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On the 14th of June, 1841, Dr. Grant thus sketches his future plans in a letter to his brother, Dr. Ira Grant:

In a few days I hope to pursue my way by the route I travelled last summer to Van a Julamak; and after visiting the patriarch, and the mountain Nestorians, to go on to Mosul to join my associates, and introduce them to the mountains.

I trust the Lord will go with me, and take care of me, so long as He has work for me to do on earth. It seems as though the rest of heaven would be peculiarly sweet after the cares and toils of a missionary life. The work never seemed more arduous or difficult than it does at present, and never did I feel more sensible of my unfitness for the work. What am I, that I should be employed in so glorious a work?

Again, in October, 1831, he writes, announcing his safe arrival at Mosul :


I reached Mosul on the 25th August, after a somewhat perilous journey, and just in season to administer relief to my new associate, the Rev. Mr. Hinsdale, whom I met here for the first time. To all human appearance, his prospects for life would have been small had I not reached here when I did; and he could not but feel that the Lord had sent me at the most unexpected moment for the preservation of his life. You will have heard of the death of my other associate, the Rev. Mr. Mitchell, who fell by the way, three or four days' ride from this. His wife survived less than a week after her arrival at Mosul.

Writing to the Rev. W. Gridley, in whose charge he had left one of his children, he alludes to these trying bereave


In this mysterious providence the

Lord has, no doubt, some wise design. May it not be to appeal to the churches at home in tones that the living missionary could never utter? God is now speaking to us again, in the dispensations of His providence, regarding the mountain Nestorians. Never was fervent prevailing prayer more needed than it is for the Nestorians in the mountains at this moment. They are in sore trials. About the time I left the mountains last August, they were invaded by an army of Koords and Turks on the north. More recently they have been besieged by a Turk's Koordish army on the south and west, sent against them by the Pasha of Mosul.

In another letter, he says:

When Christians pray as they ought, which implies the culture of a deep and of the Lord will be full to overflowing. ・・・ lively interest in the cause, the treasuries We are sadly perplexed for want of help. Work enough for twenty men lies


before us.

In September of the same year, 1832, he again writes Mr. Gridley :

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I am once more a mountain pilgrim, and for the fourth time a solitary one, so far as regards missionary associates. During the last two months I have traversed these wild mountains in almost every direction, and having decided upon a site for a station, have purchased a lot, and commenced building. I laid the corner-stone of the first mission house in the Nestorian mountains a week ago at Ashita. I have also made a beginning in opening schools on a small scale. My first has twenty scholars,-have engaged native helpers, the best to be found,-am trying to dispense the precious Gospel.

On the same subject he writes his mother:

battle. A portion of the poem from which the above is extracted, was found in his pocket in

From a translation, by Longfellow, of a poem composed by Coplas de Manrique, a Spanish poet, who flourished in the last half of the 15th the field of battle. century. He died young, and was killed in

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Through the friendship of the chief of the Koords, the patriarch, and the people generally, I have been able to travel and labour where the safety of another person would have been quite doubtful. I have laboured from village to village, from house to house, in every part of the mountains, which I have now traversed in all directions, though wars and rumours of wars have resounded on every side during the past year; but I have pretty well learned the lesson taught by our blessed Saviour, "Be ye not troubled." The Lord has been very gracious in the preservation of my health.

Again and again does Dr. Grant, in his correspondence, express his deep conviction of the aid to be derived for the missionary cause from Christians at home.

"The hope of the missionary cause," he writes to Mrs. Gridley, "rests mainly with the spirituality of the churches at home, and in the converts who are added to their numbers. My ardent prayer is, that the latter may be a race of more devoted spiritual Christians than any that have preceded them. There must be an entire consecration to the service of God before the world is converted; and as the day draws near, I trust that the young disciples especially will feel, that upon them rests new responsibilities. Our fathers, and the elder members of the churches, have done well in beginning the missionary work, and bringing it up to its present position. But this is only a beginning of the work to be done, and the labours of our missionaries hitherto have been, for the most part, only preparatory. Much preparatory work still remains to be done; but when it is accomplished, and God in His providence has prepared the way, as He is fast doing, we may expect such an outpouring of the Spirit as has yet never been witnessed."

