitted to conduce to the temporal and eternal wellbeing of man. Emigration seems, indeed, to be the grand remedy for most of our social evils, which arise from a population overcrowded, overworked, or not worked at all, and, consequently, unhealthy, and demoralized. God has provided splendid
mansions for our homeless poor, or penniless artisans, if a bridge only were built to enable them to cross the seas, and to take possession of those unoccupied but richly furnished habitations. The safe harbour and navigable river, wait to receive our vessels. Pasture lands, broad as Europe, are prepared for our herds of sheep and oxen; alluvial plains are ready for a million ploughs; forests of timber invite the axe and the saw of the carpenter, to fashion them into dwellings, or into fleets; storehouses of coal, and of the useful metals, have been imbedded in the rocks for ages, in order to pour their treasures at the feet of the first miner who knocks at the door with his ringing hammer; while singing birds, and shining sun, and soft breezes, genial seasons, and the grand and beautiful in nature, are ready to give to every wanderer a hearty welcome. And where is all this to be found? In our magnificent Colonies. And for whom intended? For the strong men who can find no work at home,-for the father with his rising and fine family of boys and girls, for whom he sees no prospect of employment,-for the industrious and sober agricultural labourer, or artisan, who has a little money, and wishes to lay it out to the best advantage,-for the destitute Celt,-for the boys and girls who must go to the poor-house, or beg; who must leave the ragged school, and steal, or starve; or who come out of jail, and know not where to get their next meal, or their • Since writing the above remarks, we have rial examinations. We trust, therefore, that the learnt, that the Assembly, two years ago, apChurch will be favoured with an early and satispointed a committee on the subject of Presbyte-factory report of its proceedings.
next night's lodging. For all such God has provided abundance, if they would, or could only obtain what He has provided. Why is there no bridge? But here we must stop; for our space would, at present, fail us, if we attempt to ask the many questions which press upon us as to what may yet be done to aid emigration by Government, by our ship of war and steam navy, by private enterprize, and by the emigration of benevolent individuals themselves to form and superintend establish ments in the Colonies for the reception of the young sent out by corresponding societies at home. In the meantime, we shall extract a few facts from a pamphlet which we have accidentally met with, upon this subject of emigration. It is a memorial, addressed to Lord John Russell, by a meeting of highly influential men, most of them members of Parliament, held in London in December last, on the subject of colonization. We extract from it the following facts:
"In England, a million and a-half, or nearly one-tenth of the population, receive parochial relief. In Ireland, nearly three millions, or more than one-third of the inhabitants, subsisted last summer charity, by gratuitous relief, or by forced and profitless employment. In Scotland, pauperism is rapidly on the increase; and the burden of maintaining the poor, is augmenting in a still more rapid proportion.
"If the poor are starving for want of food here, is there no British soil more blessed with plenty? If the land, rent free, will not support the population, (and landlords, prove its truth in various parts of Scotland and Ireland,) is every place in the empire so overstocked? If remunerative employment cannot be found for tive in other parts of the British domiunskilled labour here, is it as unproduc
famished families and rentless ruined
"Ireland has 300 persons, England 260, to each square mile; Australia has twelve square miles to each individual. South Wales, in the month of June last, "In the legislative assembly of New it was stated, that this year, no less than 64,000,000 lbs. of meat would be wasted, sufficient to feed 1,100,000 of those poor people who were starving in England and Ireland. In New South Wales the people are 180,000, the cattle 2,000,000, the sheep 8,000,000 being about thirteen head of oxen, and 50 sheep, for each person. The superabundance of food is wasted for want of mouths; the corn is shed for lack of reapers; the wool is injured for want of shearers; and, consequently, all descriptions of produce either perish, or are greatly depreciated both in quality and value. Herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are boiled down' for tallow, there, while thousands are famishing for want of food here,-there the meat is wasted, here men are wasting. Human skeletons pine here for what fattened dogs reject there. The balance between food and population is unequal at home,-it is as unequal in New South Wales; but it is the other "During the last ten years, the sums way. In like manner the scales of labour levied for the relief of the poor in England and employment are uneven here; they and Wales, have amounted to no less than are as uneven at the antipodes; but in the £66,000,000, being an average of nearly opposite direction. Here labour is too (and last year amounting altogether to) plentiful; there it is as much too scarce. the yearly sum of £7,000,000; and by the We have tried and failed to bring the 9th and 10th Vict., cap. 101, the State ad- food to the starving man,-therefore convanced for the employment of the labouring vey the starving man to his food, the classes in England, £2,000,0000. The labourer to his hire, and you may restore deficiency in a single crop, of a single de- the lost balance. scription, in one year in Ireland and Scotland, has added to the burden, in expenditure, for relief and improvenient, (Commons' Paper, No 13, 1847,) £10,342,500; and private subscriptions (including £200,000 subscribed on two occasions) are reckoned at £1,000,000. The amount levied for poor's rates in Ireland, (Commons' Paper, No. 144, 5th March, 1847,) £298,000; the poor-rates in Scotland, £295,000; giving a total charge for the relief of the poor, in little more than one year, of £20,935,500."