His views on Christian union in con

whom all our united energies are required in the conflict. Under whatever cognomen or uniform we have enlisted, let us go forth to the conflict, like the various regiments in a great army, at the command of one redoubtable commander, and we shall find a union of heart springing up and cementing, of far more value than any unity of forms or name. How is it that that apostolic preacher, Knapp, is so cordially welcomed by Christians of other denominations? Is it not that he has so much of the apostolic spirit-so much of the millenium in his heart and life? The same spirit will produce union anywhere; and it is the only spirit that will produce it."

Troubles hemmed him in on every side. His chosen field of labour was invaded, not only by lawless Koords and Turks, but by still more subtle foes,—viz., by Popish, and Semi-popish emissaries, as he designates those of the High Church party from England. The Moslems, too, began to view his labours with a jealous and suspicious eye. His life was twice in jeopardy, but was saved by his own intrepidity in presenting himself before the authorities with the boldness of conscious innocence. In spite, however, of every difficulty, he projected another visit to the mountains in Spring, even though he would then be constrained to rely for protection on the treacherous, sanguinary Koords, the oppressed and humbled Nestorians being no longer in a position to afford any. But his plans were changed, his children required "his personal presence for a time," and though "his health was tolerable, he never felt quite well, and needed a respite from the cares and perplexities, more than the toil of missionary life." He had lain the case of his children before Dr. Anderson, (the chief

nection with missions, are singularly in- Secretary of the Board,) and his answer teresting:

"The great desideratum," he writes his brother, "in my opinion, is to get more of the Spirit of Christ infused into all parties in the Church; and then, as each of His true followers reflects His image, each will be recognized by the others as a branch of the same vine.' Upon the fundamental principles of faith we are agreed; and we have one common object to accomplish the conversion of the world; one common enemy to encounter, with

was, "I think you had better go home and look after your children." Unwilling as he was to leave his missionary work, and his loved Nestorians, yet he felt that the events of the last few months, by interrupting the plans of the mission, had prepared the way for his absence. He therefore wrote his mother on the 23d of March, 1844, that "if nothing unexpected intervened," he might hope "to stand once more on the shores of America."

But in less than a fortnight, he lay on his death-bed; and just one month from the time that he indited his last letters," he fell asleep in Jesus." He died at Mosul, April 24, 1844, aged 34. "His afflictions,” says Dr. Smith, "were many, his toils were arduous, and the burden of his cares and sorrows were almost beyond the power of human endurance. No wonder he sunk so soon. His was a life of toil and tears. His last was his greatest affliction, and which he felt the keenest-the desolation of his missionary field, which he had begun successfully to cultivate. As the seed was springing into life, it was crushed into the dust." The disease which terminated his life was Typhus Fever, caught in attendance on the people he so loved, among whom it had prevailed as an epidemic, committing fearful ravages among them. At first no alarm was felt about him, as his illness was supposed to be merely an aggravation of the symptoms of the complaint from which he had so long suffered. . . . But he did not recover as usual. He was seized on the 5th of April. For some days he was able to give advice for himself. On the 14th he requested Dr. Smith, who had lately joined the mission, to pray with him in behalf of it, "placed as it was, by the overthrow of the independence of the Nestorians, in a very trying situation." After Dr. Smith had concluded, he offered a short, but appropriate prayer for the same subject. "Such a prayer!" says Mr. Laurie in his letter to the Board. "Nothing uncommon in the blessings sought for, nothing strange in thought or language; but uttered with such a holy fervour as gave new meaning to the most familiar words." . . . This was on Sunday,-" No one yet apprehended danger. Monday came, and reason had fled. No wildnessno passion. A smile was ever on his face." He thought he was journeying, and asked his attendant how long he might remain and rest? "Just as long as you please," was the reply. "No," said he, "I wish just as the Lord pleases, no more." . . . His motherless children were often in his thoughts. "My dear children, God will take care

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of them. God will take care of the cause in which their father is embarked."

. . Sometimes he would plead the cause of missions with the churches at home. Sometimes he thought he was alone in his closet. "Jesus, my only Saviour, my only Saviour; O my Saviour; yes, there is my Saviour; I hope in infinite mercy, through Christ, my only Saviour." He spoke not of wanderings, and perils, and deaths often braved for Christ's sake. No word of wor

thiness, but a precious atonement, revealing infinite mercy for the lost, was the object round which gathered his thoughts when loose from all control, as to an accustomed theme-a theme they loved." And so he lay for seventeen days.

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. He was never aware that he was about to leave his earthly friends, till he found himself suddenly, as we trust, among the redeemed above. What a surprise was that! The grief of mother and children could not have borne such a testimony to the power of a holy life, as did the rough tears of a Turkish governor, and the sorrow of a people, who, though taught to think evil of him, and stand aloof from him while living, yet could neither restrain their sobs nor their commendations as they crowded round his grave.

On the 25th of October, 1844, his surviving associates, seeing no prospect of being able to resume operations in the mountains for some time to come, left the sad scene of trial. Eight Missionaries had gone,-three only lived to return,-two of them mourned the loss of their dearest friends. The widow left behind her the graves of her husband and children; and yet their thoughts were, not all sad. One soul—there might be more-but, at least, one soul, they trusted-had been brought to love the Saviour; and as they thought of the eternal bliss of that one soul, and the good that he might be the means of effecting before entering on that bliss, they felt

that that reward was more than enough for all they had endured.

They had found evangelical religion at Mosul associated in the minds of the people with infidelity and crime. Inquiring minds henceforward will know that they are not alone in their dissent from error, and their loathing of a dead religion. The Bible has been left to witness for its author, and point the lost to one Redeemer.

"Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord, from henceforth: yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours, and their works do follow them."

Note.-Mr. Layard, in his work on Nineveh, has given the following gratifying testimony in favour of the American Mission and Dr. Grant:

zealous and worthy men; and had their plans succeeded, I have little doubt that they would have conferred signal benefits heard their names mentioned by the Tiyari, and most particularly that of Dr. Grant, without expressions of profound respect, amounting almost to veneration." of his visit to the mountains, fell a victim "Dr. Grant, who published an account

on the Nestorian Chaldeans. I never

to his humane zeal for the Chaldeans in 1844. After the massacre, his house at Mosul was filled with fugitives, whom he supported and clothed. Their sufferings, and the want of common necessaries before they reached the town, had brought on a malignant typus fever, of which many died, and which Dr. Grant caught whilst attending the sick in his house. Mosul holds the remains of most of those sions to the Chaldeans." who were engaged in the American Mis

Note.-See also Notices of the Massacre of the Nestorians, and of the American Mission, "They (the Missionaries) were most in No. II., p. 45, of this Magazine.


No. II.

In a former number of this magazine, we considered the validity of one reply which was frequently given to this question, viz., "There is enough to do at home!"* But there are many other objections against foreign missions which are often made by those who profess to be members of the Church of Christ. The only one we notice at present may be thus stated:"Missionaries have done little or nothing in the way of converting the heathen. It is true that we hear flaming accounts in missionary reports and speeches of what they have accomplished. But they deceive churches at home, in order to keep up subscriptions, or they are themselves deceived. We have heard different accounts from unprejudiced civilians, who have visited those countries where alleged conversions are said to have taken place. Depend upon it, if the heathen are to be converted, it must be by very different means from those now employed; for if it was God's will that missionaries should convert them, why have they hitherto failed in doing so?" Those who travel beyond the See No. II, page 28.

circle of the ardent friends of missions, and who have opportunities of becoming acquainted with the sentiments upon this subject of many educated men, (who are, on the whole, well-intentioned and disposed to do good, but who have not carefully weighed the claims of foreign missions,) will be able to recognize the objection we have stated as one familiar to their ears. We shall try and meet it as fairly, fully, and briefly as possible, by examining the several parts of which it is composed.