"In New South Wales, the unskilled labourer, full fed with ample rations, supplied with a dwelling and garden, found in tea, sugar, milk, and tobacco, disdains to work under 2s. 6d. a-day besides. If destitution cause crime here, affluence leads to the same result there. Want here, and abundance there; scarcity and superfluity of labour, opposite extremes, end alike in vice, indolence, insubordination, and social disorder.
"The common wages at present given in that country, are as follows:--Sheep
10s.; and although it was recently stated at the Colonial Office, that this was owing to accidental circumstances, and was not likely to occur again, yet, at this present moment, ships are chartered by the Emigration Commissioners, to convey emigrants to Sydney and Port Philip, at a price considerably lower,-viz., £11, 9s. 3d., and £10 108. per head."
We shall return to this subject, and give a few more facts, which may be relied upon, in order to give information to the working classes, upon a subject to all, but to them especially, of the greatest interest.
THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
"It is a wondrous empire, broad, populous, and mighty. It is twice as large as the Continent of Europe; and includes
one out of every six acres of dry land on the face of the globe, and one out of every five men that live. It spreads under every sky; and embraces the finest, wealthiest, and most enterprizing people in Europe; the largest territory in America; the happiest and most improving population in Africa; and nearly the entire of European dominion in the South Seas. Our empire includes a-sixth of the world, with a-fifth of its people; and there is not a slave in it all!"-Rev. William Arthur.
THE Church Missionary Society and the Church of Christ, have lost a bright ornament, and a faithful Missionary, by the death of Mr. Fox! A short, but beautiful memoir of this devoted servant of God, is contained in the January number of the Church Missionary Magazine. Mr. Fox was one of Dr. Arnold's favourite pupils. Those who are acquainted with the life and correspondence of that great man, will remember, we dare say, the name of Mr. Fox as one to whom several letters were addressed by Dr. Arnold. Mr. Fox early dedicated himself to the Missionary work. He went to India in 1841,-returned in bad health in March,
1846,--resumed his labours in India seven months afterwards; but, after twelve months of zealous exertions, he was again
W. H. FOX.
himself to the Lord? He replied, that he thought he must have been about fifteen ' when I first came to the decision to serve God. Returning to Rugby, after the holidays, I was much alone in the coach, and thought much on the subject; or rather, I thought I was God's. We had read Doddridge's "Rise and Progress together during those holidays. Since then I have gone on, and gone on. You used to write me a letter, to receive every Sunday. That was a great help to me.'
"He himself,' says Dr. Tait, mentioned, in an address which he delivered, in Rugby School, to the boys, that it was in the study, looking out upon the fields beyond the Barby road, that the thought was first suggested to his mind, (he could not doubt, in after years, by the Holy Spirit of God,) that he might best serve Christ by devoting himself to the conver
sion of the heathen.
"While still at school, he never intermitted, from any thoughts of this kind, his zealous attention to the immediate duties of the place. He was known here as a thoughtful and religious boy; but, also, his name stands on the exhibition board in the great school, to record his ability, and his diligent progress in human learning.'*
"From Rugby he went to Oxford, to Wadham College, where his life and character were such as his beginning at school had led his friends to expect. For a little while he was in danger of being drawn away by those allurements of the world which the world would call inno
cent; but the Good Shepherd led him safely through.'†
Till he had taken his degree, he only once imparted his inclination toward Missionary employment to his family. "No one can doubt, as Dr. Tait justly
observes, that the thought of Missions was
evidence of a work of the Holy Spirit. Innumerable boys and young men have desired, at times, to devote themselves to Missions. They have expressed such desires, and gained some credit for Christian devotedness. But from some the desires have gradually faded away before opening prospects of worldly distinction or advantage. In others, such desires have been made a cloak for relaxing their attention to the duties of their station, and have gradually evaporated in idleness. But where the desire is from the Spirit of God, it shuns ostentation. It renders a youth thoughtful,' but quickens to diligence. In patience,' it possesses the soul, till the providence of God clearly opens a way for its fulfilment."
The devotedness with which he entered upon the Missionary life, did not forsake him, after he had experienced its toils and dangers. What a beautiful instance and example does he afford of
Devotedness to his work.
"It was most striking to hear from him, immediately upon his arrival, his determination to return to his labours at
the earliest period possible; herein affording another evidence, that he had been called to the work by the Holy Spirit of God. His family circumstances would have enabled him to live at home in com
parative affluence; his interrupted health in India would have afforded a full justification in the eyes of all; his two motherless children might have shaken his resolution. But with the unhesitating decision of one who has received the commission of his commanding officer, and the cheerfulness of one who serves a beloved master, he prepared to return to India, after a few months, chiefly spent in visiting and speaking at public meet
suggested by the Holy Spirit of God. How encouraging a prospect of a future supply of Missionaries! Let it stir up the friends of Missions to pray for a fuller outpouring of the Spirit upon our public schools, and upon all seminaries of sound learning, and religious education. Surely this remarkable instance of the Holy Spirit's mission to a young boy at a public school, will fail of one part of its design, if it do not excite the expectations and the prayers of many, that the rich endow-ings. ments, and the high literary advantages, of our great educational establishments, may yet become nurseries for the evangelization of the world.
"Let us not fail, also, to mark the true
Dr. Tait's Sermon. + Tucker's Sermon.
No parent will read this narrative without recurring, in thought, to the feeling of the father and mother of this devoted servant of God; and they will have been in unison with his, and that rightly judge, that their feelings must the family sacrifice was as willingly offered upon the appointed service, as
was the personal sacrifice of the son him- | self. Indeed, whatever reluctance and misgiving there had been on his first departure, had now been banished from their minds, when they saw the manifest growth in grace which Missionary work had fostered in their beloved child."
His illness did not, at first, seem to himself, or to his friends, to be dangerous. Both had a solemn apprehension that the Lord might be about to send for him. There was no reluctance on either side to speak of such a prospect. "For me," he said on one occasion, "it is far better to depart; but I am only a young man, as yet. I might work in God's service, if He raised me up. But when I think of my own deceitful heart, and the power of the world, I tremble lest I should not stand firm." The promise was asked and given, that he should be told as soon as the doctor thought him worse. We cannot curtail the following account of
His last illness and death.
"On the 11th of October, he sent for his sister to his bedside. In a weak and feeble voice, he said, 'George has just been with me, much cast down upon this, that he says Mr. J. thinks much worse of me, and that I may not remain long.'... When he comes again, 1 wish you to ask him particularly; and if he says the same, are you all prepared to join me in praise?' I could not answer: I hid my face. He added, "It is a hard thing, I fear, to ask of you.' I said, God will give us grace so to do, I trust. He has made us willing to part from you.' He went on to say, Oh! if it might be in twenty days* or so, oh! how glorious! I can scarcely think of it, it is so overpoweringly glori
"His parting with his two little children evidenced the same strong faith, and detachment from this world. His thirtyfirst birthday occurred during his illness; and he received, with a cheerful smile, the visit of his children to his bedside, when they brought him nosegays, and wished him many happy returns. When he thought his time might be short, he desired to see them. They got on the bed,' his sister writes, and kissed him. He said, "That is your last kiss. God bless you! If you wish to see papa again, you must come to heaven, where you will find him, and dear mamma, and little
•Probably having the celebration of the Jubilee November 1, in his mind.
Johnny. Now, good bye!" He was calm, and not overcome. I remembered his deep emotion when he parted from them to return to India two years before. The struggle-and it was a bitter onewas gone through at that time. The sacrifice had been made, and God spared him the pain of a second. He afterward told me, that he had a firm confidence they would come to him in heaven. Upon my inquiring if he had anything to say respecting them, he merely said, "You know my wishes so well, I have nothing to tell you. Their mother and I com mitted them to you."'
"It will be, however, for our edification to inquire into the foundation upon which his Christian character rested-the root and spring of such eminent Missionary graces.
"The foundation, we hesitate not to say, of his devotedness, was laid in an ardent
love of the Saviour. It was this, doubtless, which kept him steady to his Missionary resolves in early life; which made him esteem it honourable and delightful to testify His name among the Gentiles.
"His sister writes-The one striking feature of his illness, as of his life, was his abounding love to his Saviour. It literally filled his heart, and nothing came into competition with it-Him first, Him last. He was indeed the Alpha and Omega. In his weakest and most trying moments, the name of Jesus would bring a smile of happiness across his worn and suffering features.' And again—‘Reading to him a portion out of the book of Revelation, he said, "The second and third chapters are so full of rebuke and exhortation-full of beautiful passages! I read them with R just before I left Madras. I never met with any one of my own age so full of Christian experience as he is. He did not talk about religion: he talked Christ. We do not speak enough about Christ. It is because our hearts are not full enough of Him.'" And once more, a few hours before his release, the same affectionate relative wrote,He still lingers-very weak, incapable of saying, or apparently feeling much. Not a cloud, so far, has bedimmed his view of the Saviour, and of the bliss that awaits him; though he expresses little, unless asked a question directly; such as, 'You have peace? Yes, in Jesus. He is the dying Saviour.' Speaking of parting with friends on earth, I said, 'You are going to some very dear to you in heaven-your dear wife.' His reply was, I am going to Him who was pierced for me: that's the thing.'
Equally conspicuous, as a foundation