"Missionaries have done little or nothing in the way of converting the heathen.”—To this statement we must give more than one reply. We might say, generally, that if the Lord has given a clear and unequivocal command to His Church, to "preach the Gospel to all nations," promising to be with His Church while so doing, "even to the end of the world;" then must all objections whatever, however numerous, however plausible, however weighty, yield to the simple fact,-to preach the Gos pel is Christ's will! It might well excite wonder, and lead to serious inquiry as to

its cause, if the preaching of the Gospel were not followed by those results which it was designed and is fitted to accomplish. Yet the absence of all such anticipated results, however strange and unconceivable this might be, could form no legitimate ground for disobeying our Lord's will. The position of a regiment in a battle, might, for many reasons, such as its never being permitted to fire a shot, or engage immediately with the enemy, be a very mysterious and unaccountable fact to soldiers and officers. But the commands of the general, and not apparent or immediate results, would be recognized as a sole and sufficient ground for keeping their position.

2. In the history of God's dealings with man, we perceive many facts analogous to this supposed one of fruitless missionary labours, yet quite consistent, nevertheless, with such missionary labour being God's will. Noah was a "preacher of righteousness," and a missionary to the old world. But though he laboured for 120 years, by word and example, he made few converts-not even the members of his own family; for Ham was unconverted then, and his descendants in Africa have not been converted since! But Noah "obeyed God," and his preaching did a great moral work in the world. He was a witness for the truth and righteously condemned the world, if he did not save it. Nor let us forget that our blessed Lord Himself mourned for the unbelief of those to whom he ministered. "He came to His own, but His own received Him not;""He was despised and rejected of men;""Neither did His brethren believe on Him." All the teaching of the Jewish nation through His servants the prophets, and latterly by Himself the Son, was ended in bitter tears, and in these words cf sore complaint, "How often would I have gathered you; but ye would not !”


3. Supposing it were true that missionaries had made no converts from heathenism; or that all among them who profess Christianity (for it must be admitted as a fact, that many thousands do profess it who were once idolaters) have been actuated solely by selfish motives, we would bid the


objectors consider the immense difficulties which, humanly speaking, are in the way of converting to the truth and life of Christianity a people sunk from infancy in ignorance-having prejudices and superstitions long rooted in their minds-the slaves of sensual passions-averse, perhaps, to even mental exertion—and yet called upon not only to receive revealed truth, and follow a self-denying life, but also, it may be, to suffer sore persecutions for conscience sake. Let him consider, also, the short period during which Protestant missions to the heathen have been in operation-the long period required by a missionary (should his life be spared!) to acquire a knowledge of the language, habits, and manners of a people-the few hundreds who have hitherto laboured among the millions abroad; and, finally, let him consider how much may be accomplished which the eye cannot easily discover, in preparing the ground for the seed, and in sowing that seed long before a harvest is reaped, and a visible result obtained-and no candid man would give up the cause of missions even if, up till this moment, it appeared to be fruitless.

4. We have, however, been arguing as if this part of our supposed objection were true,-as if missionaries had done little or nothing in the way of converting the heathen. But we deny this statement, and assert, that the very opposite of it is the truth. The success of Christian missions abroad, has been far more than the Christian Church at home had any reason to expect, considering the feebleness of her efforts, the small number of her labourers, the parsimony of her contributions, and the coldness and unbelief of her prayers! We can appeal to facts as to what missions have accomplished. This we do with unbounded confidence, and deepest thankfulness to God. These facts, however, we cannot give in this paper. But if any of our readers wish to know them, abundant sources of information are at their command.* It is deplorable how ignorant

tistics in the first number of this Magazine, also See, for instance, the paper upon Mission Sta. the table printed in No. V., p. 120; and even the missionary intelligence communicated from time to time in our own very limited space.

